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Allergy and Immunology

Allergy and Immunology

Stay up to date on the latest medical knowledge with this Allergy and Immunology activity. In this online self-assessment activity, you'll read our reference articles and test your knowledge with 383 activities in Allergy and Immunology for 350.5 total CME hours.


6 Month Unlimited Physician MD/DO/PA CME

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1 Year Unlimited Physician MD/DO/PA CME

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Access to all the Physician MD/DO/PA CME activities in all specialties.

Featured Article Activities

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Fungal Sinusitis

There are several types of fungal sinusitis. The classification depends on the degree of invasion of the sinuses. The ov ...
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Hours: 1

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Dust Mite Allergy

Dust mite allergy is an IgE mediated Type 1 hypersensitivity reaction to dust mite allergens, commonly found in househol ...
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Hours: 1

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Asteatotic Eczema

This activity outlines the evaluation and treatment of asteatotic eczema and reviews the role of the healthcare team in ...
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Hours: 1

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Methacholine Challenge Test

Asthma is often diagnosed based on non-specific "classic" symptoms, leading to difficulty in diagnosis. Bronchoprovocati ...
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Hours: 0.75

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Transfusion Transmitted Disease

Transfusion transmitted diseases (TTD) comprise several pathologies that are transmitted by blood transfusions. The vari ...
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Hours: 0.75

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X-linked Agammaglobulinemia

X-linked agammaglobulinemia or XLA is a primary immunodeficiency disorder that prevents affected individuals from making ...
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Hours: 0.75

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Allergy and Immunology Activities

