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Ophthalmology

Ophthalmology

Stay up to date on the latest medical knowledge with this Ophthalmology activity. In this online self-assessment activity, you'll read our reference articles and test your knowledge with 424 activities in Ophthalmology for 455.75 total CME hours.


6 Month Unlimited Physician MD/DO/PA CME

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Access to all the Physician MD/DO/PA CME activities in all specialties.
1 Year Unlimited Physician MD/DO/PA CME

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Access to all the Physician MD/DO/PA CME activities in all specialties.

Featured Article Activities

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Bartonellosis

Bartonellosis is the term used to describe any infectious disease produced by the bacteria Bartonella. These include tre ...
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Hours: 1

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Rosacea

Rosacea is a common chronic inflammatory disease that presents with recurrent flushing, erythema, telangiectasia, papule ...
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Hours: 1

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Abetalipoproteinemia

Abetalipoproteinemia is a rare autosomal recessive disorder marked by low or absent levels of plasma cholesterol, low-de ...
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Rating: 4.00
Hours: 1.25

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Waardenburg Syndrome

Waardenburg syndrome is a group of genetic conditions inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. During embryogenesis, ...
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Hours: 1

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Vitreous Floaters

Vitreous floaters can often be the presenting symptom of a retinal tear or detachment. Early recognition of floaters can ...
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Hours: 1

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Cataract

A cataract is a disease of the eye in which the normally clear lens has opacified which obscures the passage of light. I ...
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Rating: 4.67
Hours: 1.25

