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Surgery-Oculoplastics

Surgery-Oculoplastics

Stay up to date on the latest medical knowledge with this Surgery-Oculoplastics activity. In this online self-assessment activity, you'll read our reference articles and test your knowledge with 205 activities in Surgery-Oculoplastics for 179.75 total CME hours.


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1 Year Unlimited Physician MD/DO/PA CME

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Featured Article Activities

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Skin Grafting

Skin grafting is a closure technique used in dermatology most commonly to close wounds created by the removal of skin ca ...
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Hours: 0.75

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Fusiform Incision

Fusiform incision is commonly used to remove lesions that are roughly round or oval. Fusiform incisions involve the surg ...
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Hours: 0.75

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Vitrectomy

Pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) is a surgical technique originally introduced by Robert Machemer. The pars plana approach to ...
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Hours: 1

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Scar Revision

Patients may want a scar revision for a multitude of reasons. They can cause function limitations, be a reminder of a tr ...
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Hours: 0.75

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Strabismus

Strabismus is a common childhood disorder that causes deviation or squinting of eyes. If untreated it can affect the vis ...
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Hours: 1

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Eyelid Laceration

Eyelid lacerations are managed differently depending on the depth, width, and location of the injury. Surgical managemen ...
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Surgery-Oculoplastics Activities