Title Description Hours Questions
Acneiform Eruptions Acneiform eruptions are a group of disorders characterized by papules and pustules resembling acne vulgaris. Acneiform eruptions demonstrate an acute ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acquired Angioedema Angioedema is characterized by one or more areas of well-demarcated, non-pitting edema of deep subcutaneous tissues. It is primarily known to involve ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acquired Hemophilia Acquired hemophilia is an uncommon but severe bleeding disorder. It is caused by the development of autoantibodies directed against one of the antihem ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Human immunodeficiency virus is transmitted sexually, via blood transfusions, sharing intravenous needles, and from the mother to a child during the b ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acrodermatitis Papular Papular acrodermatitis of childhood (Gianotti-Crosti syndrome) is a benign rash that occurs in childhood associated with multiple viral illnesses and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Actinic Prurigo Actinic prurigo, also known as prurigo or hydroa aestivale or Hutchinson summer, is a photodermatosis that is characterized by intensely pruritic papu ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acupuncture Acupuncture is a system of medical treatment and ideology that is based on the principle of applying small needles or pressure to specific points in t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Bronchitis Acute bronchitis is the inflammation of the lining of the bronchi. It is a common presentation in emergency departments, urgent care centers, and in p ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Febrile Neutrophilic Dermatosis Acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis, also known as Sweet syndrome, consists of erythematous plaques and papules along with constitutional symptoms s ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Sinusitis Rhinosinusitis is among the most common conditions encountered in the primary care clinic. It can result from viral, bacterial, or fungal infections, ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Transplantation Rejection Acute transplant rejection occurs days to months after a transplant when the immune system identifies a grafted organ as foreign and attacks it. Acute ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adalimumab Adalimumab is a fully human, high-affinity, recombinant anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha monoclonal antibody, used to treat rheumatoid arthritis ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adenoviruses The adenoviruses are DNA viruses common in animals and humans, occurring frequently in both adults and children. There are more than 100 serologically ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adrenergic Drugs Adrenergic drugs are a broad class of medications that bind to adrenergic receptors throughout the body. These receptors include: alpha-1, alpha-2, be ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Agammaglobulinemia Agammaglobulinemia or hypogammaglobulinemia is a rare inherited immunodeficiency disorder, characterized by low or absent B cells with absent immunogl ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Allergic And Environmental Induced Asthma Asthma is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Numerous studies have shown that early institution of inhaled corticosteroids ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a common fungal infection in uncontrolled asthmatics, cystic fibrosis patients, and immunocompromise ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Allergic Conjunctivitis Allergic conjunctivitis is encountered in up to 40 percent of the population, but only a small proportion of affected individuals seek medical help. I ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Allergic Contact Dermatitis Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a type 4 or delayed-type hypersensitivity response (DTH) by an individual’s immune system to a small molecule (le ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Allergic Interstitial Nephritis Allergic interstitial nephritis (AIN) is the most common form of acute interstitial nephritis. It is most often caused by exposure to a drug. AIN is o ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Allergic Rhinitis Allergic rhinitis (AR) is an atopic disease with symptoms of sneezing, nasal congestion, clear rhinorrhea, and nasal pruritis. It is an abnormal exces ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Allergy Allergy is described as an exaggerated response from the body’s immune system to otherwise inert substances present in the environment. The usual symp ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Allergy Desensitization Allergy desensitization also termed allergen immunotherapy (AIT) or hyposensitization was first introduced by Leonard Noon in 1911, who proposed that ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aluminum Hydroxide Aluminum hydroxide is a medication used in the management and treatment of acid indigestion. It is in the antacid class of drugs. This activity outlin ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amniotic Fluid Embolism Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is a rare entity, but one which has very high mortality and morbidity rates. This article will explain the clinical pres ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ampicillin/Sulbactam Ampicillin/sulbactam combination shows synergy to cover strains of bacteria resistant to ampicillin, thus providing broader coverage. This combo adds ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anaphylaxis Anaphylaxis is an acute, life-threatening hypersensitivity disorder, defined as a generalized, rapidly-evolving, multi-systemic allergic reaction. Ana ... Read the Article 1.5 23 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
ANCA Positive Vasculitis Antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) associated vasculitides are a heterogeneous group of rare autoimmune conditions that causes an inflammati ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angioedema Angioedema is non-pitting edema that involves subcutaneous and/or submucosal layers of tissue that affects the face, lips, neck, and extremities, oral ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angioneurotic Edema Angioneurotic edema is a relatively common presentation in the emergency department. It presents as unpredictable frequent edematous episodes of cutan ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEI) ACE inhibitors are medications used in the treatment and management of hypertension, which is a significant risk factor for coronary disease heart fai ... Read the Article 1.5 24 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anifrolumab Anifrolumab is a novel investigational agent used in the management and treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). It is a fully humanized IgG1k ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antibody Deficiency Disorder Antibody deficiency disorders may present soon after birth with recurrent infections. Normal individuals have 5 classes of immunoglobulins and several ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antiemetic Histamine H1 Receptor Blockers First-generation antihistamines have several indications that primarily include nausea and vomiting secondary to motion sickness and vertigo, but seco ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antihistamines Antihistamines are a pharmaceutical class of drugs that act to treat histamine-mediated conditions. There are two main classes of histamine receptors: ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis Anti NMDAR encephalitis is a relatively common autoimmune encephalitis characterized by complex neuropsychiatric features and the presence of Immunogl ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aphthous Stomatitis Aphthous stomatitis is a common ailment, idiopathic in nature, with recurrent painful aphthous ulcers (commonly termed “canker sores”) on the non-kera ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arcus Senilis Corneal arcus are white or gray incomplete rings that form around the cornea. They are usually clinically insignificant but may be associated with an ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Argatroban Argatroban is a medication used in the management of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia(HIT), which is a rare, life-threatening complication of heparin ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arthritis Arthritis is defined as an acute or chronic joint inflammation in the joint. Arthritis may attribute to a wide variety of symptoms that include pain, ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aspart Insulin Insulin aspart is a rapid-acting, human insulin analog that is FDA approved for the treatment of type-1 and type-2 diabetes mellitus to improve glycem ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aspergillosis Aspergillosis is a disease caused by the fungus Aspergillus. It mostly occurs in the form of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA), aspergilloma or al ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aspergillus Fumigatus Aspergillus is a ubiquitous saprophyte in nature found in air, soil and organic matter. Humans normally inhale the spore form of the fungi. However, t ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Asteatotic Eczema This activity outlines the evaluation and treatment of asteatotic eczema and reviews the role of the healthcare team in managing patients with this co ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Asthma Asthma is a chronic disease of the air passages characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways. Symptoms of asthma include shortness of br ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Asthma In Pregnancy Bronchial asthma (BA) is considered the most common chronic disease in pregnancy, complicating 4% to 8% of pregnancies. Bronchial asthma exacerbation ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Asthma Medication in Children Asthma typically presents with a history of respiratory symptoms such as wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness and cough, and is characterize ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Asthma Medications Asthma is a wide-reaching, chronic, inflammatory illness that impacts millions of people daily. It is frequently responsible for unscheduled healthcar ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atopic Dermatitis Atopic dermatitis (AD), which is a specific form of eczema, is the most common chronic inflammatory skin disease. Atopic dermatitis has a complex etio ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atopy Atopy is a predisposition to an immune response against diverse antigens and allergens leading to CD4+ Th2 differentiation and overproduction of immun ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Autoimmune Myopathies Idiopathic inflammatory myositis (IIM) is classified into four subtypes based on clinical and histopathological features. Polymyositis (PM) and dermat ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Autoimmune Pancreatitis Autoimmune pancreatitis is a clinical condition characterized by inflammation of the pancreas from an autoimmune etiology. It is an uncommon cause of ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacillary Angiomatosis Bacillary angiomatosis (epithelioid angiomatosis) is an uncommon disease characterized by neovascular proliferation in the skin or the internal organs ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacterial Pharyngitis Pharyngitis, more commonly described as sore throat, represents inflammation or irritation of the posterior oropharynx. While the majority of cases ar ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Balanoposthitis Balanoposthitis is a common disease process involving the glans penis and prepuce. It affects up to 12% to 20% of pediatric and adult males. This acti ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Behcet Disease Behcet disease, also known as an oculo-orogenital syndrome, is a chronic remitting and relapsing inflammatory disorder characterized by recurrent oral ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bernard Soulier Syndrome Bernard-Soulier syndrome is a rare inherited blood clotting disorder that is characterized by unusually giant platelet cells, thrombocytopenia, and pr ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biologic Response Modifiers (BRMs) Biologic response modifiers (BRMs), also known as immunomodulators, are the class of medications that target the disease-causing mechanism. They are u ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blood Product Safety Transfusion of blood products is one of the most commonly performed clinical procedures in healthcare today. Blood product safety has been an improvin ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bronchiectasis Bronchiectasis is a chronic lung disease characterized by persistent and lifelong widening of the bronchial airways and weakening of the function muco ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bronchiolitis Bronchiolitis is a common lung infection in young individuals. The viral infection involves the lower respiratory tract and can present with signs of ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Bronchoalveolar Lavage or BAL is a minimally invasive procedure that involves instillation of sterile normal saline into a subsegment of the lung, fol ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bruton Agammaglobulinemia Bruton agammaglobulinemia, also known as X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) or Bruton's agammaglobulinemia, is an inherited immunodeficiency disorder. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bullous Pemphigoid Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is the most common autoimmune subepidermal blistering disorder, representing 80% of subepidermal immunobullous cases. Bullous ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bullous Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Bullous systemic lupus erythematosus (BSLE) is a rare manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus. It has clinical and histological features that ma ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Burkitt Lymphoma Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is an aggressive non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma. The disease is associated with Epstein Barr virus (EBV), human immunodeficiency vi ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Busulfan Busulfan is a medication used in the management and treatment of allogeneic hematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation specifically for patients wi ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
C1 Esterase Inhibitor Deficiency C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency, also known as hereditary angioedema, results in the unchecked production of the vasodilator bradykinin. This increas ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Candidiasis Candidiasis is an opportunistic infection due to Candida, which can affect the oral cavity, vagina, penis, or other parts of the body. Untreated Candi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Celiac Disease Celiac disease, also known as gluten-sensitive enteropathy, is an autoimmune disease of the small intestine. Celiac disease is a condition in which th ... Read the Article 1.5 24 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cheilitis Cheilitis is an inflammation of the lips. It may be acute or chronic, involving the vermilion and/or surrounding skin of one or both lips. It is a fre ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cheilitis Granulomatosa Cheilitis granulomatosa (CG) is a rare granulomatous disorder characterized by a recurrent firm swelling of one or both lips. This is called the cheil ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-Cell Therapy Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are recombinant receptors for antigens which redirect the specificity and function of T lymphocytes and/or other imm ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Bronchitis Chronic bronchitis is a type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that is defined as a productive cough of more than 3 months occurring wit ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Cough Cough is a natural defense mechanism that allows clearance of bronchial tree secretions and the elimination of inhaled foreign particles. It is a comm ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Granulomatous Disease Chronic granulomatous diseases (CGD) are a group of recurrent life-threatening infections due to a hereditary defect in forming reactive oxygen specie ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Inflammation Chronic inflammation is also referred to as slow, long-term inflammation lasting several months to years. Generally, the extent and effects of chronic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Iron Deficiency Chronic iron deficiency is the most common nutrient deficiency in the world and a significant common cause of anemia worldwide. It is mainly caused by ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Mesenteric Ischemia Mesenteric ischemia is a manifestation of peripheral vascular disease in which the blood supply fails to meet the metabolic demands of visceral organs ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Sinusitis Chronic sinusitis is an inflammation of the sinus or nasal passages occurring for more than 12 weeks at a time. It may present as chronic sinusitis wi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Transplantation Rejection Transplant rejection can be classified as hyperacute, acute, or chronic. Hyperacute rejection is usually caused by specific antibodies against the gra ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Urticaria Chronic spontaneous urticaria is defined as the occurrence of wheals and/or angioedema for a total duration of six weeks or more. Synonymous with "chr ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Churg Strauss Syndrome Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, formerly known as Churg-Strauss syndrome, belongs to a group of diseases characterized by necrotizing v ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cicatricial Pemphigoid Cicatricial pemphigoid is a rare, chronic autoimmune blistering disorder which can produce scarring. It can affect the skin, the mucous membranes, or ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ciliary Dysfunction The majority of newborns with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), formerly known as immotile cilia syndrome, develop neonatal respiratory distress with ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cimetidine Cimetidine is a drug with the indication of peptic ulcer disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and for dermatological conditions including warts, ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clotrimazole Clotrimazole is a medication used in the management and treatment of fungal infections. It is in the imidazole class of drugs. This activity outlines ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Common Variable Hypogammaglobulinemia Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common primary immunodeficiency which can present in a variety of clinical manifestations. It req ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Common Variable Immunodeficiency Common variable immunodeficiency is a disorder characterized by defective B cell function leading to impaired immunoglobulin production. It can presen ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Community-Acquired Pneumonia Community-acquired pneumonia is a leading cause of hospitalization, mortality, and incurs significant health care costs. As disease presentation varie ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Complement Deficiency The immune system is the body’s defense mechanism against infections and is made of two pathways - the innate and adaptive pathway. The innate pathway ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Conjunctivitis Conjunctivitis refers to the inflammation or infection of the conjunctiva. It is the most common presentation of eye redness in both primary care and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Contact Dermatitis Contact dermatitis is an inflammatory eczematous skin disease. It is caused by chemicals or metal ions that exert toxic effects without inducing a T-c ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Contact Urticaria Contact urticaria is a transient wheal and flare response on exposure to specific agents, especially in the work environment. Contact urticaria falls ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Contrast Agent Toxicity Contrast agents, also called contrast media, are substances used to enhance the radiodensity of a targeted tissue by altering the way that electromagn ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Corneal Abrasion A corneal abrasion (also called scratched eye or scratched cornea) is an eye injury that causes significant discomfort, photophobia, and erythema. Thi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Corticosteroid Adverse Effects Corticosteroids are hormone mediators produced by the cortex of adrenal glands that further categorize into glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cosmeceuticals The term 'cosmeceutical' has always been controversial, with the lack of a proper definition, its difference from individual cosmetic and pharmaceutic ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cough Cough is one of the most common medical complaints accounting for as many as 30 million clinical visits per year. Up to 40% of these complaints result ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cow Milk Allergy Cow's milk allergy is an allergic reaction to the protein found in cow’s milk. Diagnosis can be difficult as it is primarily based on history and phys ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Crotalidae Envenomation Crotalid envenomations cause a spectrum of disease, with both localized and systemic toxicity, which can result in both prolonged morbidity and rarely ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Croup Croup is a common respiratory illness of the trachea, larynx, and bronchi that can lead to inspiratory stridor and barking cough. It is a self-limited ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cryglobulinemic Vasculitis Cryoglobulinemic vasculitis is an immune complex-mediated inflammation of blood vessels. It is usually seen as part of other diseases and is the most ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cryoglobulinemia Cryoglobulins are proteins that precipitate from an individual’s serum or plasma at temperatures lower than 37°C. They can be a mixture of immunoglobu ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cutaneous Adverse Drug Reaction Cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADR), also known as toxidermia, are skin manifestations resulting from systemic drug administration. These reaction ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cyclosporine Cyclosporine is an immunosuppressive agent used to treat organ rejection post-transplant. It also has use in certain other autoimmune diseases, treatm ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cystic Fibrosis Until relatively modern times, cystic fibrosis was poorly understood. In 1949, Lowe et al. postulated that cystic fibrosis must be caused by a geneti ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dapsone Dapsone is indicated for a variety of conditions, both dermatologic and non-dermatologic. The FDA-approved indications are leprosy and dermatitis herp ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Delayed Hypersensitivity Reactions Coombs and Gel classified type IV hypersensitivity reaction (HR) as a delayed hypersensitivity reaction (DHR), which takes more than 12 hours to devel ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dermatitis Herpetiformis Dermatitis herpetiformis is a chronic, autoimmune, blistering disease that causes an extremely pruritic rash that predominantly affects the extensor s ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dermatographism Dermatographism, also known as Dermographism urticaria, or urticaria factitia, is an urticarial eruption upon pressure or trauma to the skin. The lite ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dermatomyositis Dermatomyositis is a rare condition that causes muscle inflammation. It presents with symmetric proximal muscle weakness, skin rash, and extramacular ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diaper Dermatitis Diaper dermatitis is an inflammatory reaction of the skin of the perineal and perianal areas (diaper area). It is the most common skin disorder seen i ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
