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Neurosurgery

Neurosurgery

Stay up to date on the latest medical knowledge with this Neurosurgery activity. In this online self-assessment activity, you'll read our reference articles and test your knowledge with 707 activities in Neurosurgery for 790.75 total CME hours.


6 Month Unlimited Physician MD/DO/PA CME

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1 Year Unlimited Physician MD/DO/PA CME

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Access to all the Physician MD/DO/PA CME activities in all specialties.

Featured Article Activities

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Spondylolisthesis

Spondylolisthesis is a condition that occurs when one vertebral body slips with respect to the adjacent vertebral body c ...
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Hours: 1.5

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Pediatric Abusive Head Trauma

Pediatric abusive head trauma (AHT), or shaken baby syndrome, most often involves shaking, blunt impact, or a combinatio ...
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Hours: 2

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Palliation Radiation Therapy Of The Spinal Cord

Radiation therapy is frequently used in medicine as both a curative and palliative treatment modality. When cancer metas ...
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Hours: 1

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Breast Examination Techniques

The ability to perform a thorough and accurate breast exam is an important skill for medical practitioners of many level ...
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Hours: 1

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Cervical Epidural Injection

Cervical epidural corticosteroids can provide significant benefits in patients experiencing chronic neck pain secondary ...
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Hours: 1

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Diabetic Amyotrophy

Diabetic amyotrophy, better known as diabetic lumbosacral radiculoplexus neuropathy (DLRPN), is a rare disorder englobed ...
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Hours: 1