Title Description Hours Questions
Acute Nerve Injury Peripheral nerve injuries (PNIs) can present in approximately 3% of trauma patients. They vary in severity and complexity, necessitating different app ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Advancement Flaps Advancement flaps permit scar camouflage along cosmetic subunit junctions and play a vital role in wound coverage. Advancement flap design and executi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Albinism Albinism is a group of heritable conditions associated with decreased or absent melanin in ectoderm-derived tissues (most notably the skin, hair, and ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angioid Streaks Angioid streaks occur due to breaks in a degenerated and mineralized Bruch's membrane, that typically radiate outward from the optic disc. Angioid st ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anisocoria Anisocoria is a condition characterized by unequal pupil size. The etiology of anisocoria is complex, ranging from benign to potentially life-threaten ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anton Syndrome Anton-Babinski syndrome, also known as ABS or Anton syndrome, is visual anosognosia, or denial of vision loss, associated with confabulation, or makin ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Apraxia of Lid Opening Apraxia of eyelid opening is defined as a non-motor abnormality characterized by the patient's difficulty in eyelid elevation bilaterally. There is an ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Autologous Fat Grafting For Facial Rejuvenation Fat grafting is a technique where the harvested adipose tissue is injected into various compartments underneath the skin. The term autologous fat graf ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Axial Flaps Trauma and resection of tumors often leave large defects requiring coverage, which have historically meant multi-stage procedures. However, axial patt ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacterial Endophthalmitis The word "endophthalmitis" can be broken down in greek to "interior-eye-inflammation" and is used to describe an infection of the vitreous or the aque ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Basal Cell Cancer Basal cell carcinoma a common cutaneous malignancy that occurs mostly on sun-damaged skin of the head, neck, and trunk. Basal cell carcinoma can be di ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Basal Cell Carcinoma Basal cell carcinoma is the most common cutaneous malignancy, affecting close to one in five Americans. Although rarely fatal, basal cell carcinoma ca ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Basilar Artery Thrombosis The basilar artery is formed by the convergence of the vertebral arteries at the junction of the pons and medulla. It provides oxygen-rich blood to th ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Benign Essential Blepharospasm Benign essential blepharospasm is a focal cranial dystonia, characterized by involuntary contractions of orbicularis oculi muscle contractions, result ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Betaxolol Betaxolol is a medication used mostly in the management and treatment of open-angle glaucoma, essential hypertension, post-myocardial infarction, and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blepharitis Blepharitis is an ophthalmologic condition where there is inflammation of the eyelid margins. The diagnosis is clinical and based on irritation of the ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blepharochalasis Syndrome Blepharochalasis syndrome is a rare disease of unknown etiology. It is characterized by an active stage of recurrent episodes of upper lid swelling, f ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blepharoplasty Blepharoplasty refers to the aesthetic or functional surgical manipulation of the upper or lower eyelids. Upper and lower lid blepharoplasty both have ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blepharoplasty Ptosis Surgery Blepharoplasty is the general term for correcting defects, deformities, and disfigurations of the eyelids either for functional reasons, cosmetic reas ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blepharoplasty Subciliary Approach Lower blepharoplasty is performed for many reasons, although the commonest presentation by patients is one of "looking old" or "looking tired." Other ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blunt Eye Trauma Blunt injury to the eye can lead to various intrinsic eye injuries. Globe rupture and retrobulbar hematoma are two emergent entities that are of impor ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Botulinum Toxin Botulinum toxin is a medication used in the management and treatment of therapeutic and cosmetic purposes. Therapeutic uses include chronic migraine, ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brachial Plexus Injuries The earliest written description of a brachial plexus injury (BPI) is attributed to Homer circa 800 BC in his depiction of a battle during which Hecto ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brow Ptosis Brow ptosis is a common presenting complaint in aging patients; it can affect patients' quality of life because of its cosmetic impact as well as visu ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Buphthalmos The word buphthalmos originates from the Greek word "ox-eyed." Congenital enlargement of the eye was recognized as early as 400 BC by Hippocrates, and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Canaliculitis Canaliculitis is inflammation of the lacrimal canaliculus. It is an uncommon condition which ophthalmologists frequently misdiagnose. The condition is ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotid Artery Dissection Carotid artery dissection is a condition whereby the layers of the carotid artery are spontaneously separated. This potentially compromises blood flow ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotid Cavernous Fistula Carotid cavernous fistula (CCF) is an abnormal shunt from the carotid artery to the cavernous sinus. The symptomatology of CCFs is mainly a result of ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cataract Surgery Cataracts are the world’s leading cause of remediable blindness. While some cataracts, may be congenital, secondary to trauma, or drug-induced, most c ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cavernous Sinus Syndromes Cavernous sinus syndrome (CSS) is any disease process that affects the cavernous sinus. It