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Psychiatry - Consultation-Liaison

Psychiatry - Consultation-Liaison

Stay up to date on the latest medical knowledge with this Psychiatry - Consultation-Liaison activity. In this online self-assessment activity, you'll read our reference articles and test your knowledge with 410 activities in Psychiatry - Consultation-Liaison for 380 total CME hours.


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Featured Article Activities

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Caffeine Withdrawal

Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class and is one of the most widely used drug ...
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Hours: 0.75

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Transient Ischemic Attack

A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a medical emergency. It is defined as a transient episode of neurologic dysfunction ...
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Hours: 1

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Ziconotide

Ziconotide is a newer, intrathecal analgesic medication used for the treatment of chronic pain. Its FDA indication is fo ...
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Hours: 1

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Delusional Disorder

A delusion is a fixed false belief based on an inaccurate interpretation of an external reality despite evidence to the ...
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Hours: 1

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Nicotine Addiction

Nicotine addiction is a complex disorder with no easy cure. Habitual use of tobacco and tobacco products continues to be ...
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Rating: 3.00
Hours: 0.75

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Cognitive Behavior Therapy

In the 1960s, Aaron Beck developed cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) or cognitive therapy. Since then, it has been extens ...
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Hours: 0.75

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Psychiatry - Consultation-Liaison Activities