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Neurosurgery Activities

Title Description Hours Questions
Ablative Nerve Block Ablation procedures have been used to treat chronic back pain and sciatica of unknown etiology as an alternative to surgical severing the dorsal rami. ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abnormal Respirations There are multiple types of normal and abnormal respiration. They include apnea, eupnea, orthopnea, dyspnea, hyperpnea, hyperventilation, hypoventilat ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Absence Seizure Absence seizures are brief seizures during which the patient is unresponsive. They are generally seen in children between 4 and 12 years of age. It ha ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abulia Abulia, also known as apathy, psychic akinesia, and athymia, refers to a lack of will, drive, or initiative for action, speech and thought, and is fel ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abuse and Neglect Abuse and neglect refer to the actions or inactions of an individual's caregiver or parent inflicting physical, sexual, or emotional harm on the indiv ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Accessory Nerve Injury Cranial nerve XI is also known as the accessory nerve. It is prone to injury due to its long and superficial nature. Injury to the accessory nerve can ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Achondroplasia Achondroplasia is the most common skeletal dysplasia found in humans, accounting for 90% of cases of disproportionate short stature. It is caused by a ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acoustic Neuroma Acoustic neuromas are tumors that develop from the sheath of Schwann cells. They tend to occupy the cerebellopontine angle and are usually found adjac ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acromegaly Acromegaly is a disorder caused by excessive production of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary gland, resulting in excessive growth of body tis ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acupuncture Acupuncture is a system of medical treatment and ideology that is based on the principle of applying small needles or pressure to specific points in t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis also referred to as post-infectious encephalomyelitis, is an acute, rapidly progressive autoimmune process that i ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Nerve Injury Peripheral nerve injuries (PNIs) can present in approximately 3% of trauma patients. They vary in severity and complexity, necessitating different app ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Otitis Media Acute otitis media (AOM) is defined as an infection of the middle ear and is the second most common pediatric diagnosis in the emergency department fo ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Stroke Acute strokes, also known as cerebrovascular accidents, are broadly classified as either ischemic or hemorrhagic. Acute strokes result in loss of bloo ... Read the Article 2 26 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Subarachnoid hemorrhages are true emergencies that demand prompt treatment. Subarachnoid hemorrhages result from a medical aneurysmal rupture or traum ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adenocarcinoma Adenocarcinomas are malignant tumors formed from glandular structures in epithelial tissue. They can arise from a variety of tissues. This activity re ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adenoidectomy Adenoidectomy is a common surgical procedure primarily performed in children for infectious or obstructive reasons. This activity details the indicati ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adie Syndrome Adie syndrome, also known as the Holmes-Adie syndrome, is a neurological disorder of unknown etiology comprising unilateral or bilateral tonically dil ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adolescent and Idiopathic Scoliosis Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the most common form of pediatric scoliosis occurring in individuals between the ages of 10 to 18. By definit ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adrenal Crisis Adrenal crisis is an acute life-threatening condition precipitated by an internal or external process in the setting of known or unknown adrenal insuf ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adverse Effects Of Radiation Therapy Radiotherapy causes DNA break and subsequent cell death. This affects the cancer cells more severely than the normal cells. However, with the growing ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adverse Events Adverse events (AE) occur frequently in our medical system and at least one in ten patients are affected. An AE is a harmful and negative outcome that ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aggression In Hypothalamic Hamartoma Psychiatric symptoms are a common comorbid feature of hypothalamic hamartoma with epilepsy. They are most disabling and are a significant challenge fo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Agnosia Agnosia is a rare disorder whereby a patient is unable to recognize and identify objects, persons, or sounds using one or more of their senses despite ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Albendazole Albendazole has FDA approval for the treatment of cystic hydatid disease of the liver, lung, and peritoneum resulting from the larval form of the dog ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alteplase Alteplase is a thrombolytic agent that is manufactured by recombinant DNA technology. It is FDA approved for use in acute ischemic stroke, pulmonary e ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amebic Meningoencephalitis Amebic encephalitis is a rare but lethal central nervous system infection caused by free-living amoebae found in freshwater, lakes, and rivers. There ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
American Society of Anesthesiologists Classification The American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status classification system was developed to offer clinicians a simple categorization of a p ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aminocaproic Acid Aminocaproic acid, an antifibrinolytic agent, is a medication used to manage and treat acute bleeding disorders. This activity outlines the indication ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as “Lou Gehrig’s disease,” is a neurodegenerative disease of the motor neurons. This activity reviews ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aneurysmal Bone Cysts Aneurysmal bone cysts are non-malignant, tumor-like, vascular lesions that can grow aggressively, be locally destructive, and weaken bones to the poin ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anisocoria Anisocoria is a condition characterized by unequal pupil size. The etiology of anisocoria is complex, ranging from benign to potentially life-threaten ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Annular Disc Tear An annular fissure or tear is a deficiency of one or more layers of the annulus fibrosus. Most annular fissures are asymptomatic, but some may be pain ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anosognosia Anosognosia is a neurological condition in which the patient is unaware of their neurological deficit or psychiatric condition. It is associated with ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anoxic Encephalopathy Anoxic encephalopathy, or hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, is a process that begins with the cessation of cerebral blood flow to brain tissue, which mos ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anterior Cerebral Artery Stroke Anterior cerebral artery stokes occur in the territory of the anterior cerebral artery which involve the superior and medial part of the parietal lobe ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anterior Cord Syndrome Anterior cord syndrome is an incomplete cord syndrome that predominantly affects the anterior 2/3 of the spinal cord, characteristically resulting in ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anterior Spinal Artery Syndrome The anterior spinal artery syndrome refers to ischemic infarction of the spinal cord resulting from direct occlusion of the anterior spinal artery, ar ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antiepileptic Drug Monitoring Antiepileptic drug-level monitoring has been a common clinical practice since the advent of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). The practice of maintaining AE ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antiphospholipid Syndrome Antiphospholipid antibodies are autoantibodies that are directed against phospholipid-binding proteins. Antiphospholipid syndrome (APLS) is characteri ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anton Syndrome Anton-Babinski syndrome, also known as ABS or Anton syndrome, is visual anosognosia, or denial of vision loss, associated with confabulation, or makin ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Transection Aortic transection is an injury encountered with blunt thoracic trauma with substantial morbidity and mortality. Many patients with aortic transection ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Apert Syndrome Apert syndrome is an autosomal dominant inherited craniosynostosis syndrome. Males and females are equally affected. The incidence of the disease sign ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aphasia Aphasia is an impairment of language caused by damage to the language area of the brain, primarily Broca and Wernicke areas. Injury to the brain can b ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Apixaban Apixaban is a novel oral anticoagulant (NOAC) that was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2012 for use in patients with non-valv ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arachnoid Cysts Arachnoid cysts are common incidental findings on cross-sectional neuroimaging of the brain. When they are present in the appropriate location and of ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arachnoiditis Arachnoiditis is a persistent inflammation of the arachnoid mater as well as subarachnoid space due to mechanical, chemical, and infectious injuries. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Argyll Robertson Pupil Argyll Robertson pupil describes the physical exam finding of bilaterally small pupils that do not constrict when exposed to bright light but do const ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arnold Chiari Malformation Arnold-Chiari or Chiari malformations describe a group of deformities of the posterior fossa and hindbrain, which includes the cerebellum, pons, and m ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arterial Gas Embolism Arterial gas embolism is a rare, life-threatening entity, which requires prompt recognition and early intervention. Failure to diagnose, and initiate ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arteriovenous Fistula Arteriovenous fistulas are abnormal connections between arteries and veins. AVFs can be surgically created, can occur as a result of a congenital or g ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arteriovenous Malformation Of The Brain Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are a developmental anomaly of the vascular system, consisting of tangles of poorly formed blood vessels in which t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arteriovenous Malformations Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are abnormal fistulas between arteries and veins without an intervening capillary bed. High arterial flow directly ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arytenoid Subluxation Arytenoid subluxation or dislocation is a rare laryngeal injury that occurs as a result of airway instrumentation or direct trauma to the cricoaryteno ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Astereognosis Astereognosis is the inability to identify objects by feel only, in the absence of input from the visual system. It may also be defined as the impairm ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Astrocytoma Astrocytoma originates in astrocytes, which are a kind of glial cells in the cerebrum which are star-shaped. It is the most common glioma, usually aff ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atlantoaxial Instability The atlantoaxial segment consists of the atlas (C1) and axis (C2) and forms a complex transitional structure bridging the occiput and cervical spine. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atracurium Atracurium is indicated as an addition to general anesthesia to facilitate endotracheal intubation and provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surge ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrial Septal Defect Atrial septal defect (ASD) is one of the most common types of congenital heart defects, occurring in about 25% of children. An atrial septal defect oc ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Auditory Brainstem Response Auditory brainstem response helps diagnose suspected neurologic abnormalities of the 8th cranial nerve as well as the associated auditory pathways and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Autonomic Dysfunction The autonomic nervous system (ANS) includes all regions implicated in the control of autonomic, unconscious, and involuntary functions in total body h ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Autonomic Dysreflexia Autonomic dysreflexia is a condition that emerges after a spinal cord injury, usually when the injury has occurred above the T6 level. The higher the ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Axonotmesis This activity reviews the etiology, epidemiology, anatomy, physiology, and prognosis of peripheral nerve injury with a particular focus on axonotmesis ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Back Pain Back pain is one of the most common causes for patients to seek emergency care. It has a broad range of potential etiologies for both adult and pediat ... Read the Article 1.5 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Baclofen Baclofen is used to treat muscle spasticity; it is FDA-approved for the management of reversible spasticity, particularly for the relief of flexor spa ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacterial Meningitis Bacterial meningitis is an infection of the meninges that results in inflammation. It is a serious and life-threatening condition that requires prompt ... Read the Article 1.75 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Basilar Artery Infarct The basilar artery (BA) is formed over the surface of pons by two vertebral arteries to supply the critical areas of the brain and brainstem. Anatomic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Basilar Artery Thrombosis The basilar artery is formed by the convergence of the vertebral arteries at the junction of the pons and medulla. It provides oxygen-rich blood to th ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Basilar Invagination Basilar invagination is an abnormality at the craniovertebral junction, either congenital or degenerative, resulting in the odontoid prolapsing into t ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Basilar Skull Fractures Basilar skull fractures, usually caused by substantial blunt force trauma, involve at least one of the bones that compose the base of the skull. Basil ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Battle Sign Battle Sign is bruising over the mastoid process that is typically the result of head trauma. Battle sign typically requires significant head trauma a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Behcet Disease Behcet disease, also known as an oculo-orogenital syndrome, is a chronic remitting and relapsing inflammatory disorder characterized by recurrent oral ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bekhterev Jacobsohn Reflex The Bekhterev-Jacobsohn reflex is also known as the Jacobsohn finger flexion sign. Dr. Vladimir Bekhterev (a Russian neurologist) and Dr. Louis Jacobs ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bell Palsy Bell palsy is the most common peripheral paralysis of the seventh cranial nerve with an onset that is rapid and unilateral. This is an idiopathic cond ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Benedikt Syndrome Benedikt syndrome is an eponymously named neurological condition secondary to specific damage in the midbrain that causes ipsilateral oculomotor nerve ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Benign Occipital Seizure Benign occipital seizures are classified as an occipital onset epilepsy syndrome, which occurs in children with normal developmental milestones, norma ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Berry Aneurysm Berry (saccular) aneurysms are the most common type of intracranial aneurysm, representing 90% of cerebral aneurysms. Generally speaking, there is a b ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bevacizumab Bevacizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and is used for the treatment of several differen ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blastomycosis Blastomycosis is a fungal infection caused by Blastomyces dermatitidis. It presents as a pulmonary infection after the inhalation of spores, and it ma ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blood Transfusion Blood transfusions are a relatively common medical procedure and while typically safe, there are multiple complications that practitioners need to be ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blunt Force Trauma Trauma is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients under 35-years of age and the sixth leading cause of death worldwide. The majority ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blunt Head Trauma Traumatic Brain Injury is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States, with an annual occurrence of more than 1.5 million. Fal ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bone Age Bone age assessment can be of utmost importance in various complicated situations involving medical, surgical, forensic, and legal issues. Apart from ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bone Cyst A simple bone cyst is a solitary, benign, fluid-filled, cyst that may be a single chamber or septated. The most common sites are the proximal humerus ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brachial Neuritis Brachial neuritis, also called neuralgic amyotrophy, has two major clinical symptoms, pain and muscle weakness from atrophy. It is a multifocal, immun ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brachial Plexitis Brachial plexitis is a condition characterized by acute onset of shoulder pain followed by weakness and/or sensory loss of the shoulder and/or upper e ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brachial Plexus Injuries The earliest written description of a brachial plexus injury (BPI) is attributed to Homer circa 800 BC in his depiction of a battle during which Hecto ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brain Abscess Brain abscess is a localized zone of necrosis with a surrounding membrane within the brain parenchyma, usually resulting from an infectious or traumat ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brain Cavernous Angiomas Cavernous angiomas, also referred to as cavernous malformations (CMs), cavernous hemangiomas, or cavernomas are benign intracranial vascular malformat ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brain Death Brain death is both a legal and clinical term. The term has been present in medical literature and texts for many years as part of the National Confer ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brain Death Criteria Brain death accounts for about 2% of deaths in the United States and caused most likely by traumatic brain injury. Criteria of Brain death determinati ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brain Herniation Brain herniation, also called brain code, requires early diagnosis and prompt management in order to prevent irreversible pathological cascades that e ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brain Metastasis Brain metastases are a common complication of cancer and the most common type of brain tumor. Anywhere from 10% to 26% of patients who die from their ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brain Trauma Brain trauma or traumatic brain injury (TBI) results from a blow, bump, jolt, or penetrating injury to the head that disrupts the normal function of t ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brainstem Death The revised memorandum in 1979 correlated the brain stem death with death itself. This activity outlines current recommendations set for diagnosing br ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brainstem Infarction Brainstem infarcts are a collection of difficult to diagnose syndromes affecting the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla oblongata. They can cause a v ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breach Rhythm Electroencephalogram (EEG) is a method of providing high temporal resolution of neurological activity of the brain. It is essential to know the benign ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Examination Techniques The ability to perform a thorough and accurate breast exam is an important skill for medical practitioners of many levels and across many specialties. ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Broca Aphasia Broca’s aphasia is a non-fluent aphasia in which the output of spontaneous speech is markedly diminished and there is a loss of normal grammatical str ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bromocriptine Bromocriptine is a medication currently used in the management and treatment of Type II diabetes mellitus. It is an ergot alkaloid derivative in the d ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brown Sequard Syndrome Brown-Séquard syndrome is a neurologic syndrome resulting from hemisection of the spinal cord. It manifests with weakness or paralysis and propriocept ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
C1 Fractures The craniocervical junction is comprised of C1 (atlas) and C2 (axis). The occipito-atlantal and atlantoaxial articulations provide 50% of the flexion ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