presents as proptosis, chemosis, ophthalmoplegia, Horner sy ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central Retinal Vein Occlusion Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is the second most common retinal vascular disease and is a common loss of vision in older patients. There are two types ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear protein- and glucose-rich liquid in the subarachnoid space of the central nervous system. It is found in the vent ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Subluxation Subluxation is an essential entity of traumatic subaxial cervical spinal injuries. There is a varying degree of slippage of the body of one vertebra r ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chalazion Chalazia (plural of chalazion), are the most common inflammatory lesions of the eyelid. They are typically slowly enlarging, non-tender eyelid nodules ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Choroidal Folds The choroidal fold is a clinical feature wherein subretinal folds are seen usually over the posterior pole or peripheral retina of the eye. The choroi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cicatricial Pemphigoid Cicatricial pemphigoid is a rare, chronic autoimmune blistering disorder which can produce scarring. It can affect the skin, the mucous membranes, or ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cilia Incarnata Cilia incarnata is the misdirection of eyelashes whereby they grow under the skin through to the surface or posteriorly to the conjunctival surface in ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Compressive Optic Neuropathy Compressive optic neuropathy can be caused by intrinsic or extrinsic compression anywhere along the optic nerve. In addition to damage by compression, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cornea Foreign Body Removal A corneal foreign body can be the cause of agonizing eye pain and loss of vision. This activity reviews the safe removal of a corneal foreign body and ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cornea Transplantation Corneal disease ranks as the fifth leading cause of blindness in the world. Keratoplasty is the most common and successful transplantation in humans w ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Corneal Foreign Body Corneal foreign bodies account for the second most common form of ocular trauma, with corneal abrasions being number one. In general, major morbidity ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Corneal Graft Rejection Despite the relative immune privilege of the cornea as a transplanted tissue (both the recipient corneal bed and the anterior chamber are immune-privi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Corneal Imaging Corneal topography evaluates the anterior curvature of the cornea while corneal tomography includes the posterior curvature and corneal thickness. Thi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Corneal Injury Approximately 3 percent of all visits to the emergency department are due to eye trauma, with the vast majority of these presentations involving corne ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Corneal Mucous Plaque Corneal mucous plaques are most commonly associated with dry eye syndrome. They are made of a collection of mucin, corneal epithelial cell debris admi ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cranial Nerve III Palsy The third cranial nerve is also known as oculomotor nerve and has two major components, the outer parasympathetic fibers that supply the ciliary muscl ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Crocodile Tears Syndrome The term “crocodile tears” is derived from the ancient belief that crocodiles weep after killing their victims. “crocodile tears syndrome,” also known ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Crouzon Syndrome Crouzon syndrome is a genetically inherited syndrome characterized by craniosynostosis (premature fusion of coronal sutures) resulting in the skull an ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cryotherapy Cryosurgery was first described in the 1800s and has since evolved into a mainstay of therapy within dermatology. Cryosurgery is an effective alternat ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dacryoadenitis Dacryoadenitis refers to acute or chronic inflammation of the lacrimal gland and can be due to infectious, inflammatory, or idiopathic causes. Acute d ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dacryocystitis Dacryocystitis is characterized as an inflammatory state of the nasolacrimal sac. It is typically caused by an obstruction within the nasolacrimal duc ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dacryocystorhinostomy Nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO) often results in intractable, bothersome epiphora. In longstanding NLDO, mucus can accumulate, resulting in a muc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dermoscopy Overview and Extradiagnostic Applications Dermoscopy, also known as dermatoscopy, epiluminescence microscopy, or skin surface microscopy is a non-invasive, in-vivo technique that has tradition ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Direct Brow Lift With aging, the periorbital soft tissues migrate inferiorly, which may create both functional and cosmetic concerns for the patient. Many techniques, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diseases of the Eyelashes Eyelashes are important anatomical structures that protect the eye by stopping the particulate matter from getting to the eye and also by diverting wa ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dry Eye Syndrome Dry eyes affect a significant number of people but treatment remains unsatisfactory. The cause of this condition may be anatomical or systemic. It is ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Eales Disease Eales disease is a disease of young males usually, who are generally residents of the Indian subcontinent. It is a disease of retinal vessel wall infl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ectropion Ectropion is an outward turning of the eyelid margin. This typically occurs on the lower eyelids. When the globe is not protected properly, the eye ca ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ectropion Lower Eyelid Reconstruction Ectropion is an eversion or outward turning of the eyelid margin leading to loss of the natural apposition of the eyelid to the globe. Ectropion may b ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Eczema