Title Description Hours Questions
3,4-Methylenedioxy-Methamphetamine This activity reviews the class 1 drug 3,4 - methylenedioxymethamphetamine, also known as MDMA, Ecstacy or Molly. The drug is known to promote a sens ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ablative Nerve Block Ablation procedures have been used to treat chronic back pain and sciatica of unknown etiology as an alternative to surgical severing the dorsal rami. ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abulia Abulia, also known as apathy, psychic akinesia, and athymia, refers to a lack of will, drive, or initiative for action, speech and thought, and is fel ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abuse and Neglect Abuse and neglect refer to the actions or inactions of an individual's caregiver or parent inflicting physical, sexual, or emotional harm on the indiv ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acetaminophen Toxicity Acetaminophen toxicity is the second most common cause of liver transplantation worldwide and the most common cause of liver transplantation in the US ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acoustic Neuroma Acoustic neuromas are tumors that develop from the sheath of Schwann cells. They tend to occupy the cerebellopontine angle and are usually found adjac ... Read the Article 1.25 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Activities of Daily Living Activities of daily living (ADLs) are essential and routine tasks that most young healthy individuals can perform without assistance. The inability to ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Intermittent Porphyria Acute intermittent porphyria is a rare autosomal dominant disease, characterized by a deficiency of hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS). It presents w ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Liver Failure Acute liver failure is defined as severe acute liver injury for fewer than twenty six weeks duration with encephalopathy and impaired synthetic functi ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Porphyria Acute porphyrias are a group of rare disorders characterized by an enzymatic defect in the heme biosynthetic pathway. Patients present with acute, deb ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Stress Disorder Acute stress disorder (ASD) was first outlined in 1994 at the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) as a new ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Addiction The laymen's definition of addiction is a "fact or condition of being addicted to a particular substance, thing, or activity." Medically it is a "chro ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Addiction Relapse Prevention Individuals recovering from various forms of addiction frequently encounter relapses that have gained acceptance as an almost inevitable part of the r ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adrenergic Drugs Adrenergic drugs are a broad class of medications that bind to adrenergic receptors throughout the body. These receptors include: alpha-1, alpha-2, be ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aggression Aggression has been treated by both medications and psychotherapy, but relapses are common. Aggressive patients frequently run into legal problems bec ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aggression In Hypothalamic Hamartoma Psychiatric symptoms are a common comorbid feature of hypothalamic hamartoma with epilepsy. They are most disabling and are a significant challenge fo ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Agitation Agitation is a nonspecific constellation of relatively unrelated behaviors that can be seen in various clinical situations, usually presenting with a ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Agnosia Agnosia is a rare disorder whereby a patient is unable to recognize and identify objects, persons, or sounds using one or more of their senses despite ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Agoraphobia Agoraphobia is the anxiety that occurs when one is in a public or crowded place, from which a potential escape is difficult, or help may not be readil ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Agranulocytosis Agranulocytosis is a condition in which the absolute neutrophil count (ANC) is less than 100 neutrophils per microlitre of the blood. Agranulocytosis ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Akathisia Akathisia is a neuropsychiatric syndrome that can occur as an adverse effect of antipsychotic medications and manifests as psychomotor restlessness. I ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Akinesia Akinesia or "absent movement" is a clinical sign that could be indicative of a number of disorders, depending on the age group of the patient. The var ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alcohol Related Psychosis Psychosis associated with alcohol can occur with acute intoxication, alcohol withdrawal, and chronic alcoholism. Alcohol-related psychosis is also kno ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alcohol Use Disorder Alcohol use disorder is very common in the United States. The cause of alcohol use disorder is not well understood, however, several factors are thou ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alcohol Withdrawal Alcohol withdrawal symptoms usually appear when an individual discontinues or reduces the intake of alcohol after a period of prolonged consumption. I ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Almotriptan Almotriptan is a medication used in the management and treatment of acute migraines. It is in the triptan 5-HT class of drugs. This activity reviews t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alosetron Alosetron is a medication used in the management and treatment of severe diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D). It is in the class of ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alprazolam Alprazolam, known by various trade names, is the most commonly prescribed psychotropic medication in the United States. Alprazolam is frequently presc ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alzheimer Disease Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common cause of a decline in cognitive ability. It is a neurodegenerative disorder that usually affects people over ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amantadine Amantadine is an antiviral agent with mild antiparkinsonian activity. Amantadine was used in the early 2000s for Influenza A treatment. However, high ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aminoglycosides While aminoglycosides are an older class of medication, they continue to be clinically valuable. Aminoglycosides have a broad spectrum of activity cov ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amoxapine Amoxapine is an FDA approved drug belonging to the class of second-generation tricyclic dibenzoxazepine antidepressants. Generally, it is reserved for ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amphetamine Amphetamine is a medication used in the management and treatment of ADHD and narcolepsy. It is classified as a central nervous system stimulant. This ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amphetamine Related Psychiatric Disorders Amphetamines belong to a class of compounds called phenethylamines which induce catecholaminergic effects in the CNS and peripheral circulation. Recre ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amphetamine Toxicity Amphetamine abuse is widespread, and overdose is associated with significant and negative impacts on the cardiovascular and neurological systems. Pati ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anorexia Nervosa Anorexia nervosa is defined by a restriction of energy intake relative to requirements, which leads to significantly low body weight. Patients with th ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anosmia Anosmia is the inability to perceive smell/odor. It can be temporary or permanent and acquired or congenital. There are many causes. Neurological caus ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anosognosia Anosognosia is a neurological condition in which the patient is unaware of their neurological deficit or psychiatric condition. It is associated with ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anoxic Encephalopathy Anoxic encephalopathy, or hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, is a process that begins with the cessation of cerebral blood flow to brain tissue, which mos ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anticonvulsants Toxicity Anticonvulsants, or antiepileptics, are an ever-growing class of medications that act through multiple different mechanisms to control seizures. Antie ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antidepressants While antidepressants may be the drug of choice for depression, they also have FDA approval as treatments for other medical disorders. For example, an ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antiepileptic Drug Monitoring Antiepileptic drug-level monitoring has been a common clinical practice since the advent of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). The practice of maintaining AE ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis Anti NMDAR encephalitis is a relatively common autoimmune encephalitis characterized by complex neuropsychiatric features and the presence of Immunogl ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antipsychotic Medications First-generation antipsychotics are dopamine receptor antagonists (DRA) and are known as typical antipsychotics. Second-generation antipsychotics are ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antisocial Personality Disorder This activity reviews the evaluation and treatment of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). ASPD is a deeply ingrained and dysfunctional thought pro ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anxiolytics and Sedative-Hypnotics Toxicity Anxiolytics and sedative-hypnotics are widely consumed at home and in a hospital setting. This activity reviews the most commonly used agents of these ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Apraxia of Lid Opening Apraxia of eyelid opening is defined as a non-motor abnormality characterized by the patient's difficulty in eyelid elevation bilaterally. There is an ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aripiprazole Aripiprazole is a medication used in the management and treatment of schizophrenia, mania associated with bipolar I disorder, irritability associated ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Art Therapy Creative art therapy is a complementary therapy used to assist patients with serious illness to ameliorate symptom burden and adapt to the stressful l ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atomoxetine Atomoxetine is indicated for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children over the age of 6. Although atomo ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder The diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been surrounded by controversy over the last century. Over the past 30 years, how ... Read the Article 1.5 22 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atypical Antipsychotic Agents In recent years, the atypical antipsychotics or second-generation antipsychotics have become the drugs of choice for acute psychoses. They are “atypic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Auditory Hallucinations Auditory hallucinations are the sensory perceptions of hearing voices without an external stimulus. This symptom is particularly associated with schiz ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Autism Spectrum Disorder Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of rapidly growing disabilities. They are characterized by repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or ... Read the Article 1.75 26 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Autonomic Dysreflexia Autonomic dysreflexia is a condition that emerges after a spinal cord injury, usually when the injury has occurred above the T6 level. The higher the ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Avoidant Personality Disorder Avoidant personality disorder is a chronic and pervasive maladaptive behavioral pattern. The onset is insidious and affects all aspects of the individ ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Azithromycin Azithromycin is an antibiotic medication used in the treatment and management of bacterial infections, including community-acquired pneumonia and sexu ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Balanoposthitis Balanoposthitis is a common disease process involving the glans penis and prepuce. It affects up to 12% to 20% of pediatric and adult males. This acti ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Barbiturate Toxicity Barbiturates are a class of