C2 Fractures Registry study places the incidence of C2 fracture at 6 per 100000 people. In Sweden, across 6370 patients with C2 fractures: 51% were male, and the a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Calcium Channel Blockers Calcium channel antagonists, also known as calcium channel blockers (CCBs), have been widely used for many indications. These agents are often classif ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Caloric Testing Caloric testing is a useful clinical tool that can assess and quantify the functional status of the individual vestibular systems. The test utilizes t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Canavan Disease Canavan disease, also called Canavan-Van Bogaert-Bertrand disease, is a rare, progressive, and fatal neurological hereditary disorder that begins in i ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carcinomatous Meningitis Carcinomatous meningitis is the dissemination of malignant cells from the primary tumor sites to leptomeningeal layers of the CNS. It occurs in the ad ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotid Artery Dissection Carotid artery dissection is a condition whereby the layers of the carotid artery are spontaneously separated. This potentially compromises blood flow ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotid Artery Surgery Symptoms of extracranial carotid disease are usually caused by embolization. Arterial emboli account for approximately 25 percent of strokes in Europe ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotid Bruit A carotid bruit is a vascular sound usually heard with a stethoscope over the carotid artery because of turbulent, non-laminar blood flow through a st ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotid Cavernous Fistula Carotid cavernous fistula (CCF) is an abnormal shunt from the carotid artery to the cavernous sinus. The symptomatology of CCFs is mainly a result of ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotid Endarterectomy Atherosclerosis can lead to a build-up of plaque in the carotid artery, causing narrowing and carotid artery disease, which increases the risk for cer ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cauda Equina And Conus Medullaris Syndromes Cauda equina and conus medullaris syndromes have overlap in anatomy and clinical presentation. The cauda equina is a group of nerves and nerve roots s ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Caudal Anesthesia A caudal block is a type of central neuraxial block, most commonly used in pediatrics to provide analgesia for surgeries up to the umbilicus, and in a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cavernous Sinus Aneurysm Cavernous sinus aneurysms are most common in the elderly population and often present with an indolent ophthalmoplegia. The morbidity of these aneurys ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cavernous Sinus Syndromes Cavernous sinus syndrome (CSS) is any disease process that affects the cavernous sinus. It presents as proptosis, chemosis, ophthalmoplegia, Horner sy ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis Cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) is a rare, life-threatening disorder that can complicate facial infection, sinusitis, orbital cellulitis, pharyngitis ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cavernous Venous Malformation Cerebral cavernous malformations, also known as cavernomas or cavernous hemangiomas, are clusters of abnormal and hyalinized capillaries without inter ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cavum Veli Interpositi The velum interpositum (VI) is a membrane resulting from the superposition of two layers of the tela choroidea of the third ventricle demarcating a po ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Celiac Plexus Block First described as a method of providing surgical anesthesia to the upper abdomen, the celiac plexus block (CPB) has been utilized in practice for nea ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central Cord Syndrome The central cord syndrome is the most common type of incomplete cord injury and almost always occurs as a consequence of a traumatic injury. It result ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central Nervous System Lymphoma Lymphoma of the central nervous system, both primary and secondary, represents a rare subset of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. According to the World Health Or ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central Pain Syndrome Central sensitization of pain occurs when the patient's nervous system is persistently in a state of high activity. This state decreases sensitivity t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central Pontine Myelinolysis Central pontine myelinolysis is a rare neurologic condition most frequently caused by the rapid correction of hyponatremia. This activity reviews the ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central Vertigo Central vertigo is a clinical condition in which an individual experiences the sensation of motion despite remaining still. It results from a dysfunct ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cephalohematoma A cephalohematoma is an accumulation of blood under the scalp. During the birth process, small blood vessels on the head of the fetus are broken as a ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebellar Hematoma Cerebellar hemorrhage or hematoma is a type of intracranial hemorrhage in which the bleeding is located in the posterior fossa or cerebellum. This con ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebellar Infarct A cerebellar infarct (or cerebellar stroke) is a type of cerebrovascular event involving the posterior cranial fossa, specifically the cerebellum. Imp ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebellopontine Angle Cancer The cerebellopontine angle (CPA) is an important landmark anatomically and clinically. The most common lesions at the CPA are vestibular schwannoma, m ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is a type of cerebrovascular disorder characterized by the accumulation of amyloid beta-peptide within the leptomeninges a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebral Aneurysm Cerebral aneurysms are defined as dilations that occur at weak points along the arterial circulation within the brain. The majority of cerebral aneury ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is an inherited disease with almost exclusively n ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebral Cavernous Malformations A cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) is an abnormally large collection of "low flow" vascular channels without brain parenchyma intervening between ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebral Contusion Traumatic brain injury includes several types of insults to the parenchyma of the brain. One of the most severe forms of damage is a hemorrhagic cereb ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebral Edema The most basic definition of cerebral edema is swelling of the brain. It is a relatively common phenomenon with numerous etiologies. Cerebral edema c ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebral Ischemia Cerebral ischemia is a common mechanism of acute brain injury that results from impaired blood flow to the brain. Cerebral ischemia represents a medic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebral Palsy Cerebral palsy is a group of permanent disorders affecting the development of movement and causing a limitation of activity. Non-progressive disturban ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebral Salt Wasting Syndrome Cerebral salt wasting (CSW) is a potential cause of hyponatremia in the setting of disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Cerebral salt wasting ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebral Venous Thrombosis Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), which includes thrombosis of the cerebral veins and the dural sinuses, is a rare disorder that can lead to significa ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear protein- and glucose-rich liquid in the subarachnoid space of the central nervous system. It is found in the vent ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Degenerative Disc Disease Degenerative disc disease of the cervical spine typically develops in the aging population equally in terms of sexes. Patients are most commonly prese ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Disc Herniation Cervical disc herniation is a common cause of neck pain in adults. The severity of the disease can range from mild to severe, and even life-threatenin ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Disc Injuries The spinal cord is a nervous tissue bundle from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region, and the vertebral column protects it. The ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Discogenic Syndrome Cervical discogenic pain syndrome is a common source of neck pain. The presentation can vary and may be caused by degenerative changes in the interver ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Dislocation Cervical dislocations have classically been associated with traumatic spinal cord injuries. These injuries can cause spinal cord compression and drama ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Epidural Injection Cervical epidural corticosteroids can provide significant benefits in patients experiencing chronic neck pain secondary to cervical radiculopathy. Thi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Injury Cervical spine injuries, although uncommon, can result in significant and long-term disability. The cervical spine encompasses seven vertebrae and ser ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Myelopathy Cervical myelopathy is a condition describing a compression at the cervical level of the spinal column resulting in spasticity (sustained muscle contr ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Plexus Block Superficial cervical plexus block is an easy block that can be performed either using a landmark-based technique or using the ultrasound-based techniq ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Radiculopathy Neck pain is widespread and causes significant pain and disability. Workers with a history of neck pain account for up to 40% of work absenteeism. In ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Spine Fractures Overview The cervical spine is a dynamic structure tasked with protecting nervous innervation to the entire body while also maintaining a range of motion for t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Spondylosis Cervical spondylosis is a natural age-related disease process that is associated with degenerative changes within the intervertebral disc. It most com ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Sprain The term "whiplash" injury was first coined by Harold Crowe in 1928 to define acceleration-deceleration injuries occurring to the cervical spine or ne ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Subluxation Subluxation is an essential entity of traumatic subaxial cervical spinal injuries. There is a varying degree of slippage of the body of one vertebra r ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Traction Cervical traction is a non-invasive procedure used to provide symptomatic relief for a variety of cervical pathologies. Though it can lead to temporar ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervicogenic Headache A cervicogenic headache (CGH) presents as unilateral pain that starts in the neck. It is a common chronic and recurrent headache that usually starts a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chaddock Reflex The Babinski reflex is part of the routine neurological examination to evaluate the integrity of the corticospinal tract. However, in settings where p ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chance Fractures A Chance fracture is an unstable spine fracture that typically occurs at the thoracolumbar junction. It is a horizontal fracture extending from poster ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Charcot Bouchard Aneurysm The rupture of Charcot Bouchard aneurysms causes intracerebral bleeds in the deep structures of the brain especially in patients predisposed to this c ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Charcot Marie Tooth Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is the commonest inherited neuromuscular disorder. It affects the peripheral nerves and leads to progressive weaknes ... Read the Article 1.75 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cheiralgia Paresthetica Cheiralgia paresthetica is a compression neuropathy of the superficial radial nerve. It manifests as sensory disturbances, such as paresthesias, to th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chest Wall Deformities Chest wall deformities are a set of congenital diseases; these can manifest as; an isolated feature, with other congenital anomalies, or as part of a ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cheyne Stokes Respirations Cheyne-Stokes respiration is a type of breathing disorder characterized by cyclical episodes of apnea and hyperventilation. Although described in the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chiari I Malformation Arnold-Chiari 1 malformation, otherwise known as the Chiari 1 malformation, is the more common variant of the Chiari malformations, defined as a spect ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chiari II Malformation Chiari II malformation is a relatively common congenital malformation of the posterior fossa and the spine characterized by beaked midbrain, downward ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Childhood Brain Tumors Pediatric brain tumors are the most common type of solid childhood cancer and only second to leukemia as a cause of pediatric malignancies. They are c ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chondrosarcoma Chondrosarcomas are malignant cartilaginous neoplasms with diverse morphological features and clinical behavior. They account for about 20 percent of ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chordoma A chordoma is a low-grade, slow-growing but locally invasive and locally aggressive tumor that is a type of sarcoma. Chordomas arise from remnants of ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Choriocarcinoma Choriocarcinoma is a rare, aggressive neoplastic type of trophoblastic disease. The 2 major types of choriocarcinoma are gestational and non-gestation ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chorioretinitis Chorioretinitis is a type of uveitis affecting the posterior segment of the eye. It is a vision-threatening condition that is associated with many sys ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Choroid Plexus Papilloma Choroid plexus papillomas (CPPs) are rare central nervous system tumors. They may be seen at any age, but are more common in infants. Their site of oc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Headaches Chronic headaches are headaches that occur for at least 15 days of a month for at least three months. There are a variety of causes and ways to manage ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy can be caused by multiples diseases, from infectious as well as immunology diseases. It is o ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Pain Over one-quarter of United States citizens suffer from chronic pain. It is among the most common complaints seen in an outpatient clinic. The failure ... Read the Article 2.5 41 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy Sports-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) has become increasingly popular in the scientific literature over the past few decades. However, the first ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clonus Clonus is a rhythmic oscillating stretch reflex that is related to upper motor neuron lesions. Therefore, clonus is generally accompanied by hyperrefl ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Closed Head Trauma Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an injury to the brain from an external mechanical force. TBI can generally be classified as either closed or penetrat ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cluster Headache Cluster headaches are the most common of the primary headache type known as trigeminal autonomic cephalgia. They are fairly rare, plaguing 0.1% of the ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
CNS Lymphoma Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is an extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It is a rare entity and involves the central nervous system (CN ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coccyx Pain Coccyx pain is known by multiple synonyms, including coccydynia, coccygodynia, and tailbone pain. There are many causes of coccygeal pain, ranging fro ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Colloid Brain Cyst Colloid cysts are benign growths that are usually located either in the third ventricle or at or near the foramen of Monroe which is found at the ante ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coma Altered mental status is a catch-all term that includes a spectrum of patient behaviors ranging from confusion to deep unresponsiveness. Coma is at on ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Complex Partial Seizure Complex partial seizures, also known as focal impaired awareness seizures or focal onset impaired awareness seizures, refers to focal seizures that st ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a neuropathic pain disorder defined by the presence of distinct clinical features including allodynia, hypera ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Compressive Optic Neuropathy Compressive optic neuropathy can be caused by intrinsic or extrinsic compression anywhere along the optic nerve. In addition to damage by compression, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic infection in humans and animals. Infection in healthy immunocompetent adults is asymptomatic in about 50% of the cases al ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Contrecoup Brain Injury Contrecoup brain injury occurs at sites remote to the actual impact site on the head. The etiology and significance of this type of injury have been d ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Conus And Cauda Equina Tumors Primary spinal cord tumors are less common than metastatic spinal tumors. Tumors of the spinal canal may be classified in three ways depending on the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cordotomy Cordotomy is the name of a surgical procedure aimed at destroying the pain-conducting tracts of the spinal cord. The cordotomy to be effective at decr ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Corpus Callosum Agenesis Corpus callosum is the largest white matter structure containing 200 million axons, connecting the two hemispheres of the brain. Agenesis of the corpu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cortical Blindness Cortical blindness is an important cause of blindness due to damage to the occipital cortex. It is commonly associated with posterior circulation stro ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cowden Disease Cowden disease, also known as Cowden syndrome or multiple hamartoma syndrome, is an uncommon autosomal dominant genodermatosis and is a member of the ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
