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Pathology-Neuropathology

Pathology-Neuropathology

Stay up to date on the latest medical knowledge with this Pathology-Neuropathology activity. In this online self-assessment activity, you'll read our reference articles and test your knowledge with 148 activities in Pathology-Neuropathology for 133.5 total CME hours.


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Featured Article Activities

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Adverse Events

Adverse events (AE) occur frequently in our medical system and at least one in ten patients are affected. An AE is a har ...
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Hours: 1

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Complex Partial Seizure

Complex partial seizures, also known as focal impaired awareness seizures or focal onset impaired awareness seizures, re ...
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Hours: 1

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Kuru

Kuru disease is an infectious, acquired, non-immunogenic, fatal neurodegenerative prion disease. It progresses rapidly w ...
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Hours: 0.75

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Diabetic Amyotrophy

Diabetic amyotrophy, better known as diabetic lumbosacral radiculoplexus neuropathy (DLRPN), is a rare disorder englobed ...
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Hours: 0.75

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Bacterial Meningitis

Bacterial meningitis is an infection of the meninges that results in inflammation. It is a serious and life-threatening ...
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Hours: 1.5

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Xanthochromia

Xanthochromia is the presence of bilirubin in the cerebrospinal fluid and is sometimes the only sign of an acute subarac ...
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Hours: 1

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Pathology-Neuropathology Activities