sedative-hypnotic drugs. They are commonly used as antiepileptics (phenobarbital) and for the induction of general anesthe ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Basilar Migraine A migraine with predominant brainstem aura symptoms is known as a basilar migraine. Bickerstaff first described it in 1961. Other names for it are bas ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Behavior Modification Behavior modification is a psychotherapeutic intervention primarily used to eliminate or reduce maladaptive behavior in children or adults. While some ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Behavioral And Psychological Symptoms In Dementia Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) include a range of neuropsychiatric disturbances such as agitation, aggression, depression, a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo Vertigo is the perception of motion in the absence of motion, which may be described as a sensation of swaying, tilting, spinning, or feeling unbalanc ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Benzodiazepine Toxicity Since the 1960s, with the development of chlordiazepoxide (Librium) and shortly thereafter diazepam (Valium), benzodiazepines quickly became mainstrea ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Benzodiazepines Benzodiazepines are especially important in the cessation of seizure activity, as 1% to 2% of emergency department visits annually in the United State ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Benztropine Benztropine is FDA approved as adjunctive therapy of all forms of parkinsonism. It is also used for drug-induced extrapyramidal symptoms and the preve ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biliopancreatic Diversion With Duodenal Switch The biliopancreatic diversion was first described by Scorpinaro in 1979. This procedure combined a horizontal gastric resection with the closure of a ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bilirubinuria Bilirubinuria is the presence of bilirubin in the urine, usually detected while performing a routine urine dipstick test. Its presence is abnormal and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biofeedback Biofeedback is a technique to augment the normal sensory feedback and allow better control of body functions that are usually considered involuntary. ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biotin Biotin is an alternative medication used in the management and treatment of pathological hair conditions. It is in the vitamin class of drugs. This ac ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bipolar Affective Disorder The bipolar affective disorder is a chronic and complex disorder of mood that is characterized by a combination of manic (bipolar mania), hypomanic an ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blunt Head Trauma Traumatic Brain Injury is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States, with an annual occurrence of more than 1.5 million. Fal ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Body Dysmorphic Disorder Body dysmorphic disorder, or BDD, formally known as dysmorphophobia, is a psychiatric condition defined in the DSM 5 as a preoccupation with a perceiv ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Body Image Distortion Body image is a complex construct. Body image distortion and body dissatisfaction are common in both clinical and nonclinical populations. Distortions ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brain Trauma Brain trauma or traumatic brain injury (TBI) results from a blow, bump, jolt, or penetrating injury to the head that disrupts the normal function of t ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brexanolone Brexanolone is a medication used in the treatment of postpartum depression in adult women. It is in the GABA-A modulator class of medications. This ac ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brief Psychotic Disorder Brief psychotic disorder (BPD) according to DSM-5 is the sudden onset of psychotic behavior that lasts less than 1 month followed by complete remissio ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bulimia Nervosa Bulimia nervosa is a disorder that is characterized by binge eating and inappropriate compensatory behavior to control weight with potentially dangero ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bupropion Bupropion is an antidepressant medication that is now also used in smoking cessation. Bupropion has been FDA-approved since 1985. The drug is FDA-appr ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Burning Mouth Syndrome Burning mouth syndrome is a condition characterized by extremely painful burning sensation of the tongue and mucosal tissue of the mouth, lips, and/or ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Buspirone Buspirone is an anxiolytic. Originally the drug was being developed as an antipsychotic but found not to be effective for psychosis, but it had anxio ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Caffeine Withdrawal Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class and is one of the most widely used drugs in the world. Unlike other p ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cannabinoids Cannabinoids are biologically active compounds used in the management and treatment of appetite/weight loss from HIV/AIDS and chemotherapy in addition ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cannabis Use Disorder Cannabis use can cause intoxication, withdrawal, and biopsychosocial issues. This activity describes the evaluation and management of cannabis use dis ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carbamazepine Toxicity Carbamazepine is a commonly prescribed agent for focal epilepsy and other nonepileptic conditions such as neuropathic pain, schizophrenia, and bipolar ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carbidopa Carbidopa is a medication used in the management and treatment of Parkinson disease (PD). It is in the decarboxylase inhibitor class of drugs. This ac ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carbon Monoxide Toxicity Carbon monoxide toxicity occurs after breathing in excessive levels of carbon monoxide. This is a tasteless, odorless, and colorless gas and victims a ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Catatonia Catatonia, a neuropsychiatric syndrome characterized by abnormal movements, behaviors, and withdrawal, is a condition that is most often seen in mood ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Catatonic Schizophrenia Catatonic schizophrenia is one of the classical clinical subtypes of schizophrenia. The concept of catatonic symptoms in schizophrenia has changed thr ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cavernous Sinus Syndromes Cavernous sinus syndrome (CSS) is any disease process that affects the cavernous sinus. It presents as proptosis, chemosis, ophthalmoplegia, Horner sy ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central Pain Syndrome Central sensitization of pain occurs when the patient's nervous system is persistently in a state of high activity. This state decreases sensitivity t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Child Abuse and Neglect The World Health Organization (WHO) defines child maltreatment as “all forms of physical and emotional ill-treatment, sexual abuse, neglect, and explo ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chlorpromazine Chlorpromazine is a medication used in the management and treatment of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and acute psychosis. It is in the category of ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cholecalciferol Cholecalciferol is a medication used in the management and treatment of osteoporosis and Vitamin D insufficiency/ deficiency in both healthy patients ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chromhidrosis Chromhidrosis is a rare condition with a characteristic presentation of the secretion of colored sweat. This condition can further subdivide into apoc ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Chronic fatigue syndrome, also known as myalgic encephalomyelitis, is a complex multisystem disease commonly characterized by severe fatigue, cognitiv ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Insomnia Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder in the United States affecting about one-third of the general population. According to the third edition of ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Pain Over one-quarter of United States citizens suffer from chronic pain. It is among the most common complaints seen in an outpatient clinic. The failure ... Read the Article 2.5 41 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Pain Syndrome Chronic pain is a leading chief complaint in an adult ambulatory care setting. Unfortunately, chronic non-cancer pain is often poorly understood by ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Pancreatitis Chronic pancreatitis is a progressive inflammatory disorder that leads to irreversible destruction of exocrine and endocrine pancreatic parenchyma cau ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Pelvic Pain Chronic pelvic pain can be a disabling, chronic, persistent pain, within the pelvis in women. Relatively common, chronic pelvic pain is associated wit ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy Sports-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) has become increasingly popular in the scientific literature over the past few decades. However, the first ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Citalopram Citalopram hydrobromide is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. The primary FDA-approved clinical use for citalopram hydrobromide is for the trea ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clinical Frailty Scale Frailty is a multidimensional geriatric syndrome, which is characterized by an increased vulnerability to various external stressors into a serious he ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clomipramine The only FDA approved use for clomipramine is for the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in ages 10 and older. For the treatment of OCD, ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clonazepam Clonazepam is a benzodiazepine drug used for the acute management of panic disorder, epilepsy, and non-convulsive status epilepticus. It also has many ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Closed Head Trauma Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an injury to the brain from an external mechanical force. TBI can generally be classified as either closed or penetrat ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clozapine Clozapine is an FDA-approved atypical antipsychotic medication for treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Clozapine is not the first-line drug of choice d ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cluster Headache Cluster headaches are the most common of the primary headache type known as trigeminal autonomic cephalgia. They are fairly rare, plaguing 0.1% of the ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cocaine Cocaine hydrochloride topical solution contains 4% cocaine. It is not FDA-approved but allowed for only the following indications: topical anesthesia ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cognitive Behavior Therapy In the 1960s, Aaron Beck developed cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) or cognitive therapy. Since then, it has been extensively researched and found to ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cognitive Deficits Cognition is the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses. It encompasses various ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Complex Partial Seizure Complex partial seizures, also known as focal impaired awareness seizures or focal onset impaired awareness seizures, refers to focal seizures that st ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a neuropathic pain disorder defined by the presence of distinct clinical features including allodynia, hypera ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Conduct Disorder Conduct disorder (CD) lies on a spectrum of disruptive behavioral disorders which also includes oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). In some cases, OD ... Read the Article 0.75 2 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Conversion Disorder Conversion disorder is a psychiatric disorder characterized by signs and symptoms affecting sensory or motor function that are inconsistent with patte ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cooling Techniques For Hyperthermia Hyperthermia is defined as a body temperature greater than 40 C. Several conditions can cause hyperthermia. In sepsis, the immunologic reaction to the ... Read the Article 0.75 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Copper Toxicity Copper