COX Inhibitors COX inhibitors are medications used in the management and treatment of chronic pain syndromes. They are in the anti-inflammatory class of drugs. This ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cranial Nerve III Palsy The third cranial nerve is also known as oculomotor nerve and has two major components, the outer parasympathetic fibers that supply the ciliary muscl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Craniofacial Distraction Osteogenesis Craniofacial distraction osteogenesis is a technique to elongate the bones of the mandible, midface, and cranial vault. It is successful in treating a ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Craniopharyngioma Craniopharyngioma is a rare, virtually benign tumor of the central nervous system (CNS). It is a partly cystic embryonic malformation that can occur i ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Craniosynostosis Craniosynostosis results from the premature closure of one or more sutures of the skull. Depending on the number of sutures involved, and the range of ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Craniotomy A craniotomy is a surgical procedure in which a part of the skull is temporarily removed to expose the brain and perform an intracranial procedure. Th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rare, fatal degenerative brain disorder caused by prion proteins. It belongs to a group of transmissible spongifo ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cribiform Plate Fractures A fracture of the cribriform plate is a potentially serious injury that can be easily overlooked. When present, it is indicative of severe head or fac ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Crouzon Syndrome Crouzon syndrome is a genetically inherited syndrome characterized by craniosynostosis (premature fusion of coronal sutures) resulting in the skull an ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cryoanalgesia This activity reviews the role of cryoanalgesia (the use of cold temperatures for analgesia) for pain control, its indications, contraindications and ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cryptococcal Meningitis Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic infection that causes more than 100,000 HIV-related deaths each year. Although the infection is usually HIV-related ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Crystalloid Fluids Crystalloid fluids are a subset of intravenous solutions that are frequently used in the clinical setting. Crystalloid fluids are the first choice for ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cubital Tunnel Syndrome Cubital tunnel syndrome is neuropathy of the ulnar nerve causing symptoms of numbness and shooting pain along the medial aspect of the forearm, also i ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cushing Disease Cushing disease is an endocrine disorder characterized by excessive production of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) by the anterior pituitary leading ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cystic Kidney Disease Cystic kidney diseases are multisystemic disorders that can develop due to genetic or non-genetic causes in children and adults. These can be a seriou ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cytomegalovirus Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a wide-spread virus, with manifestations ranging from asymptomatic to severe end-organ dysfunction in immunocompromised patie ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dandy Walker Malformation Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM) or syndrome is a posterior fossa anomaly characterized by agenesis or hypoplasia of the vermis and cystic enlargement ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Decerebrate And Decorticate Posturing Decorticate and decerebrate posturing are abnormal posturing responses typically to noxious stimuli. They involve stereotypical movements of the trunk ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Deep Brain Stimulation Deep brain stimulation (DBS) was first approved in the 1990s for the treatment of movement disorders. DBS has the potential to offer symptom resolutio ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Deep Plane Facelift A deep plane facelift aims to restore a more youthful and rested appearance to the aging face. This activity reviews the evaluation and management of ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Degloving Injuries Internal degloving injuries are usually associated with high energy trauma and can be devastating. This injury occurs when a tangential shearing occur ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dejerine Roussy Syndrome Central post-stroke pain, also known as Dejerine Roussy syndrome or thalamic pain syndrome, is a rare central neuropathic pain syndrome occurs after i ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Delusions Of Parasitosis This activity reviews delusions of parasitosis, a rare psychiatric disorder. Communicating and evaluating patients with this condition can be complex ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Desflurane The FDA-approved indications for desflurane are induction or maintenance of anesthesia in adults. It may also be used for maintenance of anesthesia in ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetes Insipidus Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a disease process that results in either decreased release of or response to antidiuretic hormone (ADH, also known as vasop ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetic Amyotrophy Diabetic amyotrophy, better known as diabetic lumbosacral radiculoplexus neuropathy (DLRPN), is a rare disorder englobed in the diabetic neuropathy sp ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diaphragm Disorders The diaphragm is a vital organ for mammals as it is the primary muscle for respiration. Diaphragmatic paralysis is the loss of its muscular power and ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diaphragmatic Pacing Diaphragm pacing is a procedure that is performed to stimulate the phrenic nerve to cause diaphragm contraction. This diaphragm contraction helps in g ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diffuse Axonal Injury Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a type of traumatic brain injury (TBI) that results from a blunt injury to the brain. In the United States, traumatic b ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is a systemic condition characterized by characteristic ossification patterns that can occur in the sp ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is an aggressive type of childhood cancer that forms in the brainstem. They are very rare and almost always oc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diffusion Tensor Imaging Diffusion tensor imaging is an advanced magnetic resonance imaging modality that uses the Brownian motion of water molecules to provide data for image ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Disc Herniation A herniated disc is a condition affecting the spine in which the annulus fibrosus is damaged enabling the nucleus pulposus (which is normally located ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Discectomy Lumbar disc herniation is a common pathology and leads to a significant healthcare burden. Patients with low back pain and related conditions may seek ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diskitis Discitis is a serious but uncommon medical diagnosis. It is an infection of the intervertebral disc space. The role of the intervertebral discs is to ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Distributive Shock As is true of the four broad classifications of shock, distributive shock, also known as vasodilatory shock, causes inadequate tissue perfusion. In di ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diving Mask Squeeze Mask squeeze is a common injury among divers and occurs when a diver fails to equalize the air space in their mask during descent, resulting in damage ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Down Syndrome Down syndrome (trisomy 21) is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or a portion of a third chromosome 21. Patients typically present with ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Dural arteriovenous fistulas, sometimes referred to as dural arteriovenous malformations, are vascular abnormalities in which arteries arising from br ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Duret Hemorrhages Duret hemorrhages are attributed to descending transtentorial herniation from any cause. It can be challenging to distinguish Duret hemorrhages from p ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dystonia Dystonia is defined by involuntary maintained contraction of agonist and antagonist muscles yielding abnormal posturing, twisting and repetitive movem ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
EEG Neonatal Visual Analysis An electroencephalogram (EEG) is a useful ancillary and diagnostic test that detects electrical activity in the brain. The neonatal EEG can be quite c ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
EEG Triphasic Waves Triphasic waves are abnormal electroencephalogram (EEG) waveforms seen with a multitude of clinical conditions including encephalopathy and structural ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ehlers Danlos Syndrome Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a genetic disorder affecting collagen formation and function. It affects virtually every organ system, which can resul ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Electrical Status Epilepticus In Sleep Electrical status epilepticus in sleep (ESES), a childhood-onset epileptic encephalopathy, is characterized by epilepsy, cognitive regression, and mar ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Electrodiagnostic Evaluation Of Cervical Radiculopathy A strong clinical diagnosis of cervical radiculopathy can be made with a thorough history and physical exam; however, findings are confirmed definitiv ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Electrodiagnostic Evaluation Of Lumbosacral Radiculopathy Electrodiagnostic testing can aid the clinician in deciphering between numerous neurologic conditions that may present similarly to lumbosacral radicu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Electrodiagnostic Evaluation Of Spinal Stenosis Electrodiagnostic studies are performed especially in spinal stenosis because it helps the clinician to exactly localize and rule out other differenti ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Encephalocele Encephalocele is usually a congenital type of neural tube defect, where a sac containing brain/meninges/cerebrospinal fluid forms outside the skull du ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Endotracheal Tube In its simplest form, the endotracheal tube is a tube constructed of polyvinyl chloride that is placed between the vocal cords through the trachea. It ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Endotracheal Tube Intubation Techniques Endotracheal intubation is an essential resuscitative procedure in the emergency setting. Direct and video laryngoscopy are the two most common approa ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Enophthalmos Enophthalmos is defined as the posterior displacement of the globe in an anteroposterior plane within the orbit. This is to be distinguished from hype ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Enoxaparin Enoxaparin is low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and was first approved for medical use in 1993 and is derived from heparin. It has approval for the ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Enteric Feedings Enteral nutrition is nutrition delivered using the gut. This can refer to oral, gastric, or postpyloric feeds. There are many indications requiring a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Eosinophilic Granuloma Eosinophilic granuloma (EG) is a rare and mildest form of Langerhans cell histiocytosis. The presentation of EG can be monostotic, polyostotic, or can ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ependymoma Ependymomas are glial cell tumors that commonly arise in the lining cells of the ventricular system, and less commonly outside the central nervous sys ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidermoid Cancer Epidermoid tumors are congenital lesions that arise from ectodermal cells misplaced during the closure of the neural tube in the process of embryogene ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidural This activity reviews epidural analgesia and anesthesia and highlights used medications, indications, contraindications, uses, and techniques. It ment ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidural Abscess An epidural abscess is an infection within the epidural space anywhere in the brain or spinal cord. Epidural abscesses occur as a result of infections ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidural Blood Patch An epidural blood patch (EBP) is a procedure in which a small volume of autologous blood is injected into a patient's epidural space to stop a leak of ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidural Hematoma An epidural hematoma (EDH) is an extra-axial collection of blood within the potential space between the outer layer of the dura mater and the inner ta ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidural Steroid Injections Epidural steroid injections have been utilized for pain relief since 1952. When indicated, they are an invaluable non-surgical treatment for low-back ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidural Steroids Epidural steroids injections (ESI) have been utilized for the treatment of pain due to lumbar disc injuries since the 1950s. They are frequently used ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epilepsia Partialis Continua Epilepsia partialis continua (EPC) is a rare condition involving recurrent and sometimes intractable focal onset seizures associated with retained awa ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epilepsy Surgery Epilepsy surgery is indicated in 30% to 40% of patients with refractory seizure disorders despite being on one year of therapy with an adequate dosage ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Erb Palsy Erb's palsy, or Erb-Duchenne paralysis, is one of most common neurological birth injuries. It is caused by injury to the brachial plexus, which is for ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Erector Spinae Plane Block Erector spinae plane block is a relatively novel approach to pain management for a variety of surgical procedures, as well as for acute and chronic pa ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esthesioneuroblastoma Esthesioneuroblastoma, or olfactory neuroblastoma, is a rare malignant neoplasm of the sinonasal tract originating from the olfactory neuroepithelium ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Evaluation And Management of Perioperative Hypertension This activity reviews the role of the interprofessional team involved in the perioperative care of patients with hypertension (HTN). These providers i ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Exploding Head Syndrome Exploding head syndrome is a benign, underdiagnosed sensory parasomnia. It is the sensation of hearing a loud sound during sleep-wake/wake-sleep trans ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Extubation Extubation is the removal of an endotracheal tube (ETT), which is the last step in liberating a patient from the mechanical ventilator. To discuss the ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Facet Arthritis Facet joints are formed by the articulations of the superior and inferior articular processes of adjacent vertebrae. Except for the atlantooccipital a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Facet Joint Disease Facet joint disease is a condition in which the joints of the spine become a source of pain. This is a very common disease process and its prevalence ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Facial Nerve Intratemporal Trauma Temporal bone fractures are uncommon but involve many important structures resulting in various diagnostic and therapeutic issues. A large amount of f ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Facial Nerve Palsy Facial nerve palsies are a common and essential presentation specifically to ear, nose, and throat (ENT) surgeons but also in general medical practice ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Facial Nerve Repair Facial paralysis is a condition that has a detrimental effect on the quality of life of individuals. The social and psychological implications of faci ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Facial Nerve Trauma Facial nerve palsy is a common presentation to family doctors, the emergency department, and otolaryngologists. Trauma accounts for 10% to 23% of all ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy is a genetically acquired disease that leads to progressive muscle weakness and severely decreased functional c ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Factor V Leiden Deficiency Factor V Leiden (FVL) is a point mutation of factor V resulting in an elimination of cleavage site in factor V and factor Va. This genetic defect lead ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fahr Syndrome Fahr disease is a rare neurological condition characterized by abnormal idiopathic calcification of basal ganglia and commonly has an autosomal domina ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Failed Back Surgery Syndrome Failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) is defined by the International Association for the Study of Pain as “lumbar spinal pain of unknown origin e ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Flaps, Muscle And Musculocutaneous Muscle and myocutaneous flaps are common reconstructive options for patients with acquired traumatic or oncologic defects. While fasciocutaneous and p ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fluid Management Hospitalized patients often have conditions that impair their ability to regulate their hydration status. Improper fluid management leads to significa ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Foville Syndrome Foville syndrome is a rare inferior medial pontine syndrome first characterized in 1858 by anatomist and psychiatrist Achille Louis Francois Foville. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Frontal Sinus Fractures Fractures of the frontal sinus are most commonly seen in the emergency department after motor vehicle accidents (MVA's), falls, assaults, falling obje ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gait Disturbances Gait disturbances are described as any deviations from normal walking or gait. These disturbances stem from numerous etiologies. Due to their differen ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
General Anesthesia for Surgeons The primary goal of general anesthesia is rendering a patient unconscious and unable to feel painful stimuli while controlling autonomic reflexes. The ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizure This activity reviews generalized tonic-clonic seizures. A generalized tonic-clonic seizure, formerly known as grand mal seizure, is defined as a seiz ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Geriatric Cervical Spine Injury According to the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, there are 12 injury-related emergency department visits for every 100 persons over ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Geriatric Trauma Assessment of the geriatric trauma patient is unique, and this population requires special attention. As the elderly population increases, the number ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Germ Cell Seminoma Germinoma is an uncommon pediatric brain tumor that is morphologically identical to its gonadal counterpart: testicular seminoma and ovarian dysgermin ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gerstmann Syndrome Gerstmann syndrome is a rare neurological disorder consisting of a tetrad of symptoms which include impairment in performing calculations (acalculia), ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Giant Cell Tumor Giant cell tumor is one of the most common benign bone tumors, occurring in young adults ages 20–40 years with a high recurrence rate and a potential ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gigantism And Acromegaly Acromegaly and gigantism are disorders of the abnormal excess secretion of growth hormone. Gigantism occurs when growth hormone hypersecretion occurs ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glasgow Coma Scale The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is used to objectively describe the extent of impaired consciousness in all types of acute medical and trauma patients. T ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glioblastoma Multiforme Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a primary brain malignancy with a poor prognosis. No specific risk factors are identified. Diagnosis is by imaging li ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gliomas Glioma is the most common form of central nervous system (CNS) neoplasm that originates from glial cells. In the United States, there are six cases of ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glomus Jugulare Glomus jugulare is a slow-growing paraganglioma of the head and neck that arises within the jugular foramen and localized to the jugular fossa. Paraga ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glossopharyngeal Neuralgia Glossopharyngeal neuralgia is a rare painful condition characterized by brief paroxysmal painful attacks in the glossopharyngeal nerve distribution. P ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gordon Reflex Gordon reflex, also called the paradoxical flexor reflex, is a clinical sign utilized to detect upper motor neuron lesions. Evaluation of this reflex ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hallervorden Spatz Disease Hallervorden-Spatz disease now known as pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) is a rare autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disord ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Halo Brace The halo vest immobilizer (halo brace) device is the most rigid form of external immobilization of the upper cervical spine to date. Indications for i ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hangman's Fractures A hangman’s fracture is a bilateral fracture traversing the pars interarticularis of cervical vertebrae 2 (C2) with an associated traumatic subluxatio ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Head Trauma Traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to head trauma is a common presentation in emergency departments and usually accounts for more than one million visit ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemianopsia Hemianopsia (hemianopia) is a clinical term used to describe the loss of one half of a vertical visual field. A careful history and physical examinati ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemicrania Continua Hemicrania continua is a primary headache disorder that is present for months. It adversely affects the quality of life. It presents clinically with a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemifacial Spasm Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is a disorder characterized by paroxysmal, involuntary twitching of facial muscles of one side of face innervated by ipsilatera ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemorrhagic Stroke Hemorrhagic stroke is due to bleeding into the brain by the rupture of a blood vessel. Hemorrhagic stroke may be further subdivided into intracerebral ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Herpes Simplex Encephalitis Herpes simplex encephalitis is caused by Herpes Simplex Virus type 1(HSV-1) or type 2 (HSV-2). HSV-1 causes encephalitis in children beyond the neonat ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hirayama Disease Hirayama is a rare nonfamiliar monomelic amyotrophy that is also known as benign juvenile brachial spinal muscular atrophy, juvenile asymmetric segmen ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