Title Description Hours Questions
Acoustic Neuroma Acoustic neuromas are tumors that develop from the sheath of Schwann cells. They tend to occupy the cerebellopontine angle and are usually found adjac ... Read the Article 1.25 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adrenoleukodystrophy Adrenoleukodystrophy is a peroxisomal disorder resulting from abnormal metabolism of the very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA). It is classified into di ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adverse Events Adverse events (AE) occur frequently in our medical system and at least one in ten patients are affected. An AE is a harmful and negative outcome that ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Akinesia Akinesia or "absent movement" is a clinical sign that could be indicative of a number of disorders, depending on the age group of the patient. The var ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alexander Disease Alexander disease is a relatively rare leukodystrophy that generally presents in the infantile period, although other variants are occasionally seen. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as “Lou Gehrig’s disease,” is a neurodegenerative disease of the motor neurons. This activity reviews ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anterior Interosseous Syndrome Anterior interosseus syndrome is an isolated palsy of flexor pollicus longus, the index and long fingers of the flexor digitorum profundus, and the pr ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Apraxia of Lid Opening Apraxia of eyelid opening is defined as a non-motor abnormality characterized by the patient's difficulty in eyelid elevation bilaterally. There is an ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arbovirus Encephalitides Arboviruses refer to a diverse group of viruses that are transmitted via mosquitos, ticks, or sandflies and are capable of causing a wide range of dis ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arteriovenous Malformation Of The Brain Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are a developmental anomaly of the vascular system, consisting of tangles of poorly formed blood vessels in which t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arteriovenous Malformations Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are abnormal fistulas between arteries and veins without an intervening capillary bed. High arterial flow directly ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Astrocytoma Astrocytoma originates in astrocytes, which are a kind of glial cells in the cerebrum which are star-shaped. It is the most common glioma, usually aff ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Axonotmesis This activity reviews the etiology, epidemiology, anatomy, physiology, and prognosis of peripheral nerve injury with a particular focus on axonotmesis ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacterial Meningitis Bacterial meningitis is an infection of the meninges that results in inflammation. It is a serious and life-threatening condition that requires prompt ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Basilar Skull Fractures Basilar skull fractures, usually caused by substantial blunt force trauma, involve at least one of the bones that compose the base of the skull. Basil ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Birth Asphyxia Perinatal asphyxia is a lack of blood flow or gas exchange to or from the fetus in the period immediately before, during, or after the birth process. ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brain Herniation Brain herniation, also called brain code, requires early diagnosis and prompt management in order to prevent irreversible pathological cascades that e ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brain Metastasis Brain metastases are a common complication of cancer and the most common type of brain tumor. Anywhere from 10% to 26% of patients who die from their ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brain Trauma Brain trauma or traumatic brain injury (TBI) results from a blow, bump, jolt, or penetrating injury to the head that disrupts the normal function of t ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carcinoid Tumors Carcinoid tumors are slow-growing tumors arising from neuroendocrine cells and capable of secreting a variety of peptides and neuroamines. The common ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cavum Veli Interpositi The velum interpositum (VI) is a membrane resulting from the superposition of two layers of the tela choroidea of the third ventricle demarcating a po ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebellopontine Angle Cancer The cerebellopontine angle (CPA) is an important landmark anatomically and clinically. The most common lesions at the CPA are vestibular schwannoma, m ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is a type of cerebrovascular disorder characterized by the accumulation of amyloid beta-peptide within the leptomeninges a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebral Contusion Traumatic brain injury includes several types of insults to the parenchyma of the brain. One of the most severe forms of damage is a hemorrhagic cereb ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebral Ischemia Cerebral ischemia is a common mechanism of acute brain injury that results from impaired blood flow to the brain. Cerebral ischemia represents a medic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebral Palsy Cerebral palsy is a group of permanent disorders affecting the development of movement and causing a limitation of activity. Non-progressive disturban ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Charcot Marie Tooth Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is the commonest inherited neuromuscular disorder. It affects the peripheral nerves and leads to progressive weaknes ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Childhood Brain Tumors Pediatric brain tumors are the most common type of solid childhood cancer and only second to leukemia as a cause of pediatric malignancies. They are c ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-Cell Therapy Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are recombinant receptors for antigens which redirect the specificity and function of T lymphocytes and/or other imm ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Choroid Plexus Papilloma Choroid plexus papillomas (CPPs) are rare central nervous system tumors. They may be seen at any age, but are more common in