metabolism plays an important role in physiologic homeostasis. Copper toxicity, however, induces several pathologic processes that are detrimen ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rare, fatal degenerative brain disorder caused by prion proteins. It belongs to a group of transmissible spongifo ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome Cyclic vomiting syndrome is characterized by recurrent episodes of nausea and vomiting lasting from hours to days in the absence of identifiable patho ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Deep Brain Stimulation Deep brain stimulation (DBS) was first approved in the 1990s for the treatment of movement disorders. DBS has the potential to offer symptom resolutio ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Deep Plane Facelift A deep plane facelift aims to restore a more youthful and rested appearance to the aging face. This activity reviews the evaluation and management of ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Defense Mechanisms Anna Freud defined defense mechanisms as "unconscious resources used by the ego" to ultimately decrease internal stress. Patients often devise these u ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Delirium Delirium, also known as the acute confusional state, is a clinical syndrome that usually develops in the elderly. It is characterized by an alteration ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Delirium Tremens Alcohol abuse is a common condition that has been associated with severe impairments in social functioning and medical problems. As high as 20% of the ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Delusional Disorder A delusion is a fixed false belief based on an inaccurate interpretation of an external reality despite evidence to the contrary. The diagnosis of a d ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Delusions Delusions can precipitate in isolation or as psychiatric sequelae of ongoing disease. Delusions must be appropriately identified and managed as they c ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Delusions Of Parasitosis This activity reviews delusions of parasitosis, a rare psychiatric disorder. Communicating and evaluating patients with this condition can be complex ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dementia Dementia describes an overall decline in memory and other thinking skills severe enough to reduce a person's ability to perform everyday activities. I ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Depression Depression is a mood disorder that causes a persistent feeling of sadness and loss of interest. The American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic Stat ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Depression In Children Depressive disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM–5) include diagnoses of different disorders, for example, major ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Depressive Cognitive Disorders Depressive cognitive disorders, also called pseudodementia (a term founded by Kiloh in the year 1961), is defined as the cognitive and functional impa ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dermatitis Artefacta Dermatitis artefacta or factitious dermatitis is a psychocutaneous disorder in which the patients consciously create lesions in skin, hair, nail, or m ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Desipramine Desipramine is a secondary amine tricyclic antidepressant that is FDA approved for the treatment of depression. This drug has off-label use to treat b ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Desvenlafaxine Desvenlafaxine is an antidepressant that is an FDA-approved drug to treat major depressive disorder in adults. For healthy women who have contraindica ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Developmental Delay Delay in development occurs when the child fails to attain developmental milestones as compared to peers from the same population. It is caused by imp ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 In Children Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition that leads to the destruction of pancreatic beta cells which in turn causes insufficient insulin production ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diazepam Diazepam is a benzodiazepine medication that is FDA approved for the management of anxiety disorders, short-term relief of anxiety symptoms, spasticit ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diffusion Tensor Imaging Diffusion tensor imaging is an advanced magnetic resonance imaging modality that uses the Brownian motion of water molecules to provide data for image ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diphenhydramine Diphenhydramine, which is available as an over-the-counter medication, is a first-generation antihistamine that is used in a variety of conditions to ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diphenhydramine Toxicity Diphenhydramine is most often used for the treatment of nausea, vomiting, allergic rhinitis, mild to severe allergic reactions (e.g., anaphylaxis), an ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Disulfiram Disulfiram is one of three drugs approved by the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of alcohol dependence. It is a second-line option ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Domestic Violence Family and domestic violence is a common problem in the United States, affecting an estimated 10 million people every year; as many as one in four wom ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Donepezil Donepezil hydrochloride is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor most commonly used for the treatment of Alzheimer disease. Donepezil is FDA approved for ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dopamine Agonists Dopamine agonists are used in patients with Parkinson disease. Dopamine agonists such as ropinirole, are the first-line treatment for restless legs sy ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Doxepin Doxepin is a medication used in the treatment of major depressive disorder, anxiety, insomnia as well as in the management of skin pruritus. It is in ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dronabinol Dronabinol is synthetic tetrahydrocannabinol ('THC'), which obtained FDA approval in 1985 for the treatment of HIV/AIDs-induced anorexia and chemother ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Drug and Alcohol Use The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition includes 10 separate classes of drugs of abuse, which include alcohol, caffei ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Drug Interactions In Palliative Care Drug-drug interactions (DDI) are a significant cause of adverse drug events (ADE) in palliative care. This activity will highlight the mechanism of ac ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Duloxetine Duloxetine is a medication used in the management of major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), fibromyalgia, diabetic perip ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dystrophinopathies This activity covers a group of X-linked muscle disorders, with their most recognized pathology being Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), followed by B ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
EEG Normal Waveforms EEG activity reflects the temporal summation of the synchronous activity of millions of cortical neurons that are spatially aligned. Analyzing and int ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Electroconvulsive Therapy In a patient under intravenous sedation or general anesthesia, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) uses an electric current to create a generalized cerebr ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Electroencephalogram An electroencephalogram (EEG) is an essential tool that studies the brain's electrical activity. Despite the development of more advanced imaging tech ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Electronic Vaping Delivery Of Cannabis And Nicotine This activity outlines the current scientific literature and knowledge of the risks and benefits of inhaling nicotine through proprietary devices. It ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
End of Life Care Unlike other conditions and life experiences, which only affect a certain percentage of the world’s population, the end-of-life is a stage in the proc ... Read the Article 2 33 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Enflurane Enflurane is a medication used in the induction and maintenance of general anesthetics. It is in the inhaled anesthetics class of drugs. This activit ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ephedrine Ephedrine is a medication used in the management and treatment of clinically significant hypotension. It is in the sympathomimetic class of medication ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epilepsia Partialis Continua Epilepsia partialis continua (EPC) is a rare condition involving recurrent and sometimes intractable focal onset seizures associated with retained awa ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Escitalopram Escitalopram is a medication used in the management and treatment of major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. It is in the selectiv ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Excited Delirium Delirium is understood as a complex neuropsychiatric syndrome that is characterized by disturbances in consciousness, orientation, memory, thought, pe ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Exploding Head Syndrome Exploding head syndrome is a benign, underdiagnosed sensory parasomnia. It is the sensation of hearing a loud sound during sleep-wake/wake-sleep trans ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Extrapyramidal Symptoms Extrapyramidal side effects (EPS), commonly referred to as drug-induced movement disorders are among the most common adverse drug effects patients exp ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy is a genetically acquired disease that leads to progressive muscle weakness and severely decreased functional c ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Factitious Disorder Factitious disorder is a condition in which a patient intentionally falsifies medical or psychiatric symptoms. Symptoms can be self-induced or fabric ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fahr Syndrome Fahr disease is a rare neurological condition characterized by abnormal idiopathic calcification of basal ganglia and commonly has an autosomal domina ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Falls and Fall Prevention Falls account for one of the most common and serious issues contributing to a disability, especially among elderly individuals. Tinetti et al. in 1988 ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Female Athlete Triad Female athletes often complain of low energy availability, which is defined as energy from oral nutrition less energy used for exercise. As such, low ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fibromyalgia Fibromyalgia is a condition characterized by chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain. This activity illustrates the evaluation and management of fibro ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Filler Rhinoplasty The nonsurgical rhinoplasty technique using injectable filler material serves to mainly correct the shape and overall appearance of the nose. This ac ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fine Motor Disability Fine motor disability is an inability or impairment of an individual to perform tasks that require a degree of manual dexterity. Fine motor ability is ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Flumazenil Flumazenil is a benzodiazepine antagonist. The primary FDA-approved clinical uses for flumazenil include reversal agent for benzodiazepine overdose an ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fluoxetine Fluoxetine is FDA-approved for major depressive disorder (age eight and older), obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, bulimia, binge eating d ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fluphenazine Fluphenazine is a typical antipsychotic used for symptomatic management of psychosis in patients with schizophrenia. There is a long-acting fluphenazi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Forearm Amputation Forearm amputations are a life-changing but often unavoidable procedure, most commonly needed secondary to trauma. These are a complicated process, an ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Frontotemporal Lobe Dementia Frontotemporal dementia is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of intellectual functions, such as memory problems, impaired abstract th ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Frotteurism Frotteuristic disorder, or