HIV-1 Associated Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis is a common cause of central nervous system (CNS) infection in patients with HIV/AIDS who do not take appropriate prophylaxis. Cerebral ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hollenhorst Plaque Stroke is the third most common cause of death in the United States. Eighty percent of all strokes are due to occlusion of a vessel secondary to ather ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Holmes Tremor Holmes tremor can present at rest or with movement, usually with a sustained posture. It is slow (< 4.5 Hz) but with a large amplitude. It has also be ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Holoprosencephaly Holoprosencephaly occurs as a result of anomalous signaling interactions between the neural crest and neural ectoderm. This primarily results in the a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Homonymous Superior Quadrantanopia The visual field test maps the vision in each individual eye by measuring the entire scope of vision when vision is focused on a central point. A visu ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Human T Cell Lymphotropic Virus Human T Cell lymphotropic viruses (HTLV) are a family of retroviruses. Currently, four types of this virus have been identified which are known to inf ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Huntington Disease Huntington disease (HD), a neurodegenerative autosomal dominant disorder, is characterized by involuntary choreatic movements with cognitive and behav ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hydranencephaly Hydranencephaly is a rare congenital abnormality in which the cerebral hemispheres are absent with the basal ganglia, brainstem and meninges preserved ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hydrocephalus Hydrocephalus is the symptomatic accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid inside the cerebral ventricles. It has complex pathogenesis and different causes. ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hydromorphone Hydromorphone is a medication used in the management and treatment of moderate to severe acute pain as well as severe chronic pain. It is in the opioi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Evaluation and Treatment Of Intracranial Abscess Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy of intracranial abscesses refers to the following disorders: cerebral abscess, subdural empyema, and epidural empyema. ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Treatment Of Brain Radiation Necrosis Delayed effects of radiation therapy can include radiation necrosis of the brain, which generally occurs in the area of the brain where the tumor was ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperprolactinemia When the amount of serum prolactin exceeds the upper limit, we call it hyperprolactinemia. The common causes of hyperprolactinemia can be physiologica ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypertelorism Orbital hypertelorism is defined as an increased distance between the orbits, with true lateral displacement of the orbits. Hypertelorism is associate ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypertonic Fluids Clinicians use hypertonic fluids to increase intravascular fluid volume. Hypertonic saline can be utilized in the treatment of hyponatremia. Hypertoni ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypnic Headache Hypnic headaches are a primary headache disorder that presents in the elderly population and usually wakes people up from sleep. It is not very common ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyponatremia Hyponatremia is defined as a serum sodium concentration of less than 135 mEq/L but can vary to a small extent in different laboratories. Hyponatremia ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypopituitarism Hypopituitarism is defined as a deficiency of one or more of the hormones produced by the pituitary gland. The presence of hypopituitarism is associat ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypothalamic Hamartoma Hypothalamic hamartomas are congenital non-progressive lesions in the hypothalamus. These lesions usually develop a disabling course presenting with m ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypothermia Accidental hypothermia occurs when the body dissipates more heat than it absorbs or creates, leaving the body unable to generate sufficient heat to ma ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypothyroid Myopathy Hypothyroid myopathy is characterized by myalgia and weakness and affects almost 80 percent of patients with hypothyroidism. Patients with severe or u ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypoxic Brain Injury The brain consumes a significant amount of energy compared to its weight and size. The term "anoxia" refers to the complete lack of oxygen delivery to ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Increased Intracranial Pressure The pressure in the cranial vault is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) and is normally less than 20 mm Hg. The cranium is a rigid structure ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Infantile and Juvenile Scoliosis Early-onset scoliosis (EOS) occurs in young children and presents a unique and challenging dilemma since the spine, thorax, and lungs are still develo ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Inferior Gluteal Nerve Injury The inferior gluteal nerve supplies the gluteus maximus muscle. The inferior gluteal nerve provides motor function to gluteus maximus, a major muscle ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Inhalational Anesthetic Inhalation anesthetics (nitrous oxide, halothane, isoflurane, desflurane, sevoflurane most commonly used agents in practice today) are used for induct ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Inotropes And Vasopressors Vasopressors and inotropes are medications used to create vasoconstriction or increase cardiac contractility, respectively, in patients with shock. Th ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intention Tremor An intention, rubral, cerebellar, or course tremor is defined as a rhythmic, oscillatory, and high amplitude tremor during a directed and purposeful m ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Interlaminar Epidural Injection Interlaminar epidural injection refers to a procedure that involves the delivery of injectate to the epidural space by directing a needle between the ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia Internuclear ophthalmoplegia is an ocular movement disorder caused by a lesion of the medial longitudinal fasciculus. It is characterized by impaired ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intracerebral Hemorrhage This activity aims to outline the pathophysiology, risk factors, presentation diagnosis, and complications of intracerebral hemorrhages. The activity ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intracranial Hemorrhage Intracranial hemorrhage encompasses four broad types of hemorrhage: epidural hemorrhage, subdural hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and intraparenc ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intracranial Hypertension Intracranial hypertension is a spectrum of neurological disorders where cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure within the skull is elevated. Normal CSF pr ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intracranial Hypotension Intracranial hypotension (ICH) is defined as a CSF pressure less than 60 mm H2O and generally causes a postural headache in patients with the conditio ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intracranial Pressure Monitoring This activity outlines the current recommendations for ICP monitoring and reviews the role of current invasive and noninvasive methods of monitoring. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intradiscal Electrothermal Therapy Intradiscal electrothermal therapy is a procedure of applying heat to the annulus in cases of low back pain due to discogenic conditions that fail to ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intramedullary Spinal Cord Tumors Tumors in the spine comprise about 15 percent of all central nervous system tumors. They usually are benign and cause symptoms primarily via compressi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring Different intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring techniques assess the function of the brain, brainstem, spinal cord, cranial nerves, and periph ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intrathecal Catheter The placement of an intrathecal catheter is a minimally invasive procedure aimed at releasing drugs directly into the subarachnoid space for the contr ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intrathecal Delivery System Intrathecal drug delivery systems are typically used for three main purposes, which are the treatment of chronic non-malignant pain, muscle spasticity ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intraventricular Meningioma Intraventricular meningiomas show similar characteristics to those found in the extra-axial space. Their cells of origin are the same. However, extra- ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Iontophoresis Analgesic Medications Analgesic iontophoresis is the administration of analgesic medications via iontophoresis used in the management and treatment of pain. The technique m ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Irukandji Syndrome Irukandji syndrome is a painful, potentially lethal condition caused by the sting and envenomation from multiple jellyfish species. It is characterize ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ischemic Stroke Cerebrovascular accidents, commonly known as strokes, are prevalent across patient populations and can be a significant cause of morbidity and mortali ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Isthmic Spondylolisthesis Spondylolisthesis occurs when there is an anterior subluxation or “slippage” of the vertebral body above on the vertebral body below. In most cases, s ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Jugular Foramen Syndrome The jugular foramen syndrome (JFS) (Vernet syndrome) refers to paralysis of the IX, X, and XI cranial nerves traversing the jugular foramen. Safe rese ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Kearns Sayre Syndrome Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS) is a subtype of chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO). KSS is defined by the following triad: Onset before t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ketamine In Acute and Chronic Pain Management Acute and chronic pain remain important health problems both in the United States and worldwide. With the rise in the prevalence of many chronic degen ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Klippel Feil Syndrome Klippel-Feil syndrome presents with an abnormal fusion of 2 or more bones in the cervical spine. This creates a characteristic appearance of a short n ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Klumpke Palsy Klumpke palsy, named after Augusta Dejerine-Klumpke, is a neuropathy involving the lower brachial plexus. In contrast, the more common; the Duchenne p ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Kluver Bucy Syndrome Kluver-Bucy syndrome (KBS) is a rare neuropsychiatric disorder due to lesions affecting bilateral temporal lobes, especially the hippocampus and amygd ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Kyphoscoliosis Kyphoscoliosis is a disease of the thoracolumbar spine in which normal curvature is excessively deviated in multiple planes. Its complications are var ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Kyphosis Kyphosis is defined as an increase in the forward curvature of the spine that is seen along the sagittal plane, whereas lordosis is an increase in the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lacunar Stroke Lacunar stroke is a common stroke with significant morbidity and mortality. Advancement in knowledge about modifying risk factors and early diagnosis ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lacunar Syndromes Lacunar syndromes are clinical manifestations of lacunar infarctions, which are defined as small subcortical lesions less than 15 millimeters in diame ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Laminectomy Laminectomy is one of the most common procedures to decompress spinal canal in cases of narrowing secondary to a variety of conditions such as degener ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Le Fort Fractures Le Fort injuries are complex fractures of the midface, named after Rene Le Fort who studied cadaver skulls that were subjected to blunt force trauma. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Le Fort Osteotomy The LeFort I osteotomy is utilized extensively within the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery when repositioning of the maxilla is required for co ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lead Toxicity Lead became a common occupational toxin with the birth of the Industrial Revolution, by the end of the 19-century childhood lead poisoning secondary t ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lennox Gastaut Syndrome Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) is a rare but severe form of childhood epilepsy. LGS is characterized by a triad of multiple seizure types, characterist ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Leptomeningeal Carcinomatosis Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis is cancer involving the pia mater and arachnoid mater. Studies have shown that both solid tumors, including brain tumors ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Leptospirosis Leptospirosis, also called Weil disease, is the most common zoonotic infection in the world. Leptospirosis is caused by an infection with the spiroche ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lhermitte Sign Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, predominantly immune-mediated disease of the central nervous system. Neuropathic pain in MS is poorly understood ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lightning Injuries Lightning is a frequent occurrence worldwide with an estimated 50 occurrences per second and 20% of those resulting in ground strikes. It is impossib ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Local Anesthetic Toxicity Local anesthetics are commonly used in most medical and dental practice. While adverse effects are rare, the rising prevalence of local anesthetics in ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Locked-in Syndrome Locked-in syndrome is a condition where a person experiences quadriplegia and bulbar palsy due to damage in the brainstem. Cognition and vertical eye ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Low Grade Gliomas Low-grade gliomas are benign tumors and are grade 1 and grade 2 tumors according to WHO classification. They can be due to some genetic mutations or e ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lumbar Degenerative Disk Disease Between each vertebral body of the spine are pads of fibrocartilage-based structures that provide support, flexibility, and minor load-sharing known a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lumbar Disc Herniation Low back pain is a prevalent symptom, as approximately 80 % of the population sustains an episode once in their lifetime. Within the many differential ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lumbar Facet Arthropathy The lumbar zygapophysial joint, otherwise known as facet joint, is a common generator of lower back pain. The facet joint is formed via the posterolat ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lumbar Plexus Block Regional anesthesia techniques are powerful tools for postoperative pain management that have shown to reduce perioperative opioid consumption, Increa ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lumbar Puncture The lumbar puncture is a diagnostic procedure in the diagnosis of meningitis, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and certain neurological disorders. It is also ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Lumbar spinal stenosis is a common source of leg and back pain. It refers to a narrowing in the vertebra, in the areas of the central canal, lateral ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lumbar Spondylolysis And Spondylolisthesis Spondylolysis refers to a posterior defect in the vertebral body at the pars interarticularis. Usually, this defect is due to trauma or from a chronic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lumbar Stabilization Lumbar stabilization is the natural ability of the spinal column to maintain its anatomical structure on physiological loading. The stability is maint ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lumbar Sympatholysis Lumbar sympatholysis can be an effective treatment for individuals suffering from chronic pain in the lower extremity as a result of numerous etiologi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lumbosacral Disc Injuries The area between the lumbar vertebral bodies and sacral vertebral bodies is a transition zone at increased risk of injury due to the change in biomech ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lumbosacral Discogenic Syndrome Lumbosacral discogenic syndrome is a common cause of axial low back pain (ABP), which can arise from structures such as facet joints, spinal muscles, ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lumbosacral Facet Syndrome Low back pain is one of the most common musculoskeletal complaints encountered in clinical practice. It is the leading cause of disability in the deve ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lumbosacral Plexopathy Lumbosacral plexopathy is a relatively uncommon occurrence that can be difficult to diagnose and manage. When an injury occurs to the lumbosacral plex ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lumbosacral Radiculopathy Low back pain is one of the most common musculoskeletal complaints encountered in clinical practice. It is the leading cause of disability in the deve ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lumbosacral Spondylolisthesis Lumbosacral spondylolisthesis is a forward translation of the fifth lumbar vertebrae over the first sacral vertebrae. Untreated, it may be associated ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lung Adenocarcinoma Lung adenocarcinoma is the most common primary lung cancer seen in the United States. It falls under the umbrella of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lung Pancoast Tumor Pancoast or superior sulcus tumor consists of a wide range of tumors invading the apical chest wall and producing a characteristic syndrome named Panc ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lyme Disease Lyme disease is an infectious disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, which is spread by ticks. Lyme disease is divided into three stages: early local ... Read the Article 1.75 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lymphocytic Hypophysitis Lymphocytic hypophysitis is a rare, autoimmune condition of the pituitary gland. It causes the pituitary gland to be infiltrated by lymphocytes and ca ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lytic Bone Lesions Bone tumors are mostly benign. Most important determinants in imaging of bone tumors are morphology on plain radiograph (well defined lytic, ill-defin ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Malar Rash Malar rash, also named a butterfly rash, is a common facial presentation of multiple disorders. It is characterized by an erythematous flat or raised ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Malaria Malaria is a parasitic infection transmitted by the Anopheles mosquito that leads to acute life-threatening disease and poses a significant global hea ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Malignant Hyperthermia Malignant Hyperthermia (MH) is a hereditary disorder of skeletal muscle that classically presents as a hypermetabolic response to halogenated anesthet ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Malignant Melanoma Metastatic To The Central Nervous System Malignant melanoma metastatic to the central nervous system is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The management of these patients is rapi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Man In A Barrel Syndrome Man in a barrel syndrome is a neurological syndrome involving bilateral upper extremity weakness with preserved facial and lower extremity strength. T ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mandible Fracture Mandible is one of the most commonly fractured facial bone and is frequently seen in the emergency department. This activity reviews the anatomy of th ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mannitol Mannitol can be used for the reduction of intracranial pressure and brain mass, to reduce intraocular pressure if this is not achievable by other mean ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mastoidectomy Mastoidectomy is a surgical procedure of the temporal bone that opens postauricular air cells by removing the thin bony partitions between them. Each ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Maxillary Fracture Maxillary fractures are common in patients sustaining facial trauma and may be caused by road traffic accidents, sports, or assault. Maxillary fractur ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Maxillary Sinus Fracture Maxillary sinus fractures (MSFs) are most commonly caused by blunt force trauma to the face. Depending on the magnitude and location of the direct inj ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