DiGeorge Syndrome DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is a congenital disorder with a broad phenotypic presentation, which results predominantly from the microdeletion of chromosom ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Digoxin Immune Fab Digoxin immune fab is a medication used in the management and treatment of digoxin toxicity. Most toxicity cases are seen in patients with a past medi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diphenhydramine Diphenhydramine, which is available as an over-the-counter medication, is a first-generation antihistamine that is used in a variety of conditions to ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diphenhydramine Toxicity Diphenhydramine is most often used for the treatment of nausea, vomiting, allergic rhinitis, mild to severe allergic reactions (e.g., anaphylaxis), an ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Direct Laryngoscopy Direct laryngoscopy allows visualization of the larynx. It is used during general anesthesia, for surgical procedures of the larynx, and during resusc ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Distributive Shock As is true of the four broad classifications of shock, distributive shock, also known as vasodilatory shock, causes inadequate tissue perfusion. In di ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dornase Alfa Dornase alfa is a medication used in the management and treatment of cystic fibrosis. It is in the category B class of drugs. This activity outlines t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Doxycycline Hyclate Doxycycline hyclate is a medication used in the management and treatment of a variety of infections. It is in the tetracyclines class of drugs. This a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Doxylamine Doxylamine is a medication used in the management and treatment of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP), allergic rhinitis, and insomnia. It is in t ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dronabinol Dronabinol is synthetic tetrahydrocannabinol ('THC'), which obtained FDA approval in 1985 for the treatment of HIV/AIDs-induced anorexia and chemother ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Drug Induced Pemphigus Pemphigus is a broad term used to describe a rare group of bullous autoimmune diseases that affect the skin and mucosal membranes. The hallmark presen ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Drug-Induced Lupus Erythematosus Drug-induced lupus erythematosus (DIL) is an autoimmune phenomenon where the patient develops symptoms similar to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dust Mite Allergy Dust mite allergy is an IgE mediated Type 1 hypersensitivity reaction to dust mite allergens, commonly found in household dust. The prevalence of atop ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Eczema Eczema, also known as atopic dermatitis, is a common chronic skin condition that can lead to recurrent infections and poor quality of life if left unt ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Eczema Herpeticum Eczema herpeticum (EH) is a disseminated cutaneous infection with herpes simplex virus that develops in a patient with atopic dermatitis. EH typically ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Edrophonium Edrophonium is a medication used in the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis. It is in the acetylcholinesterase class of drugs. This activity reviews the in ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Egg Allergy Egg allergy is IgE-mediated and healthy individuals are capable of generating antigen-specific IgE upon exposure to egg allergens. It is believed tha ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
EMS Airway Management In Adverse Conditions Managing the airway of the critically ill or injured patient is a core skill in emergency medical care. In addition to difficulties arising from physi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Endomyocardial Biopsy The role and utility of endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) in the work-up of cardiovascular diseases remains controversial and the practice varies widely in ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Eosinophilia Eosinophils are a kind of blood granulocytes that express cytoplasmic granules that contain basic proteins and bind with acidic dyes like “eosin.” The ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Eosinophilic Esophagitis The esophagus physiologically lacks eosinophils, and when present, the condition is considered to be pathologic. Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) was on ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis Eosinophilic gastroenteritis belongs to the group of eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders, which comprise of eosinophilic esophagitis and eosinophi ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Eosinophilic Pneumonia Eosinophilic pneumonia includes a group of disorders characterized by an accumulation of eosinophilic infiltrates in the pulmonary parenchyma with or ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidermolysis Bullosa Acquisita Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA) is a rare chronic autoimmune blistering disease of the skin and mucous membranes. EBA is caused by autoantibodie ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epinastine Epinastine is a medication used in the treatment and management of allergic conjunctivitis. This activity reviews the indications, contraindications, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Erythema Marginatum Erythema marginatum is reactive inflammatory erythema seen most commonly in association with acute rheumatic fever. Although a rare cutaneous manifest ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Erythema Nodosum Erythema nodosum (EN) is a common acute nodular septal panniculitis, characterized by the sudden onset of erythematous, firm, solid, deep nodules or p ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is a common hematology test that measures how quickly red blood cells settle to the bottom of an elongated tu ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Etanercept Etanercept is a medication used in the management and treatment of autoimmune conditions such as plaque psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic art ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Evaluation and Treatment of Snake Envenomations Snakebites are responsible for a significant degree of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in low resource countries. There are over 600 spe ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Evans Syndrome Evans syndrome is an autoimmune condition that presents with two or more cytopenias, which commonly include autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) and imm ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Exenatide Exenatide is FDA-indicated to improve glycemic control in adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus when used as an adjunct to diet and exercise. I ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Exercise Induced Asthma Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) describes a transient and reversible contraction of bronchial smooth muscle after physical exertion that ma ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Exfoliative Dermatitis Erythroderma is a clinical finding characterized by diffuse erythema and scaling of 90% of the body surface area. It results from a myriad of underlyi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Familial Mediterranean Fever Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autoinflammatory genetic disorder that mainly affects people of Mediterranean origin. FMF is characterized by ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Farmers Lung Farmer's lung is a type of hypersensitivity pneumonitis that is caused by precipitants such as moldy hay or straw. This condition’s specificity towar ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Flea Bites Flea bites are common in North America, especially in outdoor or unkempt conditions. Improving the interprofessional team's skills to educate patients ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fluticasone Fluticasone is a medication used in the management and treatment of asthma, allergic rhinitis, emphysema, and atopic dermatitis. It is in the corticos ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis Focal segmental glomerular sclerosis (FSGS) is histologically characterized by segmental scarring that involves a part of the glomerulus and only affe ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Food Allergies Food allergy is defined as an immune reaction to proteins in the food and can be immunoglobulin (Ig)E-mediated or non-IgE-mediated. IgE-mediated food ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fructose 1-Phosphate Aldolase Deficiency Fructose 1-phosphate aldolase deficiency or hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by the deficiency in aldol ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fungal Sinusitis There are several types of fungal sinusitis. The classification depends on the degree of invasion of the sinuses. The overarching categories are non-i ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastritis The current classification of gastritis is based on time course (acute versus chronic), histological features, anatomic distribution, and underlying p ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition that develops when there is a retrograde flow of stomach contents back into the esophagus. It ca ... Read the Article 2 31 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gingivitis Gingivitis is an inflammatory condition of the gingival tissue or the gums most commonly due to a bacterial infection. It is inflammation of the gingi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glucose 6 Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase is an enzyme found in the cytoplasm of all cells in the body. It is a housekeeping enzyme that plays a vital role in ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Graft Versus Host Disease Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) occurs due to the presence of immunocompetent T lymphocytes in the graft attacking the immunodeficient recipient tiss ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Granular Parakeratosis Granular parakeratosis is a benign condition that is best categorized as a reaction pattern rather than a distinct cutaneous disease. It presents typi ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a rare vasculitis affecting small vessels. Hallmark features include necrotizing granulomas and pauci-immune ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Guttate Psoriasis Psoriasis is a chronic, inflammatory disorder that presents as well-defined, scaly, erythematous plaques, and occasionally, sterile pustules. Guttate ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