infants. Their site of oc ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy can be caused by multiples diseases, from infectious as well as immunology diseases. It is o ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Pain Syndrome Chronic pain is a leading chief complaint in an adult ambulatory care setting. Unfortunately, chronic non-cancer pain is often poorly understood by ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy Sports-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) has become increasingly popular in the scientific literature over the past few decades. However, the first ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Complex Partial Seizure Complex partial seizures, also known as focal impaired awareness seizures or focal onset impaired awareness seizures, refers to focal seizures that st ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Muscular Dystrophy Congenital muscular dystrophy is one of the variants of muscle weakness disorders presenting early in life during infancy and soon after birth. The di ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Corpus Callosum Agenesis Corpus callosum is the largest white matter structure containing 200 million axons, connecting the two hemispheres of the brain. Agenesis of the corpu ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cowden Disease Cowden disease, also known as Cowden syndrome or multiple hamartoma syndrome, is an uncommon autosomal dominant genodermatosis and is a member of the ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Craniopharyngioma Craniopharyngioma is a rare, virtually benign tumor of the central nervous system (CNS). It is a partly cystic embryonic malformation that can occur i ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rare, fatal degenerative brain disorder caused by prion proteins. It belongs to a group of transmissible spongifo ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cytomegalovirus Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a wide-spread virus, with manifestations ranging from asymptomatic to severe end-organ dysfunction in immunocompromised patie ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dentatorubral Pallidoluysian Atrophy Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) is a progressive, autosomal dominant disorder with symptoms and severity that vary with the age of onset. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dermatomyositis Dermatomyositis is a rare condition that causes muscle inflammation. It presents with symmetric proximal muscle weakness, skin rash, and extramacular ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetic Amyotrophy Diabetic amyotrophy, better known as diabetic lumbosacral radiculoplexus neuropathy (DLRPN), is a rare disorder englobed in the diabetic neuropathy sp ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diffuse Axonal Injury Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a type of traumatic brain injury (TBI) that results from a blunt injury to the brain. In the United States, traumatic b ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is an aggressive type of childhood cancer that forms in the brainstem. They are very rare and almost always oc ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diffusion Tensor Imaging Diffusion tensor imaging is an advanced magnetic resonance imaging modality that uses the Brownian motion of water molecules to provide data for image ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Unfortunately, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is not only one of the most severe forms of inherited muscular dystrophies but also the most common h ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Duret Hemorrhages Duret hemorrhages are attributed to descending transtentorial herniation from any cause. It can be challenging to distinguish Duret hemorrhages from p ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dysphagia Dysphagia is defined as objective impairment or difficulty in swallowing, resulting in an abnormal delay in the transit of a liquid or solid bolus. Th ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
EEG Localization Related Epilepsies An electroencephalogram (EEG) is essential to define an epileptic syndrome, especially a focal epileptic seizure. It also aids in both localizing and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
EEG Triphasic Waves Triphasic waves are abnormal electroencephalogram (EEG) waveforms seen with a multitude of clinical conditions including encephalopathy and structural ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Electrodiagnostic Evaluation Of Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy Electrodiagnostic testing is an important tool for the diagnosis of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP). This activity describes th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Electrodiagnostic Evaluation Of Critical Illness Myopathy As medicine advances, more critically ill patients are surviving longer ICU admission. Many of these patients will have difficulty weaning off the ven ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Electrodiagnostic Evaluation Of Critical Illness Neuropathy Although not often performed, the gold standard for the diagnosis of critical illness neuropathy remains electrodiagnostic testing, which includes ner ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Electrodiagnostic Evaluation Of Motor Neuron Disease Motor neuron diseases are neurological disorders that affect the nerves in the brain and spinal cord. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Electrodiagnostic Evaluation Of Peripheral Neuropathy The diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy can be supported by electrodiagnostic testing, which includes nerve conduction studies (NCS) and needle electro ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Encephalocele Encephalocele is usually a congenital type of neural tube defect, where a sac containing brain/meninges/cerebrospinal fluid forms outside the skull du ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidermoid Cancer Epidermoid tumors are congenital lesions that arise from ectodermal cells misplaced during the closure of the neural tube in the process of embryogene ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fabry Disease Fabry disease is a multi-systemic, X-linked recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by decreased activity of alpha-galactosidase A and results in l ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy is a genetically acquired disease that leads