Herpeticum Eczema herpeticum (EH) is a disseminated cutaneous infection with herpes simplex virus that develops in a patient with atopic dermatitis. EH typically ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Endophthalmitis Endophthalmitis is defined as an inflammation of inner coats of the eye, resulting from intraocular colonization of infectious agents with exudation w ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Endoscopic Brow Lift An endoscopic brow lift aims to restore a more youthful and rested appearance. This activity reviews the evaluation and management of patients underg ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Enophthalmos Enophthalmos is defined as the posterior displacement of the globe in an anteroposterior plane within the orbit. This is to be distinguished from hype ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Entropion Entropion is an inversion or inward turning of the eyelid margin. This can result in trichiasis, where the eyelashes are directed posteriorly toward t ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Entropion Eyelid Reconstruction Entropion is an inversion of the eyelid margin. Often the eyelashes are directed posteriorly at the globe. It is an extremely common lid malposition. ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Enucleation Enucleation is the removal of the eye from the orbit and involves the separation of all tissue connections between the globe and the orbit. This is on ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epiretinal Membrane Epiretinal membrane is a commonly occurring condition affecting the posterior pole of the retina over the macula. It appears as a greyish semi-translu ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Eyelid Laceration Eyelid lacerations are managed differently depending on the depth, width, and location of the injury. Surgical management will be broken down into the ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Eyelid Myokymia Eyelid myokymia is described as continuous and fine contractions that affect lower eyelid mainly. The causes of this condition are not well known, but ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Eyelid Papilloma The term papilloma refers to a group of various benign epithelial proliferations that can affect the eyelid skin. These lesions are not necessarily as ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Facial Burns Burn injuries are a significant health issue and are a leading cause of accidental death or injury in the U.S. Burns to the face can affect many speci ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Facial Reconstruction For Mohs Defect Repairs Facial reconstruction encompasses an array of techniques used to correct both cosmetic and functional deficits of the face, a large proportion of whic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fibrous Dysplasia Fibrous dysplasia is a typically benign bone lesion characterized by intramedullary fibro-osseous proliferation secondary to altered osteogenesis. The ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fluorescein Fluorescein is a diagnostic contrast agent particularly used in various ophthalmic procedures, such as checking for any corneal or vessel abnormalitie ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Forehead Flaps Forehead flaps are 2-stage tissue flaps in which a forehead-based pedicle flap is used to repair more distal nasal defects. This type of flap is gener ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Frontal Sinus Fractures Fractures of the frontal sinus are most commonly seen in the emergency department after motor vehicle accidents (MVA's), falls, assaults, falling obje ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fuchs Endothelial Dystrophy Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FED) is a progressive hereditary disease of the cornea characterized by the slow deterioration of endothelial cel ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fuchs Uveitis Syndrome Fuchs uveitis syndrome (FUS) is a chronic form of unilateral uveitis manifesting as heterochromia, a unique clinical presentation. This activity will ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Full Thickness Skin Grafts Skin grafts consist of fully detached pieces of skin taken from one anatomic site and placed in a wound elsewhere. Full-thickness skin grafts include ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Full-Field Electroretinogram The full-field electroretinogram (ffERG) is a specialized electrophysiologic test of retinal function in response to a full-field light stimulus. Ther ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fungal Keratitis Fungal keratitis is an important eye infection, especially in outdoor workers. In most cases, eye trauma, corticosteroid use, or contact lens usage ar ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Furrow Degeneration Furrow degeneration (FD) is a rare pathology consisting of circumferential non-progressive corneal thinning leading to an evenly distributed tensile s ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fusiform Incision Fusiform incision is commonly used to remove lesions that are roughly round or oval. Fusiform incisions involve the surgical removal of tissue in a ma ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glaucoma Glaucoma is a condition of increased intraocular pressure in the eye that may progress to a loss of vision. This results in a characteristic optic ner ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Globe Rupture Globe rupture is a vision-threatening emergency. It is essential that clinicians have a high index of suspicion for globe rupture when treating patien ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Graves Disease Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. It is a disorder with systemic manifestations that primarily affect heart, skeletal muscl ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Graves Disease Orbital Decompression Thyroid eye disease (TED), also known as thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO), thyroid orbitopathy, Graves’ orbitopathy, or Graves’ ophthalmopathy ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemifacial Spasm Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is a disorder characterized by paroxysmal, involuntary twitching of facial muscles of one side of face innervated by ipsilatera ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Herpes Simplex Ophthalmicus Herpes simplex ophthalmicus is an eye infection by the herpes simplex type 