frotteurism, is a rare and poorly researched type of paraphilia. It involves the act of touching or rubbing one’s genitals ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gait Disturbances Gait disturbances are described as any deviations from normal walking or gait. These disturbances stem from numerous etiologies. Due to their differen ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gender Dysphoria Gender dysphoria (previously gender identity disorder), according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders are defined as a “marked in ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Generalized Anxiety Disorder Generalized anxiety disorder is a mental health disorder that produces fear, worry, and a constant feeling of being overwhelmed. It is characterized b ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizure This activity reviews generalized tonic-clonic seizures. A generalized tonic-clonic seizure, formerly known as grand mal seizure, is defined as a seiz ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ginkgo Biloba Ginkgo biloba is one of the most commonly used herbal supplements used in the world. This activity reviews the potential indications, action, and cont ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Grief Reaction Grief is a natural and universal response to the loss of a loved one. The grief experience is not a state but a process. Most individuals recover adeq ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Group Therapy Group therapy is the treatment of multiple patients at once by one or more healthcare providers. It can be used to treat a variety of conditions inclu ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Halitosis Halitosis is a term coined from the merger of the Latin halitus (breath) and Greek osis (pathological process) to describe a condition that meant an u ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Haloperidol Haloperidol is a first-generation (typical) antipsychotic that is a commonly used drug worldwide. Haloperidol is used for positive symptoms of schizop ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatic Encephalopathy (HE) is a reversible syndrome observed in patients with advanced liver dysfunction. This syndrome is characterized by a wide sp ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Heroin Heroin, also known as diacetylmorphine, is derived from the opium poppy plant. Professionals initially touted morphine as a substitute with less misus ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Herpes Simplex Encephalitis Herpes simplex encephalitis is caused by Herpes Simplex Virus type 1(HSV-1) or type 2 (HSV-2). HSV-1 causes encephalitis in children beyond the neonat ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Histrionic Personality Disorder A histrionic personality disorder, or commonly known as a dramatic personality disorder, is a psychiatric disorder distinguished by a pattern of exagg ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
HIV Encephalitis HIV encephalitis is a complication of HIV infection, which presents with neurocognitive dysfunction of varying severity. Almost half of HIV-infected p ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
HIV Neurocognitive Disorders Patients with Human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV infection) have been noted to have various forms of neuropsychiatric illnesses. Notably, neu ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
HIV-1 Associated Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis is a common cause of central nervous system (CNS) infection in patients with HIV/AIDS who do not take appropriate prophylaxis. Cerebral ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
HIV-1 Encephalopathy And Aids Dementia Complex Neurocognitive deficits are the presenting complaint in 4 to 15 percent of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV-associated neurocogni ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Human T Cell Lymphotropic Virus Human T Cell lymphotropic viruses (HTLV) are a family of retroviruses. Currently, four types of this virus have been identified which are known to inf ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Huntington Disease Huntington disease (HD), a neurodegenerative autosomal dominant disorder, is characterized by involuntary choreatic movements with cognitive and behav ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperchloremic Acidosis Hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis is a pathological state that results from bicarbonate loss, rather than acid production or retention. Bicarbonate lo ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperesthesia Hyperesthesia occurs as a symptom of neuropathic pain and can be present in any disease process that affects the somatosensory nervous system. Treatme ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperhomocysteinemia Hyperhomocysteinemia refers to the condition where there is greater than 15 micromol/L of homocysteine in the blood. This condition is present in a wi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperprolactinemia When the amount of serum prolactin exceeds the upper limit, we call it hyperprolactinemia. The common causes of hyperprolactinemia can be physiologica ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypothalamic Dysfunction The hypothalamus is the central command center for hormonal regulation, and its effects are primarily carried out by the hormones released from the hy ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism results from low levels of thyroid hormone with varied etiology and manifestations. The drug of choice for the treatment of hypothyroid ... Read the Article 1.75 27 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
ICU Delirium Delirium is defined by DSM-5 criteria as an impairment in attention and awareness that develops over a relatively short time interval that is associat ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Illness Anxiety Disorder Illness anxiety disorder (previously called hypochondriasis) is a psychiatric disorder defined by excessive worry about having or developing a serious ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Imipramine Imipramine is a medication used in the treatment of depression and anxiety. It is a tertiary amine tricyclic antidepressant. This activity reviews the ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Impulse Control Disorders Impulse control disorders are pervasive and often life long manifestations of disabling behavioral patterns. Unchecked, these disorders can result in ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intellectual Disability Individuals with an intellectual disability have neurodevelopmental deficits characterized by limitations in intellectual functioning and adaptive beh ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Interferon Interferons are currently used clinically to treat viral infections such as hepatitis C, cancers including non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and autoimmune dise ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Irritable Bowel Syndrome Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most commonly diagnosed gastrointestinal diseases. IBS, in the absence of any other causative disease, is ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Kayser-Fleischer Ring Kayser–Fleischer (KF) rings are a common ophthalmologic finding in patients with Wilson disease. Initially thought to be due to the accumulation of si ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ketamine Toxicity Ketamine is a structural analog of the dissociative anesthetic and recreational drug phencyclidine (PCP). Similar to phenylcyclidine, ketamine causes ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Klinefelter Syndrome Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is the result of 2 or more X chromosomes in a phenotypic male. The clinical phenotype of KS was first described in males wit ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Kluver Bucy Syndrome Kluver-Bucy syndrome (KBS) is a rare neuropsychiatric disorder due to lesions affecting bilateral temporal lobes, especially the hippocampus and amygd ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Korsakoff Syndrome Korsakoff syndrome is a chronic neuropsychiatric syndrome that is caused by the deficiency of thiamine, also known as vitamin B1. This deficiency lead ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
La Belle Indifférence La belle indifference is defined as a paradoxical absence of psychological distress despite having a serious medical illness or symptoms related to a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lacunar Stroke Lacunar stroke is a common stroke with significant morbidity and mortality. Advancement in knowledge about modifying risk factors and early diagnosis ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lamotrigine Lamotrigine can be used to treat the following partial seizures, primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures, bipolar I disorder maintenance and Lennox- ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Late Onset Depression In the older population, one of the serious health concerns that are associated with comorbidity, impaired functioning, excessive use of health care ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Learning Disability Learning disabilities (LDs) refer to a number of disorders that may affect the acquisition, organization, retention, comprehension, or the use of both ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lemborexant Lemborexant is a medication used in the management and treatment of insomnia. It is in the dual orexin antagonist class of medications. This activity ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lewy Body Dementia Lewy Body Dementia (LBD) encompasses two clinical entities, namely dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson disease dementia. It is a progressive degen ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lhermitte Sign Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, predominantly immune-mediated disease of the central nervous system. Neuropathic pain in MS is poorly understood ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lithium Despite the availability of newer mood stabilizers, lithium continues to be a first-line treatment for bipolar disorder. It is often underutilized bec ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lithium Toxicity The drug of choice for recurrent bipolar illness management remains to be lithium. Lithium, a monovalent cation similar to sodium with an unknown mech ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lorazepam Lorazepam is a benzodiazepine medication commonly used as the sedative and anxiolytic of choice in the inpatient setting owing to its fast (1 to 3 min ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lumbar Plexus Block Regional anesthesia techniques are powerful tools for postoperative pain management that have shown to reduce perioperative opioid consumption, Increa ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lumbar Spondylolysis And Spondylolisthesis Spondylolysis refers to a posterior defect in the vertebral body at the pars interarticularis. Usually, this defect is due to trauma or from a chronic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lurasidone Lurasidone is a medication used in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar depression. It is in the benzisothiazole class of medications. This acti ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD) Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a classical hallucinogen. No approved indications for LSD-assisted therapy exist today. It has been used in the pa ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lysergic Acid Diethylamide Toxicity D-lysergic acid diethylamide, or LSD, is a prominent hallucinogenic drug of abuse that can produce profound, dose-dependent subjective effects in thos ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Major Depressive Disorder Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been ranked as the third cause of the burden of disease worldwide in 2008 by WHO, which has projected that this di ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Malar Rash Malar rash, also named a butterfly rash, is a common facial presentation of multiple disorders. It is characterized by an erythematous flat or raised ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Malingering Malingering is falsification or profound exaggeration of illness (physical or mental) to gain external benefits such as avoiding work or responsibilit ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Manganese Toxicity Manganese (Mn) toxicity is a well-established result of repeated occupational and nutritional exposures. Though this syndrome is relatively uncommon, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