to progressive muscle weakness and severely decreased functional c ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fahr Syndrome Fahr disease is a rare neurological condition characterized by abnormal idiopathic calcification of basal ganglia and commonly has an autosomal domina ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Friedreich Ataxia Friedreich ataxia is an inherited disease affecting the nervous system, which produces progressive ataxia, weakness, and sensory deficits. It is inher ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Frontotemporal Lobe Dementia Frontotemporal dementia is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of intellectual functions, such as memory problems, impaired abstract th ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastrinoma Gastrinomas are neuroendocrine tumors characterized by the secretion of gastrin with resultant excessive gastric acid production causing severe peptic ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Germ Cell Seminoma Germinoma is an uncommon pediatric brain tumor that is morphologically identical to its gonadal counterpart: testicular seminoma and ovarian dysgermin ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gerstmann Syndrome Gerstmann syndrome is a rare neurological disorder consisting of a tetrad of symptoms which include impairment in performing calculations (acalculia), ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glossopharyngeal Neuralgia Glossopharyngeal neuralgia is a rare painful condition characterized by brief paroxysmal painful attacks in the glossopharyngeal nerve distribution. P ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hallervorden Spatz Disease Hallervorden-Spatz disease now known as pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) is a rare autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disord ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Herpes Simplex Encephalitis Herpes simplex encephalitis is caused by Herpes Simplex Virus type 1(HSV-1) or type 2 (HSV-2). HSV-1 causes encephalitis in children beyond the neonat ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
HIV Encephalitis HIV encephalitis is a complication of HIV infection, which presents with neurocognitive dysfunction of varying severity. Almost half of HIV-infected p ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
HIV Neurocognitive Disorders Patients with Human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV infection) have been noted to have various forms of neuropsychiatric illnesses. Notably, neu ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Holmes Tremor Holmes tremor can present at rest or with movement, usually with a sustained posture. It is slow (< 4.5 Hz) but with a large amplitude. It has also be ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Human T Cell Lymphotropic Virus Human T Cell lymphotropic viruses (HTLV) are a family of retroviruses. Currently, four types of this virus have been identified which are known to inf ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Huntington Disease Huntington disease (HD), a neurodegenerative autosomal dominant disorder, is characterized by involuntary choreatic movements with cognitive and behav ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hydranencephaly Hydranencephaly is a rare congenital abnormality in which the cerebral hemispheres are absent with the basal ganglia, brainstem and meninges preserved ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hydrocephalus Hydrocephalus is the symptomatic accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid inside the cerebral ventricles. It has complex pathogenesis and different causes. ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Treatment Of Brain Radiation Necrosis Delayed effects of radiation therapy can include radiation necrosis of the brain, which generally occurs in the area of the brain where the tumor was ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperesthesia Hyperesthesia occurs as a symptom of neuropathic pain and can be present in any disease process that affects the somatosensory nervous system. Treatme ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis Hypokalemic periodic paralysis is a rare channelopathy caused by the skeletal muscle ion channel mutations, commonly calcium channel and less commonly ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypothalamic Dysfunction The hypothalamus is the central command center for hormonal regulation, and its effects are primarily carried out by the hormones released from the hy ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypothalamic Hamartoma Hypothalamic hamartomas are congenital non-progressive lesions in the hypothalamus. These lesions usually develop a disabling course presenting with m ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypotonia Hypotonia is an easily recognizable entity but determining the etiology is a challenging task for a clinician given its vast differential. Systematica ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Interferon Interferons are currently used clinically to treat viral infections such as hepatitis C, cancers including non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and autoimmune dise ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intracranial Hypotension Intracranial hypotension (ICH) is defined as a CSF pressure less than 60 mm H2O and generally causes a postural headache in patients with the conditio ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intraventricular Meningioma Intraventricular meningiomas show similar characteristics to those found in the extra-axial space. Their cells of origin are the same. However, extra- ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Kayser-Fleischer Ring Kayser–Fleischer (KF) rings are a common ophthalmologic finding in patients with Wilson disease. Initially thought to be due to the accumulation of si ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Klippel Feil Syndrome Klippel-Feil syndrome presents with an abnormal fusion of 2 or more bones in the cervical spine. This creates a characteristic appearance of a short n ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Korsakoff Syndrome Korsakoff syndrome is a chronic neuropsychiatric syndrome that is caused by the deficiency of thiamine, also known as vitamin B1. This deficiency lead ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Kuru Kuru disease is an infectious, acquired, non-immunogenic, fatal neurodegenerative prion disease. It progresses rapidly with cerebellar and extrapyrami ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