1 and type 2 viruses. It is ubiquitous and affects all the ages of the popu ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus Herpes zoster ophthalmicus occurs due to the reactivation of the latent varicella-zoster virus. It is a variation of herpes zoster that can cause a va ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hollenhorst Plaque Stroke is the third most common cause of death in the United States. Eighty percent of all strokes are due to occlusion of a vessel secondary to ather ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Horner Syndrome Horner syndrome is a rare condition classically presenting with partial ptosis (drooping or falling of the upper eyelid), miosis (constricted pupil) a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyaluronic Acid Hyaluronic acid is a high-molecular-weight polysaccharide, which is widely distributed in the connective tissue extracellular matrix. Several preparat ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyaluronidase Hyaluronidase is an enzyme useful in facilitating the management of injectable medications. This activity reviews the indications, action, adverse eff ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypertelorism Orbital hypertelorism is defined as an increased distance between the orbits, with true lateral displacement of the orbits. Hypertelorism is associate ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyphema Hyphema is the accumulation of red blood cells (RBCs) in the anterior chamber of the eye. By definition, blood must be grossly visible, either on dire ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Interferon Induced Retinopathy Interferons are glycoproteins that have antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory functions. They are used widely for the treatment of many c ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Interpolated Flaps An interpolated flap is a 2-stage tissue flap in which the base of the flap is not directly adjacent to the recipient defect, and the flap bridges ove ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Iritis Acute anterior uveitis, also known as iritis, is the inflammation of the anterior or posterior chamber and iris. It is not a true ocular emergency, an ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Klumpke Palsy Klumpke palsy, named after Augusta Dejerine-Klumpke, is a neuropathy involving the lower brachial plexus. In contrast, the more common; the Duchenne p ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lagophthalmos Lagophthalmos describes the incomplete or abnormal closure of the eyelids and has many different causes. This activity reviews the evaluation and mana ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Laser Carbon Dioxide Resurfacing Carbon dioxide lasers are an effective treatment modality for photo-aging, mild scarring, and for the treatment of solitary cutaneous lesions. This ac ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Laser Complications Lasers represent a relatively new group of devices used within the field of cutaneous surgery. The field of laser surgery continues to advance with th ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Laser Erbium-Yag Resurfacing Erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser skin resurfacing is an effective technique for minimally invasive and effective management of a number o ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Laser In Situ Keratomileusis Laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) is a laser-assisted surgical procedure for the correction of visual refractive errors. This activity will review ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Laser Revision Of Scars Scars are the result of the cutaneous wound healing process that leads to fibrosis and altered skin morphology. All wounds heal with some degree of sc ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Laser Treatment Of Pigmented Lesions Lasers are often used in the treatment of pigmented lesions of the mucosa and skin. Their minimally invasive nature, combined with their efficacy, has ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lateral Orbital Canthotomy Orbital compartment syndrome (OCS) is caused due to rapidly increasing intra-orbital pressure and can lead to permanent blindness. OCS is a sight-thre ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lattice Corneal Dystrophy Lattice corneal dystrophy (LCD) is an inherited disorder of the eye characterized by the deposition of amyloid resulting in steadily progressive loss ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Leber Hereditary Optic Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a rare mitochondrial disorder that typically presents in young males with progressive visual loss due to o ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Leukemia Cutis Leukemia cutis is skin involvement in patients with peripheral leukemia; it is relatively rare and typically signifies an advanced disease stage. This ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Leukocoria Leukocoria means ‘white pupil’ or ‘cat’s eye pupil’. Leukocoria is an abnormal pupillary reflex more clearly seen on mydriasis or photography. It is o ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Limbal Epithelial Transplant Simple limbal epithelial transplantation (SLET) is used to treat unilateral limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). It involves harvesting healthy limbal ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lip Implants A lip implant aims to restore a more youthful and aesthetically pleasing look to the perioral region. This activity reviews the evaluation and manage ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lipodystrophies Lipodystrophies are conditions that share the common finding of a reduction in subcutaneous fat. There are multiple subtypes of lipodystrophy, which m ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lisch Nodules Lisch nodules, traditionally described as iris hamartomas is one of the pathognomic markers of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and are rarely seen in i ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lobular Breast Carcinoma Invasive lobular carcinoma is the second most common histologic form of breast cancer, representing 5% to 15% of all invasive breast cancers. It is co ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lower Eyelid Blepharoplasty Blepharoplasty is a surgical technique for correcting defects, deformities, and disfigurations of the eyelids; and for aesthetically