H1N1 Influenza H1N1 influenza is a subtype of influenza A virus, a communicable viral illness which causes upper and in some cases lower respiratory tract infections ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Haemophilus Influenza Type B Vaccine The Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine is a vaccine used in the prevention of invasive H. influenzae infections (usually caused by H. influen ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Halobetasol Cream Halobetasol cream is a medication used in the management and treatment of psoriasis. It is in the topical corticosteroid class of drugs. This activity ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Bone marrow transplant, also known as hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HPSCT) involves the administration of healthy hematopoietic stem cells to pa ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemolytic Transfusion Reaction Hemolytic transfusion reactions are one possible complication from transfusions. Hemolysis is the rupture of red blood cells, and can occur intravascu ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemophilia B Hemophilia B is an inherited disease, mainly caused by the deficiency of factor IX. It mostly affects males, but carrier females may show some signs o ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Henoch Schonlein Purpura Henoch-Schonlein purpura is an IgA-mediated immune vasculitis involving the small vessels of the joints, kidneys, gastrointestinal (GI) tract, skin, a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Heparin Induced Thrombocytopenia Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a severe complication that can occur in patients exposed to any form or amount of heparin products. A fall i ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hepatitis A Vaccine Hepatitis A infection is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. This activity will describe how to prevent this infection through t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hepatitis B Vaccine The hepatitis B vaccine is a medication used in the prevention of hepatitis B infection, which can lead to chronic liver failure and hepatocellular ca ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hereditary Angioedema Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by either a lack of C1-inhibitor protein or by dysfunctional C1-inhibitor protein. ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Histamine Toxicity Scombroid poisoning results from eating fish that have been improperly stored. The primary toxic agent implicated in scombroid toxicity is histidine, ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Histoplasmosis Histoplasma capsulatum is a dimorphic fungus present worldwide in pockets of endemicity particularly associated with river valleys. The endemic region ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
HIV Disease Current Practice This activity explains when this condition should be considered on a differential diagnosis, articulates how to properly evaluate for this condition, ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
HIV-1 Associated Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis is a common cause of central nervous system (CNS) infection in patients with HIV/AIDS who do not take appropriate prophylaxis. Cerebral ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyaluronic Acid Hyaluronic acid is a high-molecular-weight polysaccharide, which is widely distributed in the connective tissue extracellular matrix. Several preparat ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hymenoptera Stings The Hymenoptera order includes over 150,000 different species of flying and non-flying insects. Some species within this order have modified oviposito ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) classified as an interstitial lung disease is characterized by a complex immunological reaction of the lung parenchy ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypogammaglobulinemia Hypogammaglobulinemia is a disorder caused by low serum immunoglobulin or antibody levels. Immunoglobulins are the main components of the humoral immu ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonia With Autoimmune Features This article is aimed at introducing idiopathic interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features (IPAF) as a separate entity under the umbrella of inte ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a lung disorder where there is scarring of the lungs from an unknown cause. It is usually a progressive disease ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Idiopathic Pulmonary Hemorrhage Idiopathic pulmonary hemorrhage is a rare condition caused by bleeding into the lower respiratory tract, usually the alveoli. Its classical presentati ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
IgA Deficiency Immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency is a common primary immunodeficiency characterized by undetectable serum IgA, a concomitant lack of secretory IgA, a ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
IgA Pemphigus IgA pemphigus is a rare autoimmune blistering disease characterized by painful and pruritic vesiculopustular eruptions. These eruptions form as a resu ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
IgG4 Related Disease Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is also known as IgG4-related systemic disease, hyper-IgG4 disease, IgG4-related autoimmune disease, IgG4- ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Immediate Hypersensitivity Reactions Hypersensitivity reactions are exaggerated or inappropriate immunologic responses occuring in response to an antigen or allergen. Type I, II, and III ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura Immune thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP) is defined as a low platelet count, usually, less than 100,000 in the presence of a generalized petechial rash, ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Immunodeficiency Immunodeficiency results from a failure or absence of elements of the immune system, including lymphocytes, phagocytes, and complement system. Immunod ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Immunoglobulin Immunoglobulins (Ig) or antibodies are glycoproteins that are produced by plasma cells. B cells are instructed by specific immunogens, for, example, b ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Immunoglobulin E As one of the five designated immunoglobulin isotypes, immunoglobulin E (IgE) plays a major role in atopic conditions by inducing immediate hypersensi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Immunotherapy Immunotherapy is used to upregulate or downregulate the immune system to achieve a therapeutic effect in immunological mediated disorders including im ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Infant Nutrition Requirements and Options Infancy is a period of rapid growth second only to the fetal period, with a pressing need to optimize nutrition to ensure adequate growth and organ de ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Infectious Scleritis Infectious scleritis is an inflammatory process of the sclera due to a microbial agent. In order to avoid the risk of enucleation or evisceration due ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Inflammatory Back Pain Inflammatory back pain (IBP) is a condition of pain localized to the axial spine and sacroiliac joints that is chronic and is differentiated from mech ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Infliximab Infliximab is a biologic, monoclonal-antibody drug. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Infliximab for moderate to sever ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Infliximab-abda Infliximab (IFX) is a biologic agent that specifically targets an immune mediator, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFa), involved in a pathological proc ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Influenza Influenza is a communicable viral disease that affects the upper respiratory tract, including upper and lower respiratory passages. A wide spectrum of ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Influenza Vaccine Influenza viruses belong to Orthomyxoviridae RNA virus family and classify into three distinct types based on their major antigenic differences; influ ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Inhaled Corticosteroids Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the FDA-indicated treatment of choice in preventing asthma exacerbation in patients with persistent asthma. Persiste ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Insect Bites The term "bug bite" is commonly used to denote both bites and stings inflicted by members of the phylum Arthropoda. Arthropods make up the largest di ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Interferon Interferons are currently used clinically to treat viral infections such as hepatitis C, cancers including non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and autoimmune dise ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Interferon Test Tuberculosis is a widespread infectious disease that continues to plague much of the world. Through adequate testing procedures, eradication of this d ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Interstitial Lung Disease Interstitial lung disease (diffused parenchymal diseases) are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by fibrosis (scarring) of the lungs. Th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Interstitial Pulmonary Fibrosis Nonidiopathic interstitial pulmonary fibrosis describes a group of diseases causing fibrosis to the lung parenchyma due to a known cause. This a serio ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG) Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG) is a pooled antibody and a biological agent used in the management of various immunodeficiency states and a plethora ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Iritis Acute anterior uveitis, also known as iritis, is the inflammation of the anterior or posterior chamber and iris. It is not a true ocular emergency, an ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ischemic Stroke Cerebrovascular accidents, commonly known as strokes, are prevalent across patient populations and can be a significant cause of morbidity and mortali ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Isoniazid Toxicity Isoniazid (INH) is a potent bactericidal antibiotic used in the treatment of tuberculosis. Treatment with INH therapy has a risk of toxicity, which ca ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
ITP-Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is an autoimmune pathology characterized by a low platelet count, purpura and hemorrhagic episodes caused by ant ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ixekizumab Ixekizumab is FDA-indicated for the adult treatment of moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. These adult patients are also candidates for systemic ther ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Jarisch Herxheimer Reaction Jarisch Herxheimer reaction (JHR) is a transient clinical phenomenon that occurs in patients infected by spirochetes who undergo antibiotic treatment. ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Job Syndrome Job Syndrome (Hyper-IgE syndrome) is a rare, primary immunodeficiency distinguished by the clinical triad of atopic dermatitis, recurrent skin staphyl ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Juvenile Dermatomyositis Dermatomyositis is a rare autoimmune inflammatory myositis of unknown etiology affecting both children and adults. It involves striated muscles and sk ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Kawasaki Disease Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute, self-limited medium vessel vasculitis that has a predilection for the coronary arteries. This activity reviews the ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Keratosis Pilaris Keratosis pilaris is a chronic condition most common in the adolescent population. The condition characteristically presents with papules with follicu ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Kikuchi Disease Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease is a rare benign self-limiting inflammatory lymphadenitis that develops in young patients, initially described in Asian popul ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Kuru Kuru disease is an infectious, acquired, non-immunogenic, fatal neurodegenerative prion disease. It progresses rapidly with cerebellar and extrapyrami ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lactose Intolerance Lactose intolerance is a clinical syndrome that manifests with characteristic signs and symptoms upon the consumption of food substances containing la ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Latex Allergy Latex comes from a sap found in rubber trees, Hevea brasiliensis, which is used to make many products used today. It is allergenic and causes symptoms ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency Leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD) is an immunodeficiency disorder involving both B and T cells and is characterized by an inability of leukocytes to ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Leukocytosis Leukocytosis has a variety of etiologies with which clinicians of all backgrounds should be familiar. This activity outlines the evaluation of leukocy ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Leukotriene Receptor Antagonists Montelukast and zafirlukast are cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonists indicated for the prevention and treatment of chronic asthma. This activity ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Libman Sacks Endocarditis Libman-Sacks endocarditis, also known as murantic or verrucous endocarditis, is a form of nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE) which involves t ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lichen Simplex Chronicus Lichen simplex chronicus is defined as a common form of chronic neurodermatitis that presents as dry, patchy areas of skin that are scaly and thick. T ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lidocaine Lidocaine is a local anesthetic agent that is commonly used for local and topic anesthesia, but which also has antiarrhythmic and analgesic uses and c ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Linear IGA Dermatosis Linear immunoglobulin A bullous dermatosis (LABD), also known as linear immunoglobulin A dermatosis or linear immunoglobulin A disease, is a relativel ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lipid Emulsion Therapy Lipid emulsion therapy is a medication used in the management and treatment of Local anesthetic toxicity. This activity reviews the indications, actio ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Littoral Cell Splenic Angioma Littoral cell angioma (LCA) is a rare splenic tumor. Both benign and malignant cases have been reported. This activity reviews the clinical presentati ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lung Transplantation Rejection As the number of lung transplants annually in the US and worldwide has increased, so has the occurrence of lung transplant rejection. Lung transplant ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lupus Miliaris Disseminatus Faciei Lupus miliaris disseminatus faciei (LMDF) is an idiopathic granulomatous disease affecting facial skin primarily. It shares overlapping features with ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Luspatercept Luspatercept is a medication used in the management and treatment of anemia in myelodysplastic syndromes, primary myelofibrosis, and beta-thalassemia. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lymphoproliferative Disorders Lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) comprise a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled production of lymphocytes that cause mono ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Malabsorption Syndromes This activity is a brief overview of malabsorption symptoms as they pertain to fat, carbohydrate, protein, vitamin, mineral, and trace elements digest ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Meningococcal Prophylaxis Neisseria meningitidis is a gram-negative bacterium that inhabits the mucosal surface of the nasopharynx in approximately 10% of healthy persons. The ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Meningococcal Vaccine Meningococcal disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. This activity will describe how to deal with this disease as a serious ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mesalamine (USAN) Mesalamine, is also known as 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), is a medication used in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. It is under the drug classif ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Methacholine Challenge Test Asthma is often diagnosed based on non-specific "classic" symptoms, leading to difficulty in diagnosis. Bronchoprovocation testing provides a valuable ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mexiletine Mexiletine is largely used to suppress ventricular arrhythmias but also has a role in peripheral neuropathy and chronic pain, although the use for eit ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Minocycline Minocycline is a medication used in the management and treatment of both infectious and non-infectious conditions. It is in the tetracycline class of ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
MMR Vaccine The measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine is a live-attenuated combined vaccine used in the prevention and, in specific patient populations, post-exposu ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Moisturizers Moisturizers are topically applied products designed to increase the water content of the skin. Ingredients used in these products have a range of ac ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Molluscum Contagiosum Molluscum contagiosum, also called water warts, is a benign condition of the skin. The skin lesions of molluscum contagiosum are called mollusca. The ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Montelukast Montelukast is an orally dosed drug (available as a film-coated tablet, chewable tablet, or oral granules) which is FDA-approved for the treatment of ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Morphine FDA-approved usage of morphine sulfate includes moderate to severe pain that may be acute or chronic. Most commonly used in pain management, morphine ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mosquito Bites Mosquitoes are responsible for the majority of insect bites worldwide. They are present in all continents aside from Antarctica. Although mosquito bit ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Muscarinic Agonists Muscarinic agonists are parasympathomimetic drugs and are indicated for ileus, urinary retention, glaucoma, Alzheimer disease, and other symptoms. Thi ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Myasthenia Gravis Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder affecting the neuromuscular junction. It manifests as a generalized muscle weakness which can involve the ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mycobacterium Kansasii Mycobacterium kansasii is a slow-growing, non-tuberculosis mycobacterium (NTM) that, like other mycobacterial species, tends to cause six clinical pat ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mycoplasma Pneumonia Mycoplasma pneumonia is a bacteria that can infect humans. It usually causes upper respiratory tract infections, but can also cause pneumonia, and it ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nasal Polyps Nasal polyps are a ubiquitous diagnosis that can manifest in a variety of diseases, the most common being chronic rhinosinusitis. Although benign, nas ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), previously known as lymphoepithelioma, is a malignancy arising from the epithelium of the nasopharynx. Endemic to Chin ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Natalizumab Natalizumab is an FDA-approved, monoclonal antibody approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis and Crohn's disease. The drug was originally appr ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neonatal Lupus Erythematosus Neonatal lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease that takes place due to the passive maternal transfer of autoantibodies of Sjogren syndrome auto ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neuroleptic Medications Neuroleptics, also known as antipsychotic medications, are used to treat and manage symptoms of many psychiatric disorders. They fall into two classes ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neutropenia Neutrophils play an essential role in immune defenses because they ingest, kill, and digest invading microorganisms, including fungi and bacteria. Fai ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Niacin Deficiency Niacin (vitamin B3) deficiency results in a condition known as pellagra. Pellagra includes the triad of dermatitis, dementia, and diarrhea and can res ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nickel Allergy Nickel allergy is a type of contact dermatitis caused by direct contact with nickel. It is the most common identifiable cause of metal-related contact ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nocardiosis Nocardiosis is an infectious disease caused by Nocardia that classically manifests as an opportunistic infection in immunocompromised hosts. Pulmonary ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ocular Tuberculosis Ocular tuberculosis is a rare extrapulmonary manifestation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Clinical symptoms primarily occur from hematogenou ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Omalizumab Omalizumab is a recombinant humanized IgG1 monoclonal anti-IgE antibody used in the treatment of allergic asthma and chronic urticaria. This activity ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Omphalitis Omphalitis is an infection of the umbilicus and/or surrounding tissues, occurring primarily in the neonatal period. It is a true medical emergency tha ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pancrelipase Therapy Pancrelipase, which is a combination of lipase, protease, and amylase, has been shown to benefit patients with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. The ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Papuloerythroderma of Ofuji Papuloerythroderma of Ofuji (PEO) is a rare skin disorder most commonly found in Japan. It is characterized by polygonal, flat-topped erythematous-bro ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare disease that presents clinically with a variety of nonspecific symptoms. It causes complications m ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Peanut Allergy Most primary care clinicians will encounter patients with a food allergy. Food items that account for 90% of hypersensitivity reactions include cows, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pediatric Asthma Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways, characterized by recurrent episodes of airflow obstruction resulting from edema, bronchospasm ... Read the Article 1.5 22 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pediatric Foreign Body Ingestion Children commonly swallow foreign bodies. Coins are the most commonly swallowed foreign body that comes to medical attention in the USA; in other coun ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pediatric Functional Constipation Most individuals have bowel movements at regular intervals, and although the frequency varies from person to person, stools should pass without signif ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pediatric Hearing Loss Pediatric hearing loss is a broad category that covers a wide range of pathologies. Early detection and prompt management are essential, as the develo ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pediatric Preoperative Management The preoperative management of anesthesia in children differs from that in adults. These differences include employing cognitive and age-appropriate l ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pembrolizumab Pembrolizumab is a medication used in the management and treatment of various oncologic conditions. It is in the cancer immunotherapy class of drugs. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pemphigoid Gestationis Pemphigoid gestationis, formerly known as herpes gestationis, is a rare autoimmune sub-epidermal bullous dermatosis of pregnancy that shares some clin ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pemphigus Foliaceus Pemphigus is a potentially life-threatening, autoimmune blistering disease characterized by the presence of circulating antibodies against desmogleins ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pemphigus Herpetiformis Pemphigus herpetiformis is a rare subtype of intraepidermal autoimmune bullous diseases that shares clinical characteristics with dermatitis herpetifo ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pemphigus Vulgaris Pemphigus vulgaris is a rare disease that causes blisters. It is the most common type of pemphigus. The mean age of onset is 50 to 60 years of age, an ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Periodontitis Periodontitis is a disease of the tissue surrounding the tooth structure. The disease is affected by both local as well as systemic etiological factor ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pernio Pernio also referred to as chilblains, is a rare inflammatory condition. The term "chilblains" derives from two Old English words "chill" (cold) and ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pimecrolimus Pimecrolimus cream is a prescription non-steroidal medication in the class of topical calcineurin inhibitors (TCIs). It is FDA-approved for the treatm ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pityriasis Rosea Pityriasis rosea, also known as pityriasis circinata, roseola annulata, and herpes tonsurans maculosus is an acute self-limiting papulosquamous disord ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pneumococcal Vaccine The advent of pneumococcal vaccines has proven to be a significant advancement in the treatment and prevention of a widespread and sometimes deadly di ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pneumocystis Jiroveci Pneumonia Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia (PCP), now referred to as Pneumocystis Jirovecii Pneumonia is a fungal infection that most commonly affects the immunoc ... Read the Article 2.25 39 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Polygenic Hypercholesterolemia Hypercholesterolemia causes atherosclerotic vascular disease leading to the development of coronary artery disease, transient ischemic attack, stroke, ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Polyglandular Autoimmune Syndrome Type II Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type 2 (PAS-2) is an autoimmune syndrome which leads to lymphocytic infiltration causing organ-specific damage. PAS- ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Polymorphic Light Eruption Polymorphic light eruption is the most common form of immunologically mediated photosensitivity dermatoses. Exposure to sunlight in spring or summer r ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a neurologic disorder in which a person presents with visual disturbance, seizure, headaches, a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Primary Biliary Cholangitis Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), formerly termed primary biliary cirrhosis, is an autoimmune disorder that leads to the gradual destruction of intra ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Primary Central Nervous System Vasculitis Primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS) is a rare inflammatory disorder of the blood vessels of the brain and spinal cord occurring in ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Protein Intolerance Protein intolerance is a disorder that is the result of an adverse effect of the ingestion of food proteins. It is caused by various mechanisms and is ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Prurigo Nodularis Prurigo nodularis is a chronic disorder of the skin that is classically seen as multiple, firm, flesh to pink colored papules, plaques and nodules com ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pruritic Urticarial Papules And Plaques Of Pregnancy Pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy (PUPPP), also known as polymorphic eruption of pregnancy (PEP) is the most common gestational der ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Psoriatic Arthritis Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is chronic inflammatory arthritis associated with psoriasis (PsO) and found in about 20 to 30% of such patients. It shares ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulmonary Contusion Pulmonary contusions are lung injuries commonly sustained during cases of blunt chest trauma. These traumatic lung injuries result in impaired gas exc ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulmonary Eosinophilia Pulmonary eosinophilia (PE) is defined as infiltration of eosinophils into the lung compartments constituting airways, interstitium, and alveoli. Vari ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pupillary Light Reflex Eyes allow visualization of the world by receiving and processing the energy of light as it enters the eye. This light interacts with the structures a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pyogenic Granuloma Pyogenic granuloma, sometimes known as granuloma pyogenicum, refers to a common, acquired, benign, vascular tumor that arises in tissues such as the s ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radiation Esophagitis Radiation esophagitis is inflammation of the esophagitis due to radiation. Radiation esophagitis is typically an adverse effect that develops in indiv ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rattle Snake Toxicity Rattlesnakes are found throughout the Americas and include snakes in the genera Crotalus and Sistrurus. They are also known as pit vipers, lanceheads, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Recurrent Acute Rhinosinusitis Sinusitis, also referred to as rhinosinusitis, is defined as the symptomatic inflammation of paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity mucosa. This inflammat ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Renal Transplantation Rejection Various factors merit consideration to match the donor kidney with the recipient, as the donor kidney act as an alloantigen. In general, when transpla ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most common viruses to infect children worldwide and increasingly is recognized as an important ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Restrictive Lung Disease The purpose of this article is to serve as a brief review of the restrictive lung diseases. The topic is vast, and here, we have provided a concise re ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Retinitis Retinitis is an inflammation of the retina, which can cause permanent vision loss. Numerous microbes can cause retinitis. These pathogens can affect p ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Reye Syndrome Reye syndrome is a rare and potentially fatal pediatric illness defined as acute noninflammatory encephalopathy with fatty liver failure. Australian p ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rheumatoid Arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disorder of the joints characterized by inflammatory arthritis as well as extra-articular involvement. It c ... Read the Article 1.75 25 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rh-Hemolytic Disease Rh-hemolytic disease develops due to the conception of an Rh-negative female with an Rh-positive fetus and can cause a broad range of symptoms in the ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rhinitis Medicamentosa Rhinitis medicamentosa (RM), also known as; rebound congestion is inflammation of the nasal mucosa caused by the overuse of topical nasal decongestant ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rhino-orbital Cerebral Mucormycosis Rhino-orbital cerebral mucormycosis in an uncommon infection caused by the angiotropic fungus belonging to the order Mucorales and has high morbidity ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rho(D) Immune Globulin Rh(D) Immune Globulin is a medication used in the management and treatment of Rh-negative pregnancies and ITP. It is in the immune globulin biologic c ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Riehl Melanosis Riehl melanosis (RM), commonly called pigmented contact dermatitis, is considered an acquired form of allergic contact dermatitis, typically to fragra ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rocuronium Rocuronium is a non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocker which is widely used to produce muscle relaxation to help facilitate surgery and ventilation of ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rosacea Rosacea is a common chronic inflammatory disease that presents with recurrent flushing, erythema, telangiectasia, papules, or pustules on nose, chin, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Roseola Infantum Roseola infantum is a common disease of childhood that is seen globally and is caused by infection with human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), or, less frequent ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rubella Vaccine The rubella vaccine is a vaccine that aims to prevent rubella. Rubella, also known as German measles, is an acute, self-limiting, contagious viral inf ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sacubitril/Valsartan Sacubitril/valsartan is the first agent to be approved in a new class of drugs called angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI). The medication ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Salicylic Acid (Aspirin) Salicylates have been available since the early 1900s. This activity outlines the indications, mechanism of action, methods of administration, importa ... Read the Article 1.5 24 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Salmeterol Salmeterol is a medication used in the management and treatment of asthma and COPD. It is in the beta-2 adrenergic agonist class medications. This act ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disorder of unknown etiology characterized by the presence of noncaseating granulomas in organs. This condition mostly af ... Read the Article 1.75 29 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Scabies Scabies is a contagious skin condition caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei which burrows into the skin and causes severe itching. Scabies is transmit ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Scleredema Scleredema of Buschke is a rare connective tissue disorder. Its pathogenesis is poorly understood. It belongs to the spectrum of scleroderma-like diso ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Scleroderma And Renal Crisis Scleroderma renal crisis is a life-threatening complication of scleroderma. It typically presents with the abrupt onset of severe hypertension accompa ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Seabathers Eruption Seabather's eruption (SBE), also known as sea lice, is a pruritic dermatitis found in a bathing suit distribution and at sites of friction after bathi ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Seborrheic Dermatitis Seborrheic dermatitis is a common papulosquamous skin disease that is most prevalent in infancy and middle age, and it usually presents differently in ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Serum Sickness Serum sickness is a rare but important cause of fever, arthritis, and rash in both children and adults. This activity reviews the differences between ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID) is an inherited primary immunodeficiency disorder that presents by six months of age with opportunisti ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Shellfish Allergy Shellfish allergies can occur due to immunologic or non-immunological processes, and individuals may react to crustaceans, such as crab or shrimp, or ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Silicosis Silicosis is an occupational pneumoconiosis caused by the inhalation of crystalline silica dust. This disease may present several weeks to