McKenzie Back Exercises The McKenzie back exercises belong to an exercise protocol pioneered by physiotherapist Robin Anthony McKenzie in the 1950s and popularized around 198 ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Median Nerve Palsy This activity addresses the topic of median nerve palsy in great detail. The median nerve is a critical neurological structure in the upper extremity ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Medical Error A medical error is a preventable adverse effect of medical care, whether or not it is evident or harmful to the patient. Among the problems that commo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Medical Ethics Familiarity with ethical principles on a basic level is necessary to safely practice medicine. However, most clinicians are unable to elucidate specif ... Read the Article 2 24 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Medication Overuse Induced Headache Medication overuse headache (MOH) is thought to occur when medications intended to relieve headaches are consumed too frequently. Causal agents are va ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Medication-overuse Headache Medication-overuse headaches (MOH), also known as analgesic rebound headaches, drug-induced headaches, or medication-misuse headaches, are a common ne ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Medulloblastoma While leukemias are the most common type of malignancy affecting the pediatric population, brain tumors are the most common solid tumors in this popul ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Melanotic Neuroectodermal Tumor Of Infancy Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy (MNTI) is a rapidly growing benign tumor arising from the neural crest cells. It typically affects infants ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Melas Syndrome Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) is a mitochondrial disease primarily affecting the nervous system an ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Meningioma Meningioma is a known benign central nervous system tumor commonly arising from the meninges of the brain and spinal cord. The rate of recurrence and ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Meningitis In spite of breakthroughs in diagnosis, treatment, and vaccination, in 2015 there were 8.7 million reported cases of meningitis worldwide with 379,000 ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Meningocele Meningocele is one of the common congenital neural tube defects. Meningocele is the simplest form of open neural tube defects characterized by cystic ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Meningomyelocele Myelomeningocele or open spina bifida is a devastating congenital malformation of the central nervous system associated with significant morbidity. Ti ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mental Nerve Block The mental nerve supplies sensation to the lower teeth, the skin over the chin and lower lip, and the buccal mucosa. Mental nerve blocks allow for exc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Meralgia Paresthetica Meralgia paresthetica is a clinical condition that includes pain and dysesthesia in the anterolateral thigh associated with lateral femoral cutaneous ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is the most common form of focal epilepsy. This activity outlines the etiopathology, clinical presentation, diagn ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Microdiscectomy Microdiscectomy with its smaller incision, less traumatic approach, and better visualization of the operative field compared to standard open discecto ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Middle Cerebral Artery Stroke The middle cerebral artery (MCA) is the most common artery involved in acute stroke. It branches directly from the internal carotid artery and consist ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Migraine Surgical Interventions Migraines are a common primary neurologic headache that predominantly occurs in the working-age adult. Migraine attacks are frequently triggered by br ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Migraine-Associated Vertigo Patients often describe vertigo as the sensation of motion that occurs in the absence of motion or an altered sensation of motion that occurs with nor ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Miliary Tuberculosis Miliary tuberculosis presentations can be complex and, therefore, diagnosis and treatment are challenging as well. For better management of the patien ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Millard Gubler Syndrome Millard-Gubler syndrome (MGS), also known as facial abducens hemiplegia syndrome or ventral pontine syndrome, is one of the classical crossed brainste ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Morphine FDA-approved usage of morphine sulfate includes moderate to severe pain that may be acute or chronic. Most commonly used in pain management, morphine ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Moyamoya Disease Moyamoya disease (MMD) is an isolated chronic, usually bilateral, vasculopathy of undetermined etiology characterized by progressive narrowing of the ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Multifocal Motor Neuropathy Multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN), also called multifocal motor neuropathy with conduction block (MMNCB), is a rare, acquired, motor neuropathy charac ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 Multiple endocrine neoplasia Type 1 (MEN1), also known as Wermer syndrome, is a rare hereditary endocrine tumor syndrome. The most common tumors seen ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Multiple Sclerosis Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by chronic inflammation, demyelination, gliosis, an ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Muscle Contraction Tension Headache Tension-type headache (TTH) is the most common type of primary headaches. It is also sometimes referred to as muscle contraction headache, stress head ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Muscular Hematoma Muscular Hematomas are a common source of extravasated blood from within a muscle group, most commonly occurring in the abdominal waist. Muscular hema ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Myelomeningocele Neural tube defects are a spectrum of congenital anomalies that includes cranial defects and open or closed spinal dysraphism. Open spinal dysraphism ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Myotonia Myotonia is an impairing disorder that resulted in the delayed relaxation of skeletal muscles after voluntary contraction. The illnesses, while rare, ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Myxopapillary Ependymoma Myxopapillary ependymoma is a distinct subtype of spinal cord ependymomas that has a predilection for the lumbosacral region. To achieve satisfactory ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Naegleria Naegleria fowleri, a member of the genus Percolozoa, is also known as the "brain-eating amoeba." It is a eukaryotic, free-living, amoeba named after M ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nasal Fracture Fractures of the naso-orbital-ethmoid (NOE) complex resulting from high impact trauma to the face can have significant ramifications due to the NOE co ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nasogastric Tube Nasogastric tubes are part of the standard of care in treating intestinal obstruction and can also be used to provide nutritional support. They are mo ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neck Rejuvenation Neck rejuvenation can address loose skin over the neck, platysmal bands, and effacement of the cervicomental angle. This activity reviews the evaluati ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neck Trauma The management of neck trauma can be challenging and sometimes overwhelming, as this anatomical region contains many vital structures. These structure ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nelson Syndrome Nelson syndrome or post adrenalectomy syndrome was first reported in 1958 by Dr. Don H. Nelson, an endocrinology fellow at the time. This clinical syn ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neonatal Meningitis Bacterial meningitis during the neonatal period remains a highly devastating condition, with a morbidity rate of 20 to 60 percent. The nationwide mort ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neonatal Seizure Neonatal seizures are a commonly encountered neurologic condition in neonates. They are defined as the occurrence of sudden, paroxysmal, abnormal alte ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neoplastic Lumbosacral Plexopathy Neoplastic lumbosacral plexopathy is an injury to one or more nerves of the lumbosacral plexus due to malignant neoplasms. Neoplastic lumbosacral plex ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nephrotoxic Medications Numerous drugs used in the management and treatment of multiple diseases, including hypertension, diabetes, and other pathologies, are nephrotoxic. Th ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nerve Block Anesthesia The purpose of peripheral nerve blocks is to inhibit impulse transmission distally in a nerve terminal, thus terminating the pain signal perceived by ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nerve Stimulation Chronic pain conditions, including low back pain, neck pain, and neuropathic pain states like chronic regional pain syndrome, causalgia, and diabetic ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neural Tube Disorders Neural tube defects are the most common severe central nervous system anomalies only second to cardiovascular abnormalities resulting in congenital mo ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neurapraxia Neurapraxia is the mildest form of peripheral nerve injury commonly induced by focal demyelination or ischemia. In neurapraxia, the conduction of nerv ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neuraxial Neurolysis Neurolysis is the application of chemical or physical agents to a nerve to cause a temporary or permanent degeneration of targeted nerve fibers. When ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neurilemmoma The vast majority of tumors of the peripheral nervous system arise from the cells of Schwann, rather than from the nerve cells themselves. Schwann cel ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neuroblastoma Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most frequently-occurring extracranial childhood tumor. It is classified as an embryonal neuroendocrine tumor, originating f ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neurofibroma Neurofibromas are the most common peripheral nerve sheath tumor and are often found either by patients or during routine skin exams. These lesions app ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neurofibromatosis Neurofibromatosis is a neurocutaneous disorder characterized by tumors in the nervous system and skin. The most common types of neurofibromatosis are ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neurofibromatosis Type 1 Neurofibromatosis-1 (NF-1) or Von Recklinghausen's disease is one of the inheritable neurocutaneous disorders manifested by developmental changes in t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neurofibromatosis Type 2 Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the development of multiple tumors involving the central nervous sys ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neurogenic Pulmonary Edema Neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) is a clinical condition arises as acute respiratory distress taking place in conjunction with severe neurological dam ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neurogenic Shock Neurogenic shock, also known as vasogenic shock, is a devastating consequence of spinal cord injury (SCI) that can manifest as hypotension, bradyarrhy ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neurohypophysis The neurohypophysis is the center for the hormonal secretion of oxytocin and vasopressin. It is regulated by neurons that project from the hypothalamu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neurolytic Blocks A neurolytic block is the targeted destruction of a nerve or nerve plexus. Frequently, the term neuroablation is used to also describe the physical in ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neuromodulation Surgery For Psychiatric Disorders Clinicians are beginning to reconsider neuromodulation surgery as a last resort for the treatment of refractory psychiatric disorders. Neurosurgical i ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neurosarcoidosis Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease that results in the formation of granulomas which classically are non-caseating granulomas, that may be found throug ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neurotmesis Neurotmesis is a complete transection of a peripheral nerve. The severity of peripheral nerve injury can be classified as neurapraxia, axonotmesis, or ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nimodipine Nimodipine is a second-generation 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. It was initially invented for the management of systemic hypertension. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nitrous Oxide Nitrous oxide is an odorless, colorless, non-flammable gas. While nitrous oxide is not flammable, it will support combustion to the same extent as ox ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Non-depolarizing Neuromuscular Blockers Non-depolarizing neuromuscular blockers (nNMBs) are administered as primary therapy in facilitating endotracheal intubations and adjuvant therapy in t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nonspecific Orbital Inflammation Orbital pseudotumor, orbital inflammatory pseudotumor (OIP), or idiopathic orbital inflammation (IOI) is a benign, non-infectious, non-neoplastic, spa ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Normal pressure hydrocephalus characteristically presents with progressive gait impairment, cognitive deficits, and urinary urgency and/or incontinenc ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nucleus Pulposus Herniation This activity describes the etiology, epidemiology, clinical presentation and treatment of a nucleus pulposus herniation, which is a condition charact ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nummular Headache Nummular headache is a chronic primary headache disorder recognized by the international headache society. Although it is a benign disorder, in some i ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Obstructive Uropathy Obstructive uropathy is a hindrance to normal urinary flow that can be caused by a variety of structural and functional etiologies. This is a common a ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Occipital Nerve Stimulation Occipital nerve stimulation is a neuromodulation technique used for the treatment of refractory primary and secondary headache disorders. This activit ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Octreotide Octreotide is a medication used in the management and treatment of acromegaly and thyrotrophinomas. It is in the somatostatin analog class of drugs. T ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ocular Cellulitis Orbital cellulitis is an inflammation of the contents of the orbit posterior to the orbital septum. The inflammation occurs secondary to an infection ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Oculocardiac Reflex The oculocardiac reflex (OCR), also known as the Aschner reflex or trigeminovagal reflex (TVR), was first described in 1908 as a reduction in heart ra ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Odontoid Fractures The odontoid process, or dens, is a superior projecting bony element from the second cervical vertebrae (C2, or the axis). The first cervical vertebra ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Oligodendroglioma Oligodendroglioma (OG) is a type of diffusely infiltrating glioma and constitutes approximately 5% of primary intracranial tumors. They often involve ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ommaya Reservoir Ommaya reservoir is a ventricular access device with an intraventricular catheter system for the purpose of chronic access to the intrathecal space. O ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Onchocerciasis Onchocerciasis, also known as river blindness, is the second commonest cause of infectious blindness in the world and is transmitted through the repea ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Opioid Analgesics Opioids are a class of medication used in the management and treatment of pain. This activity outlines the indications, action, and contraindications ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Opioid Toxicity Opioids and opiates together comprise a class of medications widely used primarily to control severe pain. If first-line agents are not effective in c ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Opsoclonus Opsoclonus is an oculomotor dyskinesia characterized by rapid, repetitive conjugate eye movements that are involuntary, arrhythmic, chaotic, and multi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Optic Atrophy Optic atrophy is the hallmark of damage to the visual pathway. It appears as a pale disc on fundus examination. This clinical appearance is not a dise ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Optic Nerve Cysts The topic of optic nerve cysts encompasses a variety of etiologies including idiopathic, neoplastic, saccular or tubular expansions of the meninges, t ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Optic Nerve Decompression Optic nerve sheath decompression, more commonly known as optic nerve sheath fenestration (ONSF), is a surgical procedure performed to decompress the o ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Optic Nerve Glioma Optic pathway gliomas are benign CNS tumors that primarily affect children. Although typically slow growing, the location of these tumors makes resect ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Optic Nerve Sheath Meningioma Optic nerve sheath meningiomas are rare benign tumors of the central nervous system. Although they are slow-growing, their location directly affects t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Optic Nerve Sheath Ultrasound Point of care optic nerve sheath ultrasound (ONSUS) is a bedside practice that can be used to evaluate for increased intracranial pressure. This activ ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Orbital Floor Fracture Fractures of the orbital floor and the medial orbital wall (blowout fractures) are common midface injuries. Orbital fractures have a distinct trauma m ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Os Odontoideum This activity discusses os odontoideum, a rare cervical entity characterized by a failure in the normal development of the odontoid process resulting ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ossicular-Chain Dislocation Ossicular chain dislocation occurs following trauma. It usually results in conductive hearing loss, which persists for more than 6 months. Management ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Osteoporosis in Spinal Cord Injuries Osteoporosis is a condition describing a spectrum of overall compromised skeletal microarchitecture with clinical manifestations related to decreasing ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Paget Disease Paget disease is a skeletal growth disorder in which abnormalities such as unusual bone growth can occur in several multifactoral ways. This is often ... Read the Article 1.75 22 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pain Assessment There are multiple tools used to help assess a patient's pain. These tools can be used to assess multiple types of pain, ranging from nociceptive pain ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pain Management Medications Analgesics are medications used in the management and treatment of pain. They include several classes of medications (acetaminophen, nonsteroidal anti ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Palliation Radiation Therapy Of The Spinal Cord Radiation therapy is frequently used in medicine as both a curative and palliative treatment modality. When cancer metastasizes to the spine, patients ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Palliative Radiation Therapy For Brain Metastases Up to a third of cancer patients go onto developing brain metastasis, with lung and breast cancer accounting for most cases. The average survival from ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Papilledema Papilledema is a disease entity that refers to the swelling of the optic disc due to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP). This term should be distin ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Paradoxical Embolism Paradoxical embolism is an uncommon cause for acute arterial occlusion. Paradoxical Embolism (PDE) occurs when a thrombus crosses an intracardiac def ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Paraneoplastic Encephalomyelitis Paraneoplastic Encephalomyelitis is a subtype of paraneoplastic neurological syndromes. This group of neurological disorders is associated with antibo ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Paraneoplastic Limbic Encephalitis Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis is thought to be caused by an onconeural antibody to cancer that cross-reacts with self-antigen in the neurons and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Parinaud Syndrome Parinaud syndrome is also known as sylvian aqueduct syndrome, dorsal midbrain syndrome, pretectal syndrome, and Koerber-Salus-Elschnig syndrome. Parin ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Parkinson Disease Parkinson disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that mostly presents in later life with generalized slowing of movements (bradykinesia) and at least ... Read the Article 2 28 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Parotidectomy Parotidectomy is a common procedure in head and neck surgery. An appropriate incision and identification of multiple anatomical landmarks are necessar ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pars Interarticularis Defect Pars interarticularis defects also referred to as spondylolysis, are a common cause of axial back pain in adolescents, especially young athletes. The ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pars Interarticularis Injury Pars interarticularis injury, a condition characterized by a fracture in the pars isthmus, is a common cause of low back pain, mainly among young athl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Patau Syndrome Patau syndrome, also called trisomy 13, is a clinical syndrome that occurs when all or some cells of the body contain an extra copy of chromosome 13. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pediatric Abusive Head Trauma Pediatric abusive head trauma (AHT), or shaken baby syndrome, most often involves shaking, blunt impact, or a combination of both in infants and young ... Read the Article 2 24 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pediatric Cerebral Aneurysm Similar to their adult counterparts, pediatric cerebral aneurysms are associated with a variety of systemic and intracranial disorders. The most comm ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pediatric Craniopharyngioma Pediatric craniopharyngioma could be considered one of the most complex neurosurgical pathologies in the pediatric population. The tumor's proximity t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pediatric Head Trauma Blunt traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a disruption in the normal function of the brain caused by a mechanical impact to the head. TBI ranges from mild ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pediatric Spine Trauma A spinal cord injury is a potentially crippling injury which often results in severe and permanent disability. Quite often when encountering multi-sys ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pembrolizumab Pembrolizumab is a medication used in the management and treatment of various oncologic conditions. It is in the cancer immunotherapy class of drugs. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Penetrating Head Trauma Penetrating brain injury (PBI) is a significant cause of mortality in young individuals. PBI encompasses all traumatic brain injuries other than blunt ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Percutaneous Vertebroplasty And Kyphoplasty Compression fractures are prone to progression over time and may facilitate the compression of adjacent vertebrae due to compensatory increases in axi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Perilymphatic Fistula Labyrinthine fistula is an abnormal communication between the inner ear and the surrounding structures. It can be caused by mechanical insults or cong ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Perioperative Cardiac Management The importance of the appropriate perioperative cardiac management in non-cardiac surgery lies in the high number of surgical procedures performed eac ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Peripheral Diabetic Neuropathy Peripheral neuropathy (PN) encompasses a broad range of clinical pathologies potentially presenting with peripheral nervous system dysfunction. Patien ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Peripheral Magnetic Stimulation Peripheral magnetic stimulation (PMS) or so-called transcutaneous magnetic stimulation is a noninvasive method of delivering a rapidly pulsed, high-in ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Peripheral Nerve Stimulator Peripheral nerve stimulation is an emerging field in adjunctive analgesic therapies. This activity reviews the indications, contraindications, and tec ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Peripheral Neurolytic Blocks Peripheral nerve neuralgia or peripheral neuropathic pain may result from damage of a nerve due to various etiologies including medical conditions suc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Peripheral Vertigo Approximately 80 percent of vertigo is peripheral, whereas approximately 20 percent is central. Peripheral vertigo is most commonly due to a benign pr ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pfeiffer Syndrome Pfeiffer syndrome is an inherited craniofacial disorder that is associated with primary craniosynostosis, midface hypoplasia, broad thumbs and great t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Phantom Limb Pain Phantom limb pain is the perception of pain or discomfort in a limb that is no longer there. PLP most commonly presents as a sequela of amputation. Th ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Phenytoin Toxicity Phenytoin has become one of the most well-studied anticonvulsants. With an average monthly cost of $30, it has also become one of the most widely used ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Phrenic Nerve Injury The phrenic nerve is among the most important nerves in the body due to its role in respiration. The phrenic nerve provides the primary motor supply t ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pilocytic Astrocytoma Pilocytic astrocytoma is the most common childhood brain tumor and most often found in the posterior fossa. Complete resection usually cures the patie ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pineal Gland Cancer Tumors of the pineal region are rare and account for 1% of all intracranial tumors in adults and up to 8% in children. Multiple pathologies are associ ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pituitary Adenoma Pituitary adenomas are tumors of the anterior pituitary. Most pituitary tumors are slow-growing and benign. They are classified based on size or cell ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pituitary Apoplexy Pituitary apoplexy is an infarction or hemorrhage of the pituitary gland. This condition most often involves a pre-existing pituitary adenoma. This ac ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pituitary Cancer Pituitary gland tumors are rarely cancerous and mostly benign. The pituitary tumors may be functioning with hormone production or non-functioning with ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pituitary Hyperplasia In Primary Hypothyroidism Pituitary hyperplasia is an under-recognized manifestation that can occur fairly commonly in primary hypothyroidism. Recognition of this entity is imp ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Plagiocephaly Plagiocephaly is defined as an asymmetric shape of the head due to unilateral flattening. The term flathead can be used as a synonym. Plagiocephaly ca ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pleomorphic Adenoma Pleomorphic adenoma, the most common salivary gland tumor, is also known as benign mixed tumors (BMT's), because of its dual origin from epithelial an ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pneumocephalus Pneumocephalus, also known as pneumatocele or intracranial aerocele, is defined as the presence of air in the intracranial space. Pneumocephalus can o ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Polycystic Kidney Disease Polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is an autosomal dominant disorder. It is a multisystem and progressive disease with cysts formation and kidney enlar ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Polycystic Kidney Disease In Adults Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is a disorder in which there is an enlargement of the kidneys with multiple cyst formation. There is a de ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pontine Infarction Stroke is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in the world. Pontine strokes, in particular, are catastrophic. Clinical presentation o ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Post Craniotomy Headache A craniotomy is a neurosurgical technique, whereby part of the skull is opened or removed for intracranial access to treat conditions such as brain tu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Posterior Cerebral Artery Stroke Posterior cerebral artery (PCA) strokes can be challenging to diagnose, due to the variability in symptoms, which may be nonspecific and inconsistent ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Posterior Interosseous Nerve Syndrome There are multiple compression neuropathies of the upper extremity. Some neuropathies, like carpal tunnel, are quite common; others like posterior in ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postictal Seizure State The postictal state is a period that begins when a seizure subsides and ends when the patient returns to baseline. It typically lasts between 5 and 30 ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Post-Traumatic Headache Post-traumatic headaches (PTHA) is a common sequela of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and may progress to chronic and possibly debilitating conditions. ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Posttraumatic Syringomyelia Posttraumatic syringomyelia refers to the development of a cerebrospinal fluid-filled cavity within the spinal cord several months or years after a kn ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pott Disease Pott disease, or tuberculosis of the spine, has recently shown a significant resurgence in developed nations secondary to global migration. Concurrent ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pott Puffy Tumor Pott puffy tumor is a subperiosteal abscess due to associated frontal skull osteomyelitis. This usually occurs as a rare complication of frontal sinus ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pramipexole Pramipexole is a medication used in the management and treatment of Parkinsonism and restless leg syndrome. It is in the anti-parkinsonian class of dr ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pregnancy Trauma Trauma in pregnancy can ranges from mild, for example trauma associated with a single fall from standing height or hitting the abdomen on an object su ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor In 2016, the World Health Organization published a revised classification of central nervous system tumors using molecular parameters. In this classif ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Progressive Supranuclear Palsy Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a form of atypical parkinsonian syndrome, also known as a Parkinson-plus disorder. It is an uncommon neurologi ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Prolactinoma Prolactin-secreting tumors of the pituitary gland, also known as prolactinomas, are the most common secretory tumors of the pituitary gland, accountin ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Prothrombin Complex Concentrate Prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) comes from the process of ion-exchange chromatography from the cryoprecipitate supernatant of large plasma pools ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Provocative Discography Provocative discography is an invasive diagnostic spine procedure that involves the administration of contrast into the nucleus pulposus of an interve ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pseudotumor Cerebri Pseudotumor cerebri (PTC), also known by the name idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), is a disorder with increased intracranial pressure (ICP) ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformation (AVMs) Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (AVMs) is a rare clinical problem in which abnormal communications develop between a pulmonary artery and a pulmo ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radial Forearm Tissue Transfer he radial forearm free flap (RFFF) has gained tremendous popularity since its introduction in 1978 as a reconstructive option. This flap's relative ea ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radicular Back Pain Radicular back pain is a common type of low backache. The definition of acute lumbosacral radiculopathy is a diffuse disease process that affects more ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radiofrequency Ablation The use of radiofrequency ablation for intractable pain is based on the premise that the transmission of radiofrequency currents near nociceptive path ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ranchos Los Amigos The Rancho Los Amigos Scale (RLAS), also known as the Ranchos Scale, is a widely accepted medical scale used to describe the cognitive and behavioral ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Recurrent Acute Rhinosinusitis Sinusitis, also referred to as rhinosinusitis, is defined as the symptomatic inflammation of paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity mucosa. This inflammat ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Injury Recurrent laryngeal nerve injuries are a common cause of vocal cord paresis and resulting in voice changes or hoarseness. The etiology, history, and m ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndromes Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is a medical condition in which there is multifocal arterial constriction and dilation in the cer ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rheumatoid Arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disorder of the joints characterized by inflammatory arthritis as well as extra-articular involvement. It c ... Read the Article 1.75 25 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rhinocerebral Mucormycosis Rhinocerebral mucormycosis, also called zygomycosis, is a rare disease caused by filamentous fungi involving the nose, paranasal sinuses, and brain. I ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rivastigmine Rivastigmine is a medication used in the management and treatment of neurodegenerative disease, specifically dementia in Alzheimer patients and Parkin ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rotation Vertebral Artery Syndrome Rotational vertebral artery syndrome, or "Bow Hunter syndrome," is a very rare diagnosis that is easily missed. Furthermore, symptoms are very nonspec ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Saccular Aneurysm This activity will focus on saccular cerebral and aortic aneurysms. Most cerebral aneurysms are asymptomatic and small, and they are found incidentall ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sacroiliac Joint Injection Sacroiliac (SI) joint pain is a common etiology of low back pain. Studies have shown that 10 to 27 percent of mechanical low back pain is secondary to ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sacroiliac Joint Injury Sacroiliac joint injury is a common type of low back pain. Differentiating SI joint pain from mechanical low back pain is essential. This activity out ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sacroiliac Joint Pain The sacroiliac (SI) joint lies between the sacrum and the ilium bones of the pelvis. There are two joints, one on each side of the sacrum. The joint s ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sacroiliitis Sacroiliitis is inflammation of the sacroiliac joint (SI), the joint that connects the ilium to the sacrum. The SI joint is one of the largest joints ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disorder of unknown etiology characterized by the presence of noncaseating granulomas in organs. This condition mostly af ... Read the Article 2 28 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Scalp Laceration A laceration is a pattern of injury in which blunt forces result in a tear in the skin and underlying tissues. Lacerations in the scalp are different ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Scalp Reconstruction Scalp reconstruction procedures are done for medical or cosmetic reasons. Scalp reconstruction techniques share similarities to plastic surgery techni ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Scheuermann Disease Scheuermann kyphosis, also known as Scheuermann disease, juvenile kyphosis or juvenile discogenic disease, is a condition involving an abnormal, exces ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Schizencephaly Schizencephaly is a rare congenital neuronal migration disorder characterized by cleft lined by the heterotopic gray matter, which connects the surfac ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sciatica Sciatica is a debilitating condition that is a result of the sciatic nerve or sciatic nerve root pathology. Affected patients experience pain and pare ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Seating And Wheelchair Evaluation The wheelchair (WC) is one of the most important examples of mobility-assistive equipment (MAE) available to patients with impaired mobility. Proper e ... Read the Article 1.5 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Second Impact Syndrome Second impact syndrome (SIS), also known as repetitive head injury syndrome, describes a condition in which individual experiences a second head injur ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Seizure A seizure represents the uncontrolled, abnormal electrical activity of the brain that may cause changes in the level of consciousness, behavior, memor ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Serotonin Syndrome Serotonin syndrome is a potentially life-threatening condition precipitated by the use of serotonergic drugs. It may be a consequence of therapeutic m ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sevoflurane Sevoflurane is a halogenated inhalational anesthetic that is FDA approved for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia in adults and pediat ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Shy Drager Syndrome Shy Drager syndrome refers to a progressive neuromuscular disorder that affects the nervous system. It falls on the multiple system atrophy spectrum o ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sinus Arrhythmia Sinus arrhythmia is a variation of normal sinus rhythm that characteristically presents with an irregular rate in which the change in the R-R interval ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Somatosensory Evoked Potentials Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) have been in use for decades as an integral method of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring for spinal, ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spatial Neglect Spatial Neglect is a neuropsychological condition that occurs mainly due to damage to the right cerebral hemisphere after the right middle cerebral ar ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sphenopalatine Ganglion Block The sphenopalatine ganglion is an extracranial parasympathetic ganglion found within the pterygopalatine fossa of the skull. Since it was first descri ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sphenopalatine Ganglion Radiofrequency Thermocoagulation Sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) neuralgia is a complex disease characterized by chronic head and neck pain which often accompanied by autonomic features ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spina Bifida Spina Bifida is a generalized term for the neurologic condition resulting from the failure of neural tube closure of varying degrees during fetal deve ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spinal Cord Abscess Intramedullary spinal cord abscess (ISCA) is a rare central nervous system infection, associated with high mortality and neurological morbidity. A qu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spinal Cord Compression Spinal cord compression can result from a myriad of both atraumatic and traumatic causes. The spinal column is vulnerable to a variety of compressive ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spinal Cord Infarction This activity provides a comprehensive review of spinal cord infarction. It discusses the vascular anatomy of the spinal cord, including both the arte ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spinal Cord Injuries Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a serious medical condition, which often results in severe morbidity and permanent disability. It occurs when the axons of ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spinal Cord Ischemia Spinal cord ischemia and infarction occur less frequently than cerebral infarction but result in significant mortality, disability, and reduced qualit ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spinal Cord Stimulation In the middle of the spectrum of increasingly invasive pain treatment modalities, lies spinal cord stimulation (SCS), also referred to as dorsal colum ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spinal Cord Stimulator Implant Spinal cord stimulator implantation is an essential procedure for the treatment of chronic neuropathic pain. In select patient's spinal stimulators ca ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spinal Dysraphism And Myelomeningocele Spinal dysraphism is a congenital abnormality that results in an abnormal structure in the spine, including the bony structure, the spinal cord, and t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spinal Epidural Abscess Spinal epidural abscess is an infection of the central nervous system that classically presents with midline back pain, fever, and neurologic deficits ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spinal Hemangioma Spinal hemangiomas are the most common primary tumor of the spine. These lesions are of vascular origin and usually involve a proliferation of normal ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spinal Metastasis Spinal metastases are the most common tumors of the spine. These are more commonly found as bone metastasis and may present with symptoms of spinal ca ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spinal Opioids In Anesthetic Practice Spinal opioids for use in anesthesia offers several advantages to systemic pain management. This occurs mainly through the mechanism of action when pl ... Read the Article 1.5 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spinal Osteotomy Spinal osteotomy is an umbrella term for techniques used by spinal surgeons to correct spinal deformity. They can be performed on pediatric or adult p ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spinal Shock Spinal shock is a result of severe spinal cord injury. It usually requires high-impact, direct trauma that leads to spinal cord injury and spinal shoc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spinal Stenosis Spinal stenosis is a condition characterized by the compression of the nerve roots by a number of pathologic factors, leading to symptoms such as pain ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spinal Stenosis And Neurogenic Claudication Approximately 90 percent of the population will present with low back pain at some point in their lifetime. Spinal stenosis is a condition that is cau ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spine Sagittal Balance The spine and the body function within a cone of equilibrium with the focus of maintaining sagittal and coronal alignment with minimum energy expendit ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spondylolisthesis Spondylolisthesis is a condition that occurs when one vertebral body slips with respect to the adjacent vertebral body causing radicular or mechanical ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spondylolysis Spondylolysis is a unilateral or bilateral defect in the region of the pars interarticularis, (isthmus or bone bridge between the inferior and superio ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) presents with postural headache and low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The underlying cause is usually a CSF le ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Status Epilepticus Status epilepticus is a neurological emergency requiring immediate evaluation and management to prevent significant morbidity or mortality. Previously ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Stellate Ganglion Blocks Stellate ganglion block (SGB) is used for the treatment of many medical conditions including complex regional pain syndrome and peripheral vascular di ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Steppage Gait Steppage gait is an entity that is not too commonly seen in primary care settings. The etiology of this disorder is multifactorial. The pathology and ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Stereotactic Radiosurgery Stereotactic radiosurgery is a type of radiation therapy that is increasingly an option within neurosurgery in the treatment of tumors, vascular patho ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Straight Leg Raise Test The straight leg raise test, also called the Lasegue test, is a fundamental maneuver during the physical examination of a patient with lower back pain ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Strangulation Injuries Strangulation injuries occur when external forces are applied to the neck leading to a variety of traumatic pathology. If the injury is severe enough ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Subarachnoid hemorrhages are life-threatening and result from the accumulation of blood between the arachnoid and pia mater. The incidence of subarach ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Subaxial Cervical Spine Fractures The subaxial cervical spine consists of levels C3 through C7 and includes both the bony anatomy as well as the ligamentous anatomy. Injuries to the su ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Subdural Empyema Intracranial subdural empyema is a loculated collection of pus in the subdural space between the dura mater and the arachnoid. It is a serious conditi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Subdural Hematoma A subdural hematoma, as its name implies, forms because of an abnormal collection of blood under the dura mater. This is one of the intracranial injur ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Subfalcine Herniation Herniation occurs when brain tissue is displaced across a structure within the cranium. Subfalcine herniation is the most common form of brain herniat ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Suboccipital Puncture Suboccipital puncture is a procedure that was developed at the beginning of the last century. It was designed to obtain cerebrospinal fluid for diagno ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Succinylcholine Chloride Succinylcholine chloride is a short-acting depolarizing neuromuscular blockade that is approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Superior Ophthalmic Vein Cannulation for Carotid Cavernous Fistula The superior ophthalmic vein (SOV) approach for embolization of carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCFs) was first described over 25 years ago. Carotid-caver ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sural Nerve Biopsy Peripheral neuropathy is a condition present in a wide range of etiologies. Of these etiologies, diabetes remains the most common cause of peripheral ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sural Nerve Graft Peripheral nerve injuries are a frequent condition commonly developed as a consequence of trauma. They may occur due to various mechanisms including l ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sympathetic Nerve Block Sympathetic blocks are widely used to treat visceral, ischemic, neuropathic, and sympathetically mediated pain, as well as many other conditions. Most ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone ADH release (SIADH) is a condition defined by the unsuppressed release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) fr ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Syphilis Syphilis is a systemic, bacterial infection caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum. Due to its many protean clinical manifestations, it has been ... Read the Article 2.75 46 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Syringomyelia Syringomyelia is a neurologic condition caused by the presence of a fluid-filled cavity within the spinal cord parenchyma or central canal. It typical ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tapeworm Cestodes are flat, parasitic, hermaphroditic tapeworms with complex life cycles that infect animals, including humans. Three cestodes that cause human ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Temporal Arteritis Temporal arteritis (TA), also called giant cell arteritis (GCA) or cranial arteritis, is a systemic inflammatory vasculitis of medium and large-sized ... Read the Article 2 28 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Temporal Fracture The temporal bone is the thickest bone in the body, requiring significant force to fracture. Such high-velocity head injuries carry the risk of signif ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Temporal Seizure Temporal lobe epilepsy is the commonest seizure disorder and affects approximately fifty million people worldwide. The primary objective of this activ ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tensor Tympani Syndrome Tensor tympani syndrome, also known as the tensor tympani myoclonus, is a rare form of objective pulsatile tinnitus which includes tensor tympani-asso ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tetanus Tetanus is an infection characterized by muscle spasms and lockjaw, also called trismus. Toxins produced by Clostridium tetani are responsible for the ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thalamic Pain Syndrome Thalamic pain syndrome is a chronic and disability neuropathic pain disorder seen following a cerebrovascular accident of the thalamus. This activity ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thoracic Discogenic Syndrome Symptomatic thoracic discogenic pain syndrome (TDPS) is a rare phenomenon making it challenging to diagnose. The rarity of TDPS is attributed to the p ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) manifests when pressures in the thoracic outlet increase to the point of impinging vessels or nerves. TOS presents in a ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thoracolumbar Spine Fracture The T10-L2 thoracolumbar region is the most common area of injury to the spine from trauma due to the specific biomechanics of this segment of the spi ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thrombin Thrombin is a topical hemostatic agent used to control and minimize blood loss during surgical procedures, is utilized in conjunction or as an alterna ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thrombocytopenia Thrombocytopenia is a platelet count below the lower limit of normal, i.e., 150000/microliter (for adults). This activity reviews the etiology, evalua ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Todd Paresis Todd paresis, also known as Todd's paralysis or Todd's palsy, is a common syndrome associated with weakness or paralysis in part or all of the body af ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tolcapone Tolcapone is a medication used in the management and treatment of Parkinson disease. It is in the catechol-O-methyl transferase inhibitor class of dru ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tolosa-Hunt Syndrome Tolosa Hunt syndrome (THS), also known as painful ophthalmoplegia, recurrent ophthalmoplegia, or ophthalmoplegia syndrome, is described as severe and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tonsillar Herniation Tonsillar herniation is the movement of brain tissue from one intracranial compartment to another, specifically the movement of the cerebellar tonsils ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Topical, Local, and Regional Anesthesia and Anesthetics Nerve impulse transmission occurs when voltage-gated sodium channels on the neuronal membrane open, allowing a massive influx of sodium. This causes m ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Torticollis Torticollis is a common diagnosis, and estimates are that 90 percent of individuals will exhibit at least one episode of torticollis throughout their ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tracheal Intubation Medications Endotracheal intubation is indicated in many clinical settings, such as impending respiratory failure and when protecting the patient airway. The foll ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tracheomalacia Tracheomalacia is a condition that is characterized by excessive collapsibility of the trachea. Depending on the severity of the disease, patients’ sy ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tracheostomy A tracheostomy (or tracheotomy, while there are technical differences, these terms are colloquially used interchangeably. For the purposes of this art ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tracheostomy Tube Change Tracheostomy is a procedure where an artificial airway is established surgically or percutaneously in the cervical trachea. This activity describes th ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Transsphenoidal Hypophysectomy This activity describes transsphenoidal hypophysectomy, a surgical procedure for resection of tumors of the pituitary gland, along with the relevant a ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Transtentorial Herniation A transtentorial herniation is the movement of brain tissue from one intracranial compartment to another. This includes uncal, central, and upward her ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Trauma Neurological Exam The neurological examination in the setting of trauma is a systematic evaluation of important clinical signs that provide evidence to help determine f ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Trauma Organ Procurement Organ transplantation is defined as removal of organ from one person ( donor) to placement into another person who is called recipient.Transplantation ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Traumatic Brain Injury Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can result from trauma ranging from a simple blow to the head to a penetrating injury to the brain. In the United States, ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Traumatic Lumbar Spondylolisthesis Traumatic lumbar spondylolisthesis, also known as traumatic lumbar locked facet syndrome, is an acute anterior shift of a lumbar vertebral body (L1 an ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Trigeminal Neuralgia Trigeminal neuralgia is one of the most painful neurological condition and is often described as 'lightning bolt' stuck on the face or a stabbing sens ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Trigeminal Neuropathy Trigeminal neuralgia (TN), also known as tic douloureux, is the most common neuropathic pain involving the craniofacial region. It is characterized by ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tuberculous Meningitis Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is a manifestation of extrapulmonary tuberculosis caused by the seeding of the meninges with the bacilli of Mycobacterium ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tuberous Sclerosis Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder that affects multiple systems. It is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion and is characte ... Read the Article 2.25 34 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Turcot Syndrome Turcot syndrome is the association of primary brain tumors with colorectal cancer. Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) and familial ade ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ultrasound Guided Serratus Anterior Blocks Approximately 10 percent of injured patients presenting to the emergency department are found to have rib fractures. Rib fractures are associated with ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Uncal Herniation Uncal herniation occurs when rising intracranial pressure causes portions of the brain to move from one intracranial compartment to another. It is a l ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Unilateral Diaphragmatic Paralysis Unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis is a condition caused when one side of the diaphragm becomes weak or paralyzed. There are many possible causes for ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Unilateral Vocal Cord Paralysis Unilateral vocal cord paralysis (UVCP) presents with dysphonia, shortness of breath and swallowing difficulty. It occurs secondary to damage to the re ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis Vocal fold immobility is a broad term that can be used to describe the abnormal movement of the true vocal folds. It can be unilateral, where only one ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Upper Limb Amputation Upper extremity amputations are a procedure commonly done in a variety of circumstances including infection, trauma, cancer, disease progression or co ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vagus Nerve Stimulator This activity outlines the indications for the use of a vagal nerve stimulator. And also highlights the role of the interprofessional team in evaluati ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vascular Reperfusion Injury The article describes that vascular reperfusion injury is a common complication encountered in clinical settings; post-myocardial infarction, cerebral ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Venous Gas Embolism A venous gas embolism is an abnormal collection of gas which forms a bubble in the systemic venous circulation, which can at as an embolus and affect ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Venous Sinus Thrombosis Venous sinus thromboses are venous blood clots of the major veins of the brain. They can be provoked or unprovoked, and the signs and symptoms thereof ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ventilation Obesity-Hypoventilation Syndrome The prevalence of obesity in the United States has doubled since 1980 and currently, 35 percent of this country's population suffers from obesity. Obe ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ventilator Complications Mechanical ventilation is an essential medical intervention in the context of critical illness. However, this intervention is associated with the risk ... Read the Article 1.5 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ventilator Management Invasive mechanical ventilation is an intervention that is frequently used in acutely ill patients requiring either respiratory support or airway prot ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ventral Cord Syndrome This activity educates the healthcare professionals on the etiology, epidemiology, evaluation, and treatment of Ventral Cord Syndrome. The goal of thi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ventriculitis Ventriculitis is the inflammation of the ependymal lining of the cerebral ventricles, usually secondary to infection (for example meningitis, device-r ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt A ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt is a cerebral shunt used to treat hydrocephalus. The shunt removes excess cerebrospinal fluid. In pediatric patients ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ventriculostomy Ventriculostomy is one of the most common neurosurgical procedures. patients treated with this procedure need long-term follow-up and careful adjustme ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Verapamil The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved indications for verapamil include angina (chronic stable, vasospastic or prinzmetal variant), unstable ... Read the Article 2 26 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vertebral Artery Dissection Vertebral artery dissection (VAD) is a rare cause of stroke in the general population, but one of the more common causes of stroke in patients younger ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vertebral Artery Injury Injuries to the vertebral artery may either be traumatic or spontaneous. Traumatic injuries are most frequently due to blunt injury to the head and ne ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vertebral Augmentation Kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty are the most common forms of vertebral augmentation. They can be defined as the injection of bone cement, often under f ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vertebral Compression Fractures Vertebral compression fractures of the spinal column occur secondary to an axial/compressive load with resultant biomechanical failure of the bone, re ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vertebral Fracture Vertebral fractures can be the result of trauma and metastatic disease but in most cases are the result of osteoporosis. This activity describes the ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vertebral Osteomyelitis Vertebral osteomyelitis is challenging to diagnose in its early stages and unfortunately can lead to significant morbidity in late stages. Systematic ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency Vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI) represents inadequate blood flow through the posterior circulation of the brain, which is supplied by the two vert ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vertebrobasilar Stroke Vertebrobasilar strokes are interruptions of blood flow to the posterior circulation. While these types of strokes are relatively uncommon, they are a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vertigo Vertigo is a common presenting complaint in primary care and emergency departments. It is a symptom of vestibular dysfunction and has been described a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vestibular Dysfunction Vestibular dysfunction is a disturbance in the body's balance system due to peripheral or central causes. The symptoms of peripheral and central vesti ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vidian Neurectomy This activity describes vidian neurectomy, a surgical procedure aimed to treat refractory vasomotor rhinitis, along with the relevant anatomy, the ind ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vitamin B1 Thiamine Deficiency Thiamine, or vitamin B1, was the first vitamin identified to be identified. It functions as a catalyst in the generation of energy through decarboxyla ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vitamin B12 Deficiency Vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin that is derived from animal products such as red meat, dairy, and eggs. Intrinsic fac ... Read the Article 2 28 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vitamin C Deficiency Vitamin C deficiency, also known as scurvy, is a disease primarily associated with socioeconomic status and access to food. Signs and symptoms are oft ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vitamin D Vitamin D is labeled as the "sunshine vitamin," as it is produced in the skin on sun exposure. Vitamin D is required to maintain serum calcium concent ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vitamin K Vitamin K is a medication used in the management and treatment of bleeding due to the coagulation disorder caused by warfarin and vitamin K deficiency ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vitamin K Deficiency Vitamin K refers to a group of fat-soluble compounds involved in coagulation, bone development, and cardiovascular health. Vitamin K deficiency can co ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Von Hippel Lindau Syndrome Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome is an autosomal dominant disease affecting several organ systems. The disease is characterized by the growth of cysts ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Waddell Triad Waddell’s triad represents a pediatric emergency. The triad comprises of three distinct features seen in pediatric pedestrian patients subject to blun ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wallenberg Syndrome Wallenberg syndrome is also known as lateral medullary syndrome and posterior inferior cerebellar artery syndrome. This neurological disorder is assoc ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Weber Syndrome Weber syndrome is a midbrain stroke characterized by crossed hemiplegia along with oculomotor nerve deficits. This activity reviews the etiology and t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Weber Test The Weber test is a useful, quick, and simple screening test for the evaluation of hearing loss. The test can detect unilateral conductive and sensori ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Werdnig Hoffmann Disease Werdnig-Hoffmann disease is a type of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). It is the most common type of SMA and accounts for about 80% of individuals with ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wernicke Aphasia Aphasia is an impairment of language function which is localized to the dominant cerebral hemisphere. Wernicke aphasia is characterized by impaired la ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wernicke Encephalopathy Wernicke encephalopathy is an acute neurological condition characterized by a clinical triad of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and confusion. This disease i ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is a condition caused by a deficiency of thiamine or vitamin B1. Patients classically present with a clinical triad of oph ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wound Dressings Wounds can be present over different anatomical parts of the body. However, the basic principles of choosing a wound dressing remain the same. Choosin ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wrist Arthrodesis Wrist arthrodesis, also known as wrist fusion, is a procedure in which the wrist joint is immobilized by fusing the radius to the carpal bones. It may ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wyburn-Mason Syndrome Wyburn-Mason syndrome is a rare nonhereditary congenital phakomatoses which presents with multiple arteriovenous malformations that tend to be large a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Xanthochromia Xanthochromia is the presence of bilirubin in the cerebrospinal fluid and is sometimes the only sign of an acute subarachnoid hemorrhage. However, it ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Zygomatic Arch Fracture The zygoma is the second most common fracture of the face, just behind nasal fractures, which can cause significant cosmetic and functional deformity. ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO

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