modifying the eye ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lower Eyelid Reconstruction Proper function of the eyelids is necessary to maintain healthy globes. Patients with cancer or with traumatic injuries to the eyelids need special at ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lower Lid Transconjunctival Blepharoplasty A transconjunctival lower lid blepharoplasty aims to restore a more youthful and rested appearance to the periorbita. This activity reviews the evalu ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, also known as Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia, is a low-grade B cell lymphoproliferative neoplasm characterized by small lym ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Macular Degeneration Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is the most common cause of blindness prevalent in developed countries, particularly in people older than 60 y ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Macular Hole A macular hole is a clinical condition of the central retina, which leads to the gross impairment of central vision. Many ocular conditions may predis ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Malignant Otitis Externa Malignant otitis media is a serious infection of the ear canal and temporal bone. It can lead to severe complications if not treated urgently. This ac ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mandibulofacial Dysostosis Treacher Collins syndrome is a congenital disorder of craniofacial development that has variable phenotypic expression. It can be inherited in an auto ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Marcus Gunn Jaw Winking Syndrome Marcus Gunn Jaw winking syndrome (MGJWS) is one of the congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders (CCDD) and these individuals have variable degrees ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Maxillary Sinus Fracture Maxillary sinus fractures (MSFs) are most commonly caused by blunt force trauma to the face. Depending on the magnitude and location of the direct inj ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Melanoma Of The Head And Neck Melanoma is a malignant tumor produced from malignant transformation of melanocytes. This can be sporadic or arise from a preexisting premalignant les ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Methemoglobinemia Methemoglobinemia is a condition with life-threatening potential in which diminution of the oxygen-carrying capacity of circulating hemoglobin occurs ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mid Face Facelift Facelifting is a commonly performed procedure in patients wishing to have a more youthful appearing face. There are many different means by which surg ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mid Forehead Brow Lift In most medical conditions, definitions rely upon exact numbers. In the case of brow ptosis, it is judgment combined with measurements. Brow ptosis ex ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Molluscum Contagiosum Molluscum contagiosum, also called water warts, is a benign condition of the skin. The skin lesions of molluscum contagiosum are called mollusca. The ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
M-plasty An M-plasty is an excisional technique used to remove standing cutaneous deformities, also known as dog ears, from the end of a linear repair. Dog ear ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Myasthenia Gravis Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder affecting the neuromuscular junction. It manifests as a generalized muscle weakness which can involve the ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nasal Fracture Fractures of the naso-orbital-ethmoid (NOE) complex resulting from high impact trauma to the face can have significant ramifications due to the NOE co ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Necrotizing Fasciitis Necrotizing fasciitis is a subset of aggressive skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) that cause necrosis of the muscle fascia and subcutaneous tiss ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neurofibroma Neurofibromas are the most common peripheral nerve sheath tumor and are often found either by patients or during routine skin exams. These lesions app ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nevus Of Ota And Ito Ocular dermal melanosis, also known as nevus of Ota or oculodermal melanocyte, is benign melanosis that involves the distribution of the trigeminal ne ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Non-arteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy occurs due to decreased blood supply to the optic nerve head. It is divided into a) Arteritic anterior ischemic opt ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nonspecific Orbital Inflammation Orbital pseudotumor, orbital inflammatory pseudotumor (OIP), or idiopathic orbital inflammation (IOI) is a benign, non-infectious, non-neoplastic, spa ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ocular Burns Ocular burns are true medical emergencies that can lead to devastating vision impairment. In a patient presenting with a possible ocular burn, immedia ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ocular Cellulitis Orbital cellulitis is an inflammation of the contents of the orbit posterior to the orbital septum. The inflammation occurs secondary to an infection ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ocular Melanoma Ocular melanoma is diagnosed from ultrasonography, fluorescein angiography, enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography, and fine-needle aspir ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ocular Pemphigoid Ocular cicatricial pemphigoid (OCP) is a form of mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) that features chronic, relapsing-remitting bilateral conjunctivitis. ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ocular Tuberculosis Ocular tuberculosis is a rare extrapulmonary manifestation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Clinical symptoms primarily occur from hematogenou ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ocular Ultrasound Ocular ultrasound has many potential benefits in the evaluation of patients with acute vision loss, ocular trauma, headache or concern for increased i ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Oculocardiac Reflex The oculocardiac reflex (OCR), also known as the Aschner reflex or trigeminovagal reflex (TVR), was first described in 1908 as a reduction in heart ra ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Opioid Toxicity Opioids and opiates together comprise a class of medications widely used primarily to control severe pain. If first-line agents are not effective in c ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Optic Ischemia The optic nerve may be damaged by ischemia anywhere along its path, starting from its origin. It is mainly divided into anterior and posterior. A port ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Optic Nerve Coloboma The term coloboma derives from the Greek word koloboma, originally used to indicate a part that was removed by mutilation, missing or cut short. Colob ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Optic Nerve Cysts The topic of optic nerve cysts encompasses a variety of etiologies including idiopathic, neoplastic, saccular or tubular expansions of the meninges, t ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Optic Nerve Decompression Optic nerve sheath decompression, more commonly known as optic nerve sheath fenestration (ONSF), is a surgical procedure performed to decompress the o ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Orbital Cellulitis Orbital cellulitis is defined as a serious infection that involves the muscle and fat located within the orbit. It is also sometimes referred to as po ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Paramedian Forehead Flaps Often referred to as a workhorse in facial reconstruction, the paramedian forehead flap is the most common interpolated flap harvested from the face. ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pars Planitis Pars planitis is chronic intermediate uveitis for which no systemic disease or associated infection has been found. Patients with pars planitis presen ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pellucid Marginal Corneal Degeneration Pellucid marginal corneal degeneration is a progressive peripheral corneal thinning disorder with an adjoining area of ectasia above it. It is a relat ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Phakic Intraocular Lens Myopia The phakic intraocular lens (IOLs) is a technology that expands the range of refractive surgery to cover higher degrees of myopia, hyperopia, and asti ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Phenylephrine The FDA-approved indication for intravenous (IV) phenylephrine hydrochloride is for increasing blood pressure in adults with clinically significant hy ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Photodynamic Therapy Photodynamic therapy is an FDA approved indication for actinic keratoses and has the advantage of providing better cosmetic outcomes with less pain an ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pinguecula Pinguecula is a benign, common degeneration of the conjunctiva. It appears as grey white-yellow mass on the bulbar conjunctiva. It presents in people ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pterygium Pterygium is a common ocular surface disorder. There is a lack of consensus among ophthalmologists about the optimal medical and surgical management o ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ptosis Ptosis is known as the drooping of the upper eyelid, and the patient usually presents with the complaint of the defect in vision and cosmesis. It can ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ptosis Correction The term “ptosis” is derived from the Greek word falling and refers to drooping of a body part. Blepharoptosis is upper eyelid drooping with the eyes ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Punctal Stenosis Punctal stenosis refers to the narrowing or complete occlusion of the external opening of the lacrimal canaliculus. It may also be associated with occ ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Purtscher Retinopathy Purtscher retinopathy, also known as traumatic retinal angiopathy, lymphorrhagia retinae, or retinal teletraumatism, is an occlusive microvasculopathy ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radial Keratotomy Correction Radial keratotomy correction for refractive error was a commonly performed surgical procedure in the latter part of the 20th century. This type of cor ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Retinal Detachment Retinal detachments constitute a serious ocular condition and can lead to permanent vision loss. When the retina, the neurosensory layer, detaches fro ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Retrobulbar Block The retrobulbar block, initially described in 1884, had been widely referred to as the "gold standard" in ophthalmological surgery for many years. Tho ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rhombic Flaps Rhombic flaps are highly versatile flaps based on their unique mechanical characteristics with a wide range of potential applications. This activity r ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rhytidectomy Rhytidectomy is performed to rejuvenate the face, mitigating the effects of aging. An overview of its history, and some of the surgical approaches and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rosacea Rosacea is a common chronic inflammatory disease that presents with recurrent flushing, erythema, telangiectasia, papules, or pustules on nose, chin, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rotation Flaps A flap is used when simpler closure techniques, such as secondary intention, primary closure, or skin grafts, will produce a result that is functional ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Scar Revision Patients may want a scar revision for a multitude of reasons. They can cause function limitations, be a reminder of a traumatic event, or cause other ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Scleritis Scleritis is a severe ocular inflammatory condition affecting the outer covering of the eye. Scleritis has high association with systemic disease. Thi ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sebaceous Gland Carcinoma Sebaceous carcinomas are rare malignant tumors of the sebaceous glands. They most commonly develop on the eyelid, but may arise from anywhere sebaceou ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Seborrheic Dermatitis Seborrheic dermatitis is a common papulosquamous skin disease that is most prevalent in infancy and middle age, and it usually presents differently in ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Seidel Test The Seidel test assesses for the presence of aqueous humor leakage from the anterior chamber. This leakage is from a defect in the cornea or sclera fr ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Skin Antiseptics Antiseptics are chemical agents applied to the skin to reduce the microbial count and reduce the risk of surgical site infections (SSIs). SSIs are def ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Skin Biopsy Skin biopsy is an important and common diagnostic procedure in dermatology practice. Various methods of skin biopsy exist, and multiple factors are co ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Skin Grafting Skin grafting is a closure technique used in dermatology most commonly to close wounds created by the removal of skin cancer. Although currently less ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