years after ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sjogren Syndrome Primary Sjogren syndrome is a systemic autoimmune disorder commonly presenting with dryness involving the eyes and mouth due to inflammation and resul ... Read the Article 1.5 24 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Solar Urticaria Solar urticaria is a chronic acquired photosensitivity disorder. It consists of recurrent episodes of urticaria overlying areas of the skin that are e ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spina Bifida Spina Bifida is a generalized term for the neurologic condition resulting from the failure of neural tube closure of varying degrees during fetal deve ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Splenomegaly Splenomegaly is defined as enlargement of the spleen measured by size or weight. The spleen plays a significant role in hematopoiesis and immunosurvei ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Status Asthmaticus One of the most common causes of emergency room visits in the United States is status asthmaticus, an acute, emergent episode of bronchial asthma that ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Stercoral Colitis Stercoral colitis is a rare inflammatory colitis that occurs when impacted fecal material leads to distention of the colon and eventually fecaloma for ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Stevens Johnson Syndrome Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis are acute, rare and potentially fatal skin reactions involving loss of skin and in some cases ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Still Disease Adult Onset Still's Disease, also known as systemic onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis, is a rare systemic inflammatory disorder characterized by inf ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Streptokinase Streptokinase can be useful in the management and treatment of acute ST-segment myocardial infarction, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, arter ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Subacute Combined Degeneration of the Spinal Cord Subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord is a neurological complication of vitamin B12 deficiency. It is characterized by degeneration of the ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sunscreens And Photoprotection Photoprotection is indicated for the reduction of ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced skin damage and skin cancers. Photoprotection includes sunscreens ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Suture Hypersensitivity Hypersensitivity reactions are most commonly encountered in the context of immunology. Suture hypersensitivity refers to the clinical entities resulti ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sweet Syndrome Sweet syndrome, also called acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis, is a rare disorder that typically presents with acute-onset tender plaques or nodul ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Swyer-James-MacLeod Syndrome Swyer-James-MacLeod syndrome is a rare lung disorder characterized by a reduction in the pulmonary vasculature and alveolar hyperdistention, with or w ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Symmetrical Drug-related Intertriginous and Flexural Exanthema Symmetrical drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema (SDRIFE), previously known as baboon syndrome, is a symmetrical erythematous rash on th ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Syphilis Syphilis is a systemic, bacterial infection caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum. Due to its many protean clinical manifestations, it has been ... Read the Article 2.5 46 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is an exaggerated defense response of the body to a noxious stressor (infection, trauma, surgery, acute ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Systemic Mastocytosis Systemic mastocytosis is an aggressive disorder characterized by the release of numerous vasoactive cell mediators due to excessive activity of mast c ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tacrolimus Tacrolimus is a medication used in the prevention and treatment of solid-organ transplant rejection. It is in the calcineurin-inhibitor class of medic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tarantula Spider Toxicity Tarantula toxicity is a rare occurrence. There are over 900 species of tarantula, and they are popular as pets. While tarantulas do possess venom, the ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tetanus Toxoid The tetanus toxoid is a vaccine used in the management and treatment of tetanus. It is in the vaccine class of medications. This activity reviews the ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thalassemia Thalassemia is a heterogeneous group of blood disorders affecting the hemoglobin genes and resulting in ineffective erythropoiesis. The decreased prod ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Theophylline Toxicity Around the world, theophylline (1,3-dimethylxanthine) is primarily used as a bronchodilator for patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thrombin Thrombin is a topical hemostatic agent used to control and minimize blood loss during surgical procedures, is utilized in conjunction or as an alterna ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tinea Cruris Tinea cruris, also known as jock itch, is an infection involving the genital, pubic, perineal, and perianal skin caused by pathogenic fungi known as d ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tinea Pedis Tinea pedis, also known as athlete's foot or foot ringworm is an infection of the feet affecting soles, interdigital clefts of toes, and nails with a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tinea Versicolor Pityriasis versicolor, also known as tinea versicolor, is a common, benign, superficial fungal infection of the skin. Clinical features of pityriasis ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Topical Corticosteroids Topical corticosteroids play a major role in the treatment of many dermatologic conditions. They are FDA-approved and indicated for the use of inflamm ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Topical, Local, and Regional Anesthesia and Anesthetics Nerve impulse transmission occurs when voltage-gated sodium channels on the neuronal membrane open, allowing a massive influx of sodium. This causes m ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Toxicodendron Toxicity Toxicodendron toxicity is caused by plants within the Anacardiaceae family. It includes plants such as poison ivy, poison oak, poison sumac and is the ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tracheomalacia Tracheomalacia is a condition that is characterized by excessive collapsibility of the trachea. Depending on the severity of the disease, patients’ sy ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Transfusion Transmitted Disease Transfusion transmitted diseases (TTD) comprise several pathologies that are transmitted by blood transfusions. The various etiologic agents are mainl ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Transient Hypogammaglobulinemia of Infancy Transient hypogammaglobulinemia of infancy (THI) is a type of antibody deficiency that affects infant and children typically below the age of 6 years. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Triamcinolone Triamcinolone is a medication used in the management and treatment of various conditions such as atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis (e.g., poison i ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Trichinella Spiralis Trichinellosis, also called trichinosis, is a parasitic infection caused by roundworms (nematodes) from the genus Trichinella. It is caused by consumi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tumid Lupus Erythematosus Tumid lupus erythematosus (TLE) is currently considered to be a subtype of cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE). TLE differs from the other subtypes of ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Type I Hypersensitivity Reaction Type I hypersensitivity is also known as an immediate reaction and involves immunoglobulin E (IgE) mediated release of antibodies against the soluble ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Type II Hypersensitivity Reaction Type II hypersensitivity reaction is a form of immune-mediated reaction in which antibodies are directed against cellular or extracellular matrix anti ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Type III Hypersensitivity Reaction A hypersensitivity reaction is an inappropriate or overreactive immune response to an antigen resulting in undesirable effects. The symptoms typically ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Urticaria Pigmentosa Mastocytosis is a disorder characterized by mast cell accumulation, commonly in the skin, bone marrow, gastrointestinal tract, liver, spleen, and lymp ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vaccine (Vaccination) Immunization is a successful use of immunotherapy to treat many infectious diseases by stimulating the immune system to produce specific antibodies or ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Varicella (Chickenpox) Vaccine Varicella-zoster virus (chickenpox) is an acute febrile rash illness that was very common in children in the United States before the universal vaccin ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vasculitis Vasculitis is a heterogeneous group of pathologies characterized by inflammation if vessels. They share common links of clinical, laboratory, and path ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vasomotor Rhinitis Vasomotor rhinitis affects millions of Americans and costs billions of dollars annually in healthcare costs. Vasomotor rhinitis is the most common fo ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vitiligo Vitiligo is a common acquired skin disorder which results from the loss of melanocytes from the epidermis and clinically manifests as well-demarcated ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wart Warts are prevalent benign lesions caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV) that occur in the mucosa and skin. Warts may cause significant morbidity f ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wells Syndrome Wells syndrome is characterized by sudden onset of large, inflamed, edematous patches that are often covered with vesicles or bullae; typically, the e ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wheat Allergy The etiology of a wheat allergy is either IgE-mediated or non-IgE-mediated allergic reaction to wheat proteins. The result can be life-threatening and ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is a rare X-linked disorder which classically includes the characteristic triad of immunodeficiency, thrombocytopenia, ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Xerostomia Xerostomia is defined as "a subjective feeling of oral dryness." These symptoms might present as dry mouth, difficulty swallowing or dry oral mucosa/s ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
X-linked Agammaglobulinemia X-linked agammaglobulinemia or XLA is a primary immunodeficiency disorder that prevents affected individuals from making antibodies and requires them ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
X-Linked Immunodeficiency Primary immunodeficiencies (PID) are a heterogeneous group of diseases, mostly inherited, caused by more than 400 intrinsic disorders of the immune sy ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Zafirlukast Zafirlukast is a medication used in the management and treatment of chronic asthma. It is in the leukotriene receptor antagonist class. This activity ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Zileuton Zileuton is a 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor mainly used for the prophylaxis and treatment of chronic asthma for those patients who are age 12 and older. Zi ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO

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