La Crosse Encephalitis La Crosse encephalitis is a relatively uncommon arboviral illness predominantly seen in the pediatric population but may also affect adults. Though no ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Leprosy Leprosy is also referred to as Hansen disease. It is a chronic granulomatous infection generally caused by Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepr ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Livedoid Vasculopathy Livedoid vasculopathy is a rare vasculopathy that is typically characterized by bilateral lower limb lesions. Increased thrombotic activity and decrea ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lymphocytic Hypophysitis Lymphocytic hypophysitis is a rare, autoimmune condition of the pituitary gland. It causes the pituitary gland to be infiltrated by lymphocytes and ca ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Melanotic Neuroectodermal Tumor Of Infancy Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy (MNTI) is a rapidly growing benign tumor arising from the neural crest cells. It typically affects infants ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Melas Syndrome Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) is a mitochondrial disease primarily affecting the nervous system an ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Menkes Kinky Hair Disease Menkes kinky hair disease is a rare X-linked recessive progressive multisystemic disease of copper metabolism. Patients usually exhibit a severe clini ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is the most common form of focal epilepsy. This activity outlines the etiopathology, clinical presentation, diagn ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Metachromatic Leukodystrophy Metachromatic leukodystrophy is a rare lysosomal storage disease caused due to deficient activity of arylsulfatase A. It follows an autosomal recessiv ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Miller Fisher Syndrome Guillain-Barré syndrome is a broad category that encompasses several types of acute immune-mediated polyneuropathies, the most common of which is acut ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Myoclonic Epilepsy and Ragged Red Fibers Myoclonic epilepsy with red-ragged fibers (MERRF) is a rare multisystem mitochondrial disease with predominant progressive myoclonus. It is common in ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Myoclonus Myoclonus is defined as rapid, brief, jerky, or shock-like movements involving muscle or group of muscles. Among all hyperkinetic movement disorders, ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Myxopapillary Ependymoma Myxopapillary ependymoma is a distinct subtype of spinal cord ependymomas that has a predilection for the lumbosacral region. To achieve satisfactory ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nelson Syndrome Nelson syndrome or post adrenalectomy syndrome was first reported in 1958 by Dr. Don H. Nelson, an endocrinology fellow at the time. This clinical syn ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neonatal Meningitis Bacterial meningitis during the neonatal period remains a highly devastating condition, with a morbidity rate of 20 to 60 percent. The nationwide mort ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neurilemmoma The vast majority of tumors of the peripheral nervous system arise from the cells of Schwann, rather than from the nerve cells themselves. Schwann cel ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neuroacanthocytosis Neuroacanthocytosis refers to a group of inherited genetic disorders resulting in a combination of misshapen red blood cells (acanthocytes) and progre ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neuroma A neuroma is a benign tumor of nerve tissue that is often associated with pain or in specific types of various other symptoms. Neuromas most commonly ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neuropathy About 2.4 percent of the population is affected by peripheral neuropathy. The prevalence increases to 8 percent in older populations. Peripheral neuro ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neuroplasticity Neuroplasticity, also known as neural plasticity or brain plasticity, is a process that involves adaptive structural and functional changes to the bra ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neurosarcoidosis Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease that results in the formation of granulomas which classically are non-caseating granulomas, that may be found throug ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Non-arteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy occurs due to decreased blood supply to the optic nerve head. It is divided into a) Arteritic anterior ischemic opt ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Oligodendroglioma Oligodendroglioma (OG) is a type of diffusely infiltrating glioma and constitutes approximately 5% of primary intracranial tumors. They often involve ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Optic Nerve Glioma Optic pathway gliomas are benign CNS tumors that primarily affect children. Although typically slow growing, the location of these tumors makes resect ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Paraneoplastic Encephalomyelitis Paraneoplastic Encephalomyelitis is a subtype of paraneoplastic neurological syndromes. This group of neurological disorders is associated with antibo ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Paraneoplastic Limbic Encephalitis Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis is thought to be caused by an onconeural antibody to cancer that cross-reacts with self-antigen in the neurons and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Paraneoplastic Syndromes Paraneoplastic syndromes are rare disorders with complex systemic clinical manifestations due to underlying malignancy. In paraneoplastic syndromes, ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pediatric Craniopharyngioma Pediatric craniopharyngioma could be considered one of the most complex neurosurgical pathologies in the pediatric population. The tumor's proximity t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pelizaeus-Merzbacher Disease Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) is a demyelinating disorder of the CNS belonging to the group of hypomyelination leukodystrophies. This activity de ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pfeiffer Syndrome Pfeiffer syndrome is an inherited craniofacial disorder that