SMAS Plication Facelift The SMAS (superficial musculoaponeurotic system) plication technique evolved as a minimally invasive technique to provide an alternative to highly inv ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Split-Thickness Skin Grafts Split-thickness skin grafts are versatile adjuncts to wound closure in burns, trauma, reconstruction, and other large wounds. This activity outlines a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Squamous Cell Skin Cancer Squamous cell carcinoma, the second most common form of skin cancer, is caused by the cumulative exposure of skin to UV light. This condition has prec ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Staphylococcus Aureus Staphylococcus aureus is a gram-positive bacteria that cause a wide variety of clinical diseases. Infections caused by this pathogen are common both i ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Steroid Induced Glaucoma Steroids are one of the most commonly prescribed drugs, used mainly in the treatment of various autoimmune and inflammatory conditions. Although they ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Strabismus Strabismus is a common childhood disorder that causes deviation or squinting of eyes. If untreated it can affect the vision permanently and can have a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Superior Ophthalmic Vein Cannulation for Carotid Cavernous Fistula The superior ophthalmic vein (SOV) approach for embolization of carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCFs) was first described over 25 years ago. Carotid-caver ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Supertrochlear Nerve Block The supratrochlear nerve block is a special procedure, which can be utilized to relieve pain in the mid-forehead region. It can provide anesthesia for ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Supraorbital Nerve Block The supraorbital nerve block is a procedure performed to provide immediate localized anesthesia for a multitude of injuries such as complex laceration ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Temporoparietal Fascia Flaps This activity reviews the temporoparietal fascia flap and highlights the background, indications, and technique of this surgical approach. This techni ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tolosa-Hunt Syndrome Tolosa Hunt syndrome (THS), also known as painful ophthalmoplegia, recurrent ophthalmoplegia, or ophthalmoplegia syndrome, is described as severe and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Transconjunctival Blepharoplasty Transconjunctival blepharoplasty is usually used for cosmetic improvement of the lower eyelid or for reconstructive surgery. In this procedure, there ... Read the Article 0.75 2 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Transient Loss Of Vision Transient loss of vision instills apprehension in the minds of patients and providers. Patients commonly worry about the potential for permanent loss ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Trichotillomania Obsessive-compulsive disorders encompass a large portion of diverse disorders and presentations that revolve around the central theme of repeated thou ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tuberous Sclerosis Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder that affects multiple systems. It is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion and is characte ... Read the Article 2 34 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Keratitis Tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) keratitis is an ocular complication of certain antineoplastic medications, primarily those that inhibit the epidermal ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ultrasound Therapy Ultrasound has expanded from the diagnostic realm into alternative therapies for breast, uterine, and even cardiac soft tissue abnormalities. Understa ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Upper Eyelid Blepharoplasty Upper eyelid blepharoplasty, whether performed for cosmetic or functional reasons, is one of the most common operations performed on the face. Eyes an ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Upper Eyelid Reconstruction This article reviews the various types of upper eyelid reconstruction that are used to repair lid defects, the principles that govern which approaches ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Uveitic Macular Edema Uveitic macular edema is a complication of acute or chronic uveitis. Characterized by the accumulation of fluid in the retinal layers or in the subret ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Uveitis Uveitis is a disease process that involves inflammation of the eye. There are multiple different causes of uveitis. These include infections, inflamma ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vitrectomy Pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) is a surgical technique originally introduced by Robert Machemer. The pars plana approach to the vitreous cavity allows ac ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wound Closure Techniques Wound management is an essential part of emergency medicine practice. The clinicians care for wounds ranging from minor and simple lacerations or abra ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wyburn-Mason Syndrome Wyburn-Mason syndrome is a rare nonhereditary congenital phakomatoses which presents with multiple arteriovenous malformations that tend to be large a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Zygomatic Arch Fracture The zygoma is the second most common fracture of the face, just behind nasal fractures, which can cause significant cosmetic and functional deformity. ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO

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