MAO Inhibitors Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAO Inhibitors) are medications used in the management and treatment of depression, among other neurological and psychia ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Marijuana Cannabis, also known as marijuana, is commonly sought out by patients for various conditions. Conversely, many providers are uncomfortable prescribing ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Marijuana Toxicity The term "marijuana" typically refers to the tobacco-like preparations of the leaves and flowers of the plant cannabis sativa. The active ingredient i ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Meige Syndrome Meige syndrome is a focal dystonic movement disorder involving blepharospasm, or involuntary eyelid spasm, and oromandibular dystonia, or involuntary ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Memantine Memantine is an antagonist of the NMDA (N-Methyl-D-Aspartate)-receptor subtype of glutamate receptor. It is used to slow the neurotoxicity thought to ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mental Status Examination The mental status examination is the physical examination for psychiatry. It is the defining status of the current state of the patient during evaluat ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Methadone Methadone is a medication used in the management and treatment of opioid use disorder and as an analgesic in chronic pain. It is a synthetic long-term ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Methamphetamine Methamphetamine is one of the powerful stimulants of the central nervous system (CNS). It is sometimes a second-line treatment for attention deficit h ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Methamphetamine Toxicity Methamphetamine is a highly addictive psychostimulant drug that is a derivative of amphetamine. Methamphetamine can produce euphoria and stimulant eff ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Methanol Toxicity Methanol (CH3OH) is a toxic alcohol that is found in various household and industrial agents. Methanol exposure can be extremely dangerous, with signi ... Read the Article 1.5 23 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Methohexital Methohexital is a medication used in anesthesia for sedation. It is in the barbiturate class of medications. This activity outlines the indications, a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Methylprednisolone Methylprednisolone is an FDA-approved medication for the management and treatment of allergic conditions, arthritis, asthma exacerbations, long-term a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Middle Cerebral Artery Stroke The middle cerebral artery (MCA) is the most common artery involved in acute stroke. It branches directly from the internal carotid artery and consist ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Miller Fisher Syndrome Guillain-Barré syndrome is a broad category that encompasses several types of acute immune-mediated polyneuropathies, the most common of which is acut ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Modafinil Modafinil is a non-amphetamine central nervous system (CNS) stimulant with wakefulness-promoting properties. It is used in the treatment of conditions ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor Toxicity Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of antidepressants. The use of MAOIs has declined in the past few decades due to the introduction of ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOI) Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a separate class from other antidepressants, treating different forms of depression as well as other nervous ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mood Stabilizers Mood stabilizers are a class of medications used in the management and treatment of bipolar disorder. This activity outlines the indications, action, ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Munchausen Syndrome Factitious disorder imposed on self, formerly known as Munchausen syndrome, is a psychiatric disorder in which a person assumes the role of a sick pat ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Muscle Contraction Tension Headache Tension-type headache (TTH) is the most common type of primary headaches. It is also sometimes referred to as muscle contraction headache, stress head ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Myoclonus Myoclonus is defined as rapid, brief, jerky, or shock-like movements involving muscle or group of muscles. Among all hyperkinetic movement disorders, ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Naltrexone Naltrexone is an opioid antagonist used to treat alcohol use disorder and opioid dependence. It is FDA-approved for alcohol misuse and opioid dependen ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Narcolepsy Narcolepsy is a disorder of rapid onset rapid eye movement (REM) sleep characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), frequent uncontrollable sl ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Narcotic Bowel Syndrome It is estimated that anywhere from 25% to 45% of the adult population suffers from long-term pain, which results in a poor quality of life, loss of pr ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Natalizumab Natalizumab is an FDA-approved, monoclonal antibody approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis and Crohn's disease. The drug was originally appr ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neuroleptic Agent Toxicity The use of these neuroleptic agents has become more widespread. Knowledge of the toxicity and adverse effects associated with their use is becoming pa ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a life-threatening syndrome associated with the use of dopamine-receptor antagonist medications or with rapid ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neuroleptic Medications Neuroleptics, also known as antipsychotic medications, are used to treat and manage symptoms of many psychiatric disorders. They fall into two classes ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neurological Sequelae Of Endocarditis Endocarditis is inflammation or infection of the endocardium, the inner lining of cardiac valves and cardiac muscle. It most commonly results from bac ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neuromodulation Surgery For Psychiatric Disorders Clinicians are beginning to reconsider neuromodulation surgery as a last resort for the treatment of refractory psychiatric disorders. Neurosurgical i ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neuropathy About 2.4 percent of the population is affected by peripheral neuropathy. The prevalence increases to 8 percent in older populations. Peripheral neuro ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neurosarcoidosis Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease that results in the formation of granulomas which classically are non-caseating granulomas, that may be found throug ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neurosyphilis With the advent of antibiotics, neurosyphilis became a rare diagnosis. However, syphilis has recently made a resurgence because untreated neurosyphili ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nicotine Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is for those who want to quit smoking, as abruptly quitting can cause withdrawals and cravings. Nicotine withdrawal ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nicotine Addiction Nicotine addiction is a complex disorder with no easy cure. Habitual use of tobacco and tobacco products continues to be a significant contributor to ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nicotinic Acid Deficiency Dietary deficiency of niacin results in pellagra. It is characterized by dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, and eventually death if not treated by giving ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Night Terrors Night terrors are a common sleep disorder in young children and describe a condition in which a child wakes up from sleep in a terrified state. For th ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Normal pressure hydrocephalus characteristically presents with progressive gait impairment, cognitive deficits, and urinary urgency and/or incontinenc ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nortriptyline Nortriptyline is indicated for use in the treatment of depression (FDA-approved). It can also be used off-label for conditions such as chronic pain, d ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) involves intrusive thoughts with or without compensatory actions to alleviate the stress brought on by these thoug ... Read the Article 1.5 23 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Occipital Nerve Stimulation Occipital nerve stimulation is a neuromodulation technique used for the treatment of refractory primary and secondary headache disorders. This activit ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Olanzapine Olanzapine is a second-generation (atypical) antipsychotic medication. The FDA has approved this medication for schizophrenia if the patient is over t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Opioid Addiction Opioid use disorder and opioid addiction remain at epidemic levels in the US and worldwide. Three million US citizens and 16 million individuals world ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Opioid Toxicity Opioids and opiates together comprise a class of medications widely used primarily to control severe pain. If first-line agents are not effective in c ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Opioid Withdrawal Opioid withdrawal syndrome is a life-threatening condition resulting from opioid dependence. Opioids are a group of drugs used for management of sever ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Opioid-induced Endocrinopathy Hormone replacement therapy is a mainstay of treatment for those suffering from opioid-induced endocrinopathy (OIE), which can have a significant impa ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Opisthotonus Opisthotonus is defined as a dramatic abnormal posture due to spastic contraction of the extensor muscles of the neck, trunk, and lower extremities th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Orthostasis When one stands up from laying down, gravity causes 500 to 800 milliliters of blood volume to shift from the upper body to the lower body and splanchn ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Otalgia Otalgia is ear pain and breaks down into two categories of primary otalgia and secondary otalgia. Primary otalgia is pain coming directly from the ea ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Oxazepam Oxazepam is a short-acting benzodiazepine used for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal, management of anxiety disorders, and tension. This activity w ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pain Assessment There are multiple tools used to help assess a patient's pain. These tools can be used to assess multiple types of pain, ranging from nociceptive pain ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Palliative Care The World Health Organization characterizes the field of palliative care as a form of specialized medical care which aims to optimize the quality of l ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Panic Disorder Panic disorder is fairly common in the general population. Among all anxiety disorders, it has the highest number of medical visits and serves as a ve ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Paraneoplastic Limbic Encephalitis Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis is thought to be caused by an onconeural antibody to cancer that cross-reacts with self-antigen in the neurons and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Paraneoplastic Syndromes Paraneoplastic syndromes are rare disorders with complex systemic clinical manifestations due to underlying malignancy. In paraneoplastic syndromes, ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Paraphilia Paraphilias are persistent and recurrent sexual interests, urges, fantasies, or behaviors of marked intensity involving objects, activities, or even s ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Parasomnias Parasomnias encompass a spectrum of behavioral sleep abnormalities. The manifestations of these disorders can be distressing for both the individual e ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Paroxetine Paroxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). It is used to treat several diseases, including major depressive disorder, obsessive-co ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pectoral Implants Pectoral implants are performed for several reasons, including to treat a congenital or acquired chest wall asymmetry or to enhance the appearance of ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pediatric Preoperative Management The preoperative management of anesthesia in children differs from that in adults. These differences include employing cognitive and age-appropriate l ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Penicillamine Penicillamine has FDA approval as a treatment for Wilson disease and cystinuria. It is used as an off-label treatment option for lead poisoning in chi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pentobarbital Pentobarbital is a medication used in the management and treatment of several medical conditions including seizures, intracranial pressure control, in ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Periodic Limb Movement Disorder Sleep-related movement disorders are an important group of sleep diseases encountered commonly in clinical practice that requires thorough evaluation ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Peripheral Diabetic Neuropathy Peripheral neuropathy (PN) encompasses a broad range of clinical pathologies potentially presenting with peripheral nervous system dysfunction. Patien ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Persistent Depressive Disorder Persistent depressive disorder, also known as dysthymia or chronic major depression, is a poorly understood condition for which the diagnostic criteri ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Personality Disorder Personality disorders are pervasive, maladaptive, and chronic patterns of behavior, cognition, and mood. Persons who have personality disorders experi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Phantom Limb Pain Phantom limb pain is the perception of pain or discomfort in a limb that is no longer there. PLP most commonly presents as a sequela of amputation. Th ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Phencyclidine Toxicity Phencyclidine (PCP) is a dissociative anesthetic that is a commonly used recreational drug. PCP is a crystalline powder that can be ingested orally, i ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Phenelzine FDA approved indications for phenelzine are the management of treatment-resistant depression, panic disorder, and social anxiety disorder. Phenelzine ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Phenobarbital Phenobarbital is included in a class of drugs called barbiturates. This drug can be used for anti-seizure management, treatment for status epilepticus ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Phenothiazine Phenothiazines are termed first-generation heterocyclic anti-psychotic medications which display antagonistic activity towards dopamine receptors as w ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Phenytoin Phenytoin is a medication used in the management and treatment of epilepsy, generalized tonic-clonic seizures, complex partial seizures, and status ep ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pick Disease Pick disease, also known as frontotemporal dementia, is the most common cause of dementia in patients under 60 years of age and is the third most comm ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pimavanserin Pimavanserin is a medication used in the treatment and management of the hallucinations and delusions associated with Parkinson disease psychosis. It ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Post Intensive Care Syndrome As intensive care unit (ICU) mortality rates have fallen in recent decades, there is increasing recognition that ICU survivors often face debilitating ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postoperative Delirium Post-operative delirium (POD) can occur from anywhere between 10 minutes after anesthesia up until discharge from the hospital. It is commonly recogni ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postoperative Pain Control Postoperative pain is experienced by the vast majority of patients who undergo surgical procedures. Control of postoperative pain plays an essential r ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postpartum Blues Postpartum “blues” is defined as low mood and mild depressive symptoms that are transient and self-limited and are extremely common in the perinatal p ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postpartum Depression Around one in seven women can develop postpartum depression (PPD). While women experiencing baby blues tend to recover quickly, PPD tends to last long ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postpartum Psychosis Postpartum psychosis is an acute illness of multifactorial origin and is considered a psychiatric emergency. In this activity, the common presentation ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disabling psychiatric disorder that results from being exposed to real or threatened injury, death, and sexu ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pramipexole Pramipexole is a medication used in the management and treatment of Parkinsonism and restless leg syndrome. It is in the anti-parkinsonian class of dr ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Prazosin Prazosin is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension, benign prostatic hyperplasia, PTSD associated nightmares, and Raynaud p ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Premature Ejaculation Premature ejaculation describes the phenomenon which occurs when ejaculation happens sooner than a man or his partner would like during sexual activit ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder Premenstrual symptoms include a constellation of mood, behavioral, and physical indications that occur in a cyclic pattern prior to menstruation and t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Premenstrual Syndrome This activity is a review of the existing literature on premenstrual syndrome (PMS). It summarizes the management of PMS by outlining the importance o ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Primary Polydipsia Primary polydipsia can be categorized into two types. They are psychogenic polydipsia and dipsogenic polydipsia. Psychogenic polydipsia is a condition ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Prochlorperazine Prochlorperazine is a first-generation antipsychotic. FDA indications include schizophrenia, schizoaffective, and other conditions presenting with sym ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is a severe, progressive, fatal demyelinating disease that presents in immunocompromised states. Treatment ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Progressive Nonfluent Aphasia Aphasia is the inability to vocalize or understand the spoken or written language. Primary progressive aphasia refers to the group of neurodegenerativ ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Progressive Supranuclear Palsy Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a form of atypical parkinsonian syndrome, also known as a Parkinson-plus disorder. It is an uncommon neurologi ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Prolactinoma Prolactin-secreting tumors of the pituitary gland, also known as prolactinomas, are the most common secretory tumors of the pituitary gland, accountin ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Protriptyline Protriptyline hydrochloride is a tricyclic antidepressant used to improve mood in people with depression. It is also useful in treating anxiety. It is ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Psychiatric Illness And Criminality The relationship between psychiatric illness and criminality has been the topic of intense debate and scrutiny in the recent past in light of multiple ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Psychogenic Nonepileptic Seizures Pseudoseizures, psychogenic seizures, and hysterical seizures are older terms used to describe events that clinically resemble epileptic seizures but ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Psychosis Psychosis is a loose description of an amalgamation of psychological symptoms resulting in a loss of contact with reality. It is thought that although ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Quetiapine Quetiapine is FDA approved for schizophrenia, acute manic episodes, and adjunctive treatment for major depressive disorder. Quetiapine is also used fo ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rabies Rabies causes a viral encephalitis which kills up to 70000 people/year worldwide. Infected animal saliva transmits the viral encephalitis to humans. R ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder Rapid eye movement behavior disorder (RBD) is a type of parasomnia that has a strong link to neurodegenerative diseases. It can also be very disturbin ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Relaxation Techniques Relaxation techniques are therapeutic exercises designed to assist individuals by decreasing tension and anxiety. Relaxation therapy has been a part o ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
REM Sleep Behavior Disorder Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder is a parasomnia in which affected individuals act out their dreams while in the REM stage of sleep. U ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Retinal Migraine Headache Ocular or retinal migraines are generally defined as a transient monocular scotoma or loss of vision which is accompanied or followed by a headache wi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Risperidone The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved indications for oral risperidone (tablets, oral solution, and M-TABs) include the treatment of schizop ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rivastigmine Rivastigmine is a medication used in the management and treatment of neurodegenerative disease, specifically dementia in Alzheimer patients and Parkin ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Salicylates Toxicity Salicylate toxicity is a medical emergency. Intentional ingestion or accidental overdose can cause severe metabolic derangements, making treatment dif ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Schizoaffective Disorder Schizoaffective disorder is among the most frequently misdiagnosed psychiatric disorders in clinical practice. Due to concerns about the reliability a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Schizoid Personality Disorder Schizoid personality disorder is one of three disorders that make up cluster A personality disorder. Those afflicted with schizoid personality disorde ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
School Refusal School refusal describes a regular refusal to attend school or routine problems staying at school. Children may avoid school to cope with stress or fe ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Seborrheic Dermatitis Seborrheic dermatitis is a common papulosquamous skin disease that is most prevalent in infancy and middle age, and it usually presents differently in ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Secondary Hypertension Secondary hypertension is elevated blood pressure (BP), which is secondary to an identifiable cause. This activity outlines the causes, history, and p ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Selegiline Selegiline, a monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor, is FDA-approved as an adjunct treatment in the management of patients with Parkinson disease and as a ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sensory and Perceptual Alterations Sensory-perceptual alteration can be defined as when there is a change in the pattern of sensory stimuli, followed by an abnormal response to such sti ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Separation Anxiety Separation anxiety disorder (SAD) refers to an exaggeration of otherwise developmentally normal anxiety manifested by excessive concern, worry, and ev ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Serotonin Syndrome Serotonin syndrome is a potentially life-threatening condition precipitated by the use of serotonergic drugs. It may be a consequence of therapeutic m ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sertraline Sertraline is a medication used in the management and treatment of major depressive disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, post-trau ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sexual Assault Evidence Collection Sexual assault evidence collection is the process of collecting specimens and documenting injuries of sexual assault victims to be used in the court o ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Shared Psychotic Disorder Shared psychotic disorder (Folie a Deux) is an uncommon mental disorder characterized by sharing a specific delusion among two or more people who are ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Short Term Insomnia Sleep is becoming an increasingly precious commodity as more and more people are reporting issues with sleep in our busy society. Issues with sleep ha ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Short Term Memory Impairment Short-term memory (STM), also referred to as short-term storage, or primary or active memory indicates different systems of memory involved in the ret ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sleep Deprivation Sleep loss from various causes is very common and often missed by physicians as a treatable health problem. There are strong associations with serious ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sleep Disorder Sleep disorders are one of the most common clinical problems encountered in outpatient settings. Sleep disorders can be primary such as parasomnias an ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sleep Paralysis Sleep paralysis refers to the phenomenon in which resumption of consciousness occurs while muscle atonia of REM (rapid eye movement) sleep is maintain ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Social Anxiety Disorder Social anxiety disorder (SAD) includes the essential feature of marked fear or anxiety of one or more social situations during which the individual ma ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Somatic Syndrome Disorders According to the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V), somatic symptom disorder (SSD) involves one or mo ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Somnambulism Somnambulism, also known as sleepwalking, includes undesirable actions such as walking, that occur during abrupt but limited arousals from non-rapid e ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Specific Phobia Patients with specific phobias experience anxiety and panic attacks along with unreasonable fear of exposure or anticipated exposure to a feared stimu ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spinal Cord Stimulation In the middle of the spectrum of increasingly invasive pain treatment modalities, lies spinal cord stimulation (SCS), also referred to as dorsal colum ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
St. John's Wort St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum) is an invasive, flowering plant native to Europe and Asia. It is also known as Amber, Goatweed, Hardhay, and o ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Stevens Johnson Syndrome Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis are acute, rare and potentially fatal skin reactions involving loss of skin and in some cases ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Subclinical Hypothyroidism Subclinical hypothyroidism characteristically presents with normal thyroxine (T4) levels and elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. The in ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Subdural Hematoma A subdural hematoma, as its name implies, forms because of an abnormal collection of blood under the dura mater. This is one of the intracranial injur ... Read the Article 1.25 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Substance Induced Mood Disorders Substance-induced disorders include, among other disorders, substance/medication-induced mental disorders. Substance/medication-induced mental disorde ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Substance Use In Pregnancy Substance use disorder (SUD) in pregnancy is a growing concern in the United States. Patients with substance use disorders in the peripartum period fa ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Suicide Risk Suicide is the tenth most common cause of death in the United States, but it can often be prevented with appropriate intervention. This activity re ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Suicide Screening and Prevention Suicide is a major public health problem not only in the United States but in many western nations as well. In the United States, it is the 10th leadi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sympathomimetic Toxicity Stimulants have been abused for hundreds, if not thousands, of years because they can increase a person's ability to maintain focus and work for longe ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Syphilis Syphilis is a systemic, bacterial infection caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum. Due to its many protean clinical manifestations, it has been ... Read the Article 2.5 46 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Syringomyelia Syringomyelia is a neurologic condition caused by the presence of a fluid-filled cavity within the spinal cord parenchyma or central canal. It typical ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tardive Dyskinesia Tardive dyskinesia is a syndrome that includes a group of iatrogenic movement disorders caused by the blockade of dopamine receptors. The movement dis ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Temper Tantrums Although temper tantrums are a normal part of development in toddlers, they can be distressing for caregivers and families. This activity describes ch ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Temporal Seizure Temporal lobe epilepsy is the commonest seizure disorder and affects approximately fifty million people worldwide. The primary objective of this activ ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) THC or Tetrahydrocannabinol is the major psychoactive component and one of the 113 cannabinoids recognized in cannabis. A synthetic formulation of THC ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thioridazine Similar to other first-generation, or typical, antipsychotics, thioridazine is a medication used to treat schizophrenia. Other indications for use inc ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tick Paralysis Tick paralysis is an uncommon, noninfectious, neurologic syndrome characterized by acute ataxia that progresses to ascending paralysis. It is caused b ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Topiramate Topiramate is a medication used in the management and treatment of epilepsy and migraine. It is in the second-generation anti-epileptic drugs class of ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tourette Syndrome And Other Tic Disorders Tourette syndrome, also referred to as Tourette disorder, is a common neurodevelopmental disorder affecting up to 1 percent of the population. It is c ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis is caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan. Although many people are infected worldwide, the disea ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, known by its acronym TENS, is a modality that uses electric current to activate nerves in order to decrea ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Transient Global Amnesia Transient global amnesia (TGA) is acute onset anterograde amnesia that is temporary and usually occurs in middle-aged and older individuals. It is oft ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Transient Ischemic Attack A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a medical emergency. It is defined as a transient episode of neurologic dysfunction due to focal brain, spinal co ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Trauma Primary Survey The primary survey is designed to rapidly assess and treat life-threatening injuries. The main causes of death in trauma patients are airway obstructi ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Traumatic Brain Injury Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can result from trauma ranging from a simple blow to the head to a penetrating injury to the brain. In the United States, ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Trazodone Trazodone is a medication used in the management and treatment of major-depressive-disorder. It is in the serotonin-antagonist-and-reuptake-inhibitor ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Trichotillomania Obsessive-compulsive disorders encompass a large portion of diverse disorders and presentations that revolve around the central theme of repeated thou ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tricyclic Antidepressant Toxicity Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) were introduced in the late 1950s for the treatment of depression. With the advent of selective serotonin reuptake in ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tricyclic Antidepressants Tricyclic antidepressants are a class of medications used in the management and treatment of major depressive disorder. This activity reviews the indi ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Trigeminal Neuralgia Trigeminal neuralgia is one of the most painful neurological condition and is often described as 'lightning bolt' stuck on the face or a stabbing sens ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Trihexyphenidyl Trihexyphenidyl works as an anticholinergic and is used for the treatment of tremors, spasms, stiffness, and weak muscle control seen in patients with ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Trinucleotide Repeat Disorders Trinucleotide repeat disorders are neuropsychiatric disorders caused due to abnormal trinucleotide repeat expansions. Accurate diagnosis, with knowled ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vagus Nerve Stimulator This activity outlines the indications for the use of a vagal nerve stimulator. And also highlights the role of the interprofessional team in evaluati ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Valproic Acid Valproic acid is an anticonvulsive and mood stabilizer medication. It is extensively used in the adult population for the treatment of convulsions, mi ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Varenicline Smoking is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the human population and poses as one of the most modifiable risk factors towards preventing ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vascular Dementia Dementia is a syndrome of chronic progressive cognitive decline resulting in functional impairment. In the Diagnostic Manual of Mental Disorders, Fift ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Venlafaxine Venlafaxine is FDA approved to treat and manage symptoms of depression, social anxiety disorder, and cataplexy. Off-label, venlafaxine can be used f ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vestibular Dysfunction Vestibular dysfunction is a disturbance in the body's balance system due to peripheral or central causes. The symptoms of peripheral and central vesti ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vitamin B1 Thiamine Deficiency Thiamine, or vitamin B1, was the first vitamin identified to be identified. It functions as a catalyst in the generation of energy through decarboxyla ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vitamin B12 Deficiency Vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin that is derived from animal products such as red meat, dairy, and eggs. Intrinsic fac ... Read the Article 1.75 28 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Waddell Sign Professor Gordon Waddell first described a group of eight clinical physical signs in 1980 known as Waddell signs. As an orthopedic surgeon, Waddell in ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wernicke Encephalopathy Wernicke encephalopathy is an acute neurological condition characterized by a clinical triad of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and confusion. This disease i ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is a condition caused by a deficiency of thiamine or vitamin B1. Patients classically present with a clinical triad of oph ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wilson Disease Wilson disease (hepatolenticular degeneration) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder caused by abnormal copper accumulation in the body particularly ... Read the Article 1.75 27 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ziconotide Ziconotide is a newer, intrathecal analgesic medication used for the treatment of chronic pain. Its FDA indication is for the treatment of chronic sev ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ziprasidone Ziprasidone is an atypical antipsychotic that is used to treat schizophrenia, bipolar mania, and acute agitation in schizophrenic patients. Because it ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Zolmitriptan Zolmitriptan is a medication used in the management and treatment of acute migraine. It is in the triptan class of drugs. This activity describes the ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Zolpidem Zolpidem is a non-benzodiazepine receptor modulator primarily used in the FDA approved short-term treatment of insomnia aimed at patients with difficu ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Zonisamide Zonisamide is a sulfonamide antiepileptic drug that is a 1,2 benzisoxazole derivative and is the first compound from this group of chemicals to be use ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO

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