is associated with primary craniosynostosis, midface hypoplasia, broad thumbs and great t ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Phenol Toxicity Phenol is a historical disinfectant with continued use in industry, laboratories, and some health care settings. Phenol is a protoplasmic poison that ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pilocytic Astrocytoma Pilocytic astrocytoma is the most common childhood brain tumor and most often found in the posterior fossa. Complete resection usually cures the patie ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Poliomyelitis Poliomyelitis (polio) is a viral disease that can range in severity from self-limiting disease to meningitis. In its most severe form, it may present ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Primary Central Nervous System Vasculitis Primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS) is a rare inflammatory disorder of the blood vessels of the brain and spinal cord occurring in ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor In 2016, the World Health Organization published a revised classification of central nervous system tumors using molecular parameters. In this classif ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Progressive Nonfluent Aphasia Aphasia is the inability to vocalize or understand the spoken or written language. Primary progressive aphasia refers to the group of neurodegenerativ ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Progressive Supranuclear Palsy Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a form of atypical parkinsonian syndrome, also known as a Parkinson-plus disorder. It is an uncommon neurologi ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rabies Rabies causes a viral encephalitis which kills up to 70000 people/year worldwide. Infected animal saliva transmits the viral encephalitis to humans. R ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder Rapid eye movement behavior disorder (RBD) is a type of parasomnia that has a strong link to neurodegenerative diseases. It can also be very disturbin ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
REM Rebound Effect REM rebound behavior refers to the increased frequency, depth, and intensity of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep following sleep deprivation or signific ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Schizencephaly Schizencephaly is a rare congenital neuronal migration disorder characterized by cleft lined by the heterotopic gray matter, which connects the surfac ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Shy Drager Syndrome Shy Drager syndrome refers to a progressive neuromuscular disorder that affects the nervous system. It falls on the multiple system atrophy spectrum o ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spinal Cord Ischemia Spinal cord ischemia and infarction occur less frequently than cerebral infarction but result in significant mortality, disability, and reduced qualit ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spinocerebellar Ataxia Ataxia is the absence of voluntary muscle coordination and loss control of movement that affects gait stability, eye movement, and speech. Spinocerebe ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Streptococcal Meningitis Streptococcal meningitis is an acute, purulent inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord caused by bacteria from the Strepto ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Subacute Necrotizing Encephalomyelopathy Subacute necrotizing encephalomyelopathy (SNE) is primarily a disease of childhood that affects the central nervous system. This is a rare condition t ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a devastating complication of the measles virus. Although it is a rare complication and the measles viru ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Subdural Hematoma A subdural hematoma, as its name implies, forms because of an abnormal collection of blood under the dura mater. This is one of the intracranial injur ... Read the Article 1.25 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Suboccipital Puncture Suboccipital puncture is a procedure that was developed at the beginning of the last century. It was designed to obtain cerebrospinal fluid for diagno ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Syphilis Syphilis is a systemic, bacterial infection caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum. Due to its many protean clinical manifestations, it has been ... Read the Article 2.5 46 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tabes Dorsalis Tabes dorsalis, one of two manifestations of late neurosyphilis, is a slowly progressive parenchymatous degenerative disease of the dorsal column and ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tardive Dystonia Tardive dystonia (TD) is one of the extrapyramidal syndromes caused by the use of dopaminergic receptor antagonists. If not recognized promptly and ap ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis is caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan. Although many people are infected worldwide, the disea ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Trinucleotide Repeat Disorders Trinucleotide repeat disorders are neuropsychiatric disorders caused due to abnormal trinucleotide repeat expansions. Accurate diagnosis, with knowled ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vascular Reperfusion Injury The article describes that vascular reperfusion injury is a common complication encountered in clinical settings; post-myocardial infarction, cerebral ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Viral Meningitis Viral meningitis is the inflammation of the meninges caused by a virus. It is most common in young children but is seen across all age groups. This ac ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid) Vitamin B5 is a medication used in the management and treatment of nutrient deficiencies. It is in the dietary supplement class of medications. This a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
White Matter Lesions White matter lesions (WMLs) are areas of abnormal myelination in the brain. These lesions are best visualized as hyperintensities on T2 weighted and F ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Xanthochromia Xanthochromia is the presence of bilirubin in the cerebrospinal fluid and is sometimes the only sign of an acute subarachnoid hemorrhage. However, it ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO

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