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Ophthalmology Activities

Title Description Hours Questions
Abducens Nerve Palsy The abducens nerve, also known as cranial nerve VI, is responsible for ipsilateral eye abduction. Visualizing the anatomy of the nerve allows for bett ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abetalipoproteinemia Abetalipoproteinemia is a rare autosomal recessive disorder marked by low or absent levels of plasma cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins and very-lo ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acanthamoeba Keratitis Acanthamoeba is a rare and frequently misdiagnosed cause of corneal infection. Acanthamoeba keratitis most often occurs in contact lens wearers. This ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acetazolamide Acetazolamide is a diuretic and carbonic anhydrase inhibitor medication that is used to treat several illnesses. FDA-approved indications include glau ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acrodynia Acrodynia is a rare disorder caused due to chronic mercury poisoning or idiosyncrasy to mercury. It is a Greek term that means 'painful extremities.' ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Closed Angle Glaucoma Acute angle-closure glaucoma is an ocular emergency that results from a rapid increase in intraocular pressure due to outflow obstruction of aqueous h ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Retinal Necrosis Acute retinal necrosis is characterized by peripheral necrotizing retinitis usually due to infection with varicella-zoster virus or herpes simplex vir ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Sinusitis Rhinosinusitis is among the most common conditions encountered in the primary care clinic. It can result from viral, bacterial, or fungal infections, ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adenoviruses The adenoviruses are DNA viruses common in animals and humans, occurring frequently in both adults and children. There are more than 100 serologically ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adie Syndrome Adie syndrome, also known as the Holmes-Adie syndrome, is a neurological disorder of unknown etiology comprising unilateral or bilateral tonically dil ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Advancement Flaps Advancement flaps permit scar camouflage along cosmetic subunit junctions and play a vital role in wound coverage. Advancement flap design and executi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Advancing Wavelike Epitheliopathy Advancing wavelike epitheliopathy (AWE) is a chronic or recurrent disorder characterized by well-demarcated, wavelike plaques of coarse, thickened cor ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adverse Events Adverse events (AE) occur frequently in our medical system and at least one in ten patients are affected. An AE is a harmful and negative outcome that ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Afatinib Afatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is a widely used medication for non-small cell lung carcinoma. This activity educates health care providers on ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Albinism Albinism is a group of heritable conditions associated with decreased or absent melanin in ectoderm-derived tissues (most notably the skin, hair, and ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alexia Alexia is a rare condition in which reading comprehension is nonexistent or significantly limited due to brain injury, damage, or trauma. It can be as ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Allergic Conjunctivitis Allergic conjunctivitis is encountered in up to 40 percent of the population, but only a small proportion of affected individuals seek medical help. I ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alpha Adrenergic Receptors The indication for the use of an alpha-receptor modifying medication depends on which receptor is the target: the alpha-1 receptor or the alpha-2 rece ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amantadine Keratopathy Amantadine keratopathy is a rare dose-dependent disease process in which the drug amantadine causes damage to corneal endothelial cells through unknow ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amaurosis Fugax The term amaurosis fugax is often used interchangeably to describe transient visual loss (TVL). However, it is employed widely in medicine to refer to ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amblyopia Amblyopia (lazy eye) is a disorder of the sight due to the eye and brain not working together resulting in decreased vision in an eye that typically a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amsler Grid Wet age-related macular degeneration is a leading cause of severe vision loss in the elderly population, both in the United States and worldwide. Earl ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angioid Streaks Angioid streaks occur due to breaks in a degenerated and mineralized Bruch's membrane, that typically radiate outward from the optic disc. Angioid st ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angiostrongylus Cantonensis Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a metastrongyloid nematode that is one of the most common pathogens to cause eosinophilic meningitis. Commonly referred ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aniridia Aniridia is defined as a partial or complete absence of the iris. It may be associated with various systemic disorders and multiple ocular morbidities ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aniridic Fibrosis Syndrome Aniridic fibrosis syndrome is a rare complication of invasive intraocular surgery (especially cataract extraction with intraocular lens implantation) ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anisocoria Anisocoria is a condition characterized by unequal pupil size. The etiology of anisocoria is complex, ranging from benign to potentially life-threaten ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antiphospholipid Syndrome Antiphospholipid antibodies are autoantibodies that are directed against phospholipid-binding proteins. Antiphospholipid syndrome (APLS) is characteri ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anton Syndrome Anton-Babinski syndrome, also known as ABS or Anton syndrome, is visual anosognosia, or denial of vision loss, associated with confabulation, or makin ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Apert Syndrome Apert syndrome is an autosomal dominant inherited craniosynostosis syndrome. Males and females are equally affected. The incidence of the disease sign ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arcus Senilis Corneal arcus are white or gray incomplete rings that form around the cornea. They are usually clinically insignificant but may be associated with an ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Argyll Robertson Pupil Argyll Robertson pupil describes the physical exam finding of bilaterally small pupils that do not constrict when exposed to bright light but do const ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arnold Chiari Malformation Arnold-Chiari or Chiari malformations describe a group of deformities of the posterior fossa and hindbrain, which includes the cerebellum, pons, and m ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arteriovenous Malformation Of The Brain Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are a developmental anomaly of the vascular system, consisting of tangles of poorly formed blood vessels in which t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Asteroid Hyalosis Asteroid hyalosis (AH) is characterized by yellow-white brilliant reflecting particles surrounded by tightly adherent fibrils inside the vitreous cavi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ataxia Telangiectasia Ataxia telangiectasia (Louis-Bar Syndrome) is a rare autosomal recessive condition characterized by cutaneous telangiectasias, cerebellar atrophy with ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Autologous Fat Grafting For Facial Rejuvenation Fat grafting is a technique where the harvested adipose tissue is injected into various compartments underneath the skin. The term autologous fat graf ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Axenfeld-Rieger Syndrome Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome (ARS) was previously known as Axenfeld anomaly; the latter term was used to describe one of three subvariants of this spectru ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacillus Cereus Bacillus cereus is a facultatively anaerobic, toxin-producing gram-positive bacteria that can be found in soil vegetation and even food. This may caus ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacterial Conjunctivitis Conjunctivitis, also informally known as "pink eye," makes up the majority of ophthalmologic disorders seen at primary care clinics. Patients present ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacterial Endophthalmitis The word "endophthalmitis" can be broken down in greek to "interior-eye-inflammation" and is used to describe an infection of the vitreous or the aque ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Balint Syndrome Balint syndrome, sometimes also referred to as Balint-Holmes syndrome, is described as a triad of optic ataxia, oculomotor apraxia, and simultagnosia. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bartonellosis Bartonellosis is the term used to describe any infectious disease produced by the bacteria Bartonella. These include trench fever, Oroya fever, Carrio ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Basal Cell Cancer Basal cell carcinoma a common cutaneous malignancy that occurs mostly on sun-damaged skin of the head, neck, and trunk. Basal cell carcinoma can be di ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Behcet Disease Behcet disease, also known as an oculo-orogenital syndrome, is a chronic remitting and relapsing inflammatory disorder characterized by recurrent oral ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bell Palsy Bell palsy is the most common peripheral paralysis of the seventh cranial nerve with an onset that is rapid and unilateral. This is an idiopathic cond ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Benign Essential Blepharospasm Benign essential blepharospasm is a focal cranial dystonia, characterized by involuntary contractions of orbicularis oculi muscle contractions, result ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Best Disease Best disease (Best vitelliform macular dystrophy, BVMD) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder due to the mutation of BEST1 (or VMD2, TU15B) gene with ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Betaxolol Betaxolol is a medication used mostly in the management and treatment of open-angle glaucoma, essential hypertension, post-myocardial infarction, and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biotin Deficiency Biotin is a B-complex vitamin that serves as an essential coenzyme for five carboxylases: pyruvate carboxylase, 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase, prop ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Birdshot Retinopathy Birdshot chorioretinopathy (BCR) is an unusual form of chronic, bilateral, posterior uveitis with a distinguishing clinical phenotype, and a strong as ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bisphosphonate Toxicity In the second half of the 20th century, bisphosphonates have emerged as a novel treatment for bone metabolism disorders. Currently, bisphosphonates ar ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blepharitis Blepharitis is an ophthalmologic condition where there is inflammation of the eyelid margins. The diagnosis is clinical and based on irritation of the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blepharochalasis Syndrome Blepharochalasis syndrome is a rare disease of unknown etiology. It is characterized by an active stage of recurrent episodes of upper lid swelling, f ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blepharoconjunctivitis Blepharoconjunctivitis is an ocular condition involving the inflammation of the eyelid and conjunctiva. It is a common chronic condition that can lead ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blepharoplasty Blepharoplasty refers to the aesthetic or functional surgical manipulation of the upper or lower eyelids. Upper and lower lid blepharoplasty both have ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blepharoplasty Ptosis Surgery Blepharoplasty is the general term for correcting defects, deformities, and disfigurations of the eyelids either for functional reasons, cosmetic reas ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blepharoplasty Subciliary Approach Lower blepharoplasty is performed for many reasons, although the commonest presentation by patients is one of "looking old" or "looking tired." Other ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blindness The term blindness is a general term that can include those with low vision and legal blindness. Low vision is a term used to describe those whose vis ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blister Agents Sulfur mustard (dichlorethylsulphide) and nitrogen mustard are blistering agents, or vesicants, that have been used in chemical warfare since before t ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blunt Eye Trauma Blunt injury to the eye can lead to various intrinsic eye injuries. Globe rupture and retrobulbar hematoma are two emergent entities that are of impor ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion The human retina is the most metabolically expensive tissue in the human body. Processing visual input in the retina requires high quantities of arter ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brow Ptosis Brow ptosis is a common presenting complaint in aging patients; it can affect patients' quality of life because of its cosmetic impact as well as visu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brown Syndrome True Brown syndrome is due to congenital causes, with a constant limitation of elevation and a positive traction test secondary to a tight superior ob ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Buphthalmos The word buphthalmos originates from the Greek word "ox-eyed." Congenital enlargement of the eye was recognized as early as 400 BC by Hippocrates, and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Canalicular Laceration Canalicular lacerations occur in people of all age groups, with causes ranging from fistfights to dog bites. In order to avoid the high morbidity asso ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Canaliculitis Canaliculitis is inflammation of the lacrimal canaliculus. It is an uncommon condition which ophthalmologists frequently misdiagnose. The condition is ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Capillary Infantile Hemangiomas Capillary hemangiomas (infantile hemangiomas, juvenile hemangiomas, hemangioblastomas or strawberry nevi of infancy), are common benign orbital neopla ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors is a medication used in the management and treatment of glaucoma, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, altitude sicknes ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotid Artery Dissection Carotid artery dissection is a condition whereby the layers of the carotid artery are spontaneously separated. This potentially compromises blood flow ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotid Artery Fibromuscular Dysplasia Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) of the carotid artery is a non-atherosclerotic and noninflammatory disease that can lead to stenosis and/or aneurysm of ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotid Cavernous Fistula Carotid cavernous fistula (CCF) is an abnormal shunt from the carotid artery to the cavernous sinus. The symptomatology of CCFs is mainly a result of ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cat Scratch Disease Cat scratch disease is an illness caused by an intracellular gram-negative rod known as Bartonella henselae. It affects the lymph nodes draining the a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cataract A cataract is a disease of the eye in which the normally clear lens has opacified which obscures the passage of light. It is a gradually progressive d ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cataract Surgery Cataracts are the world’s leading cause of remediable blindness. While some cataracts, may be congenital, secondary to trauma, or drug-induced, most c ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cavernous Sinus Syndromes Cavernous sinus syndrome (CSS) is any disease process that affects the cavernous sinus. It presents as proptosis, chemosis, ophthalmoplegia, Horner sy ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis Cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) is a rare, life-threatening disorder that can complicate facial infection, sinusitis, orbital cellulitis, pharyngitis ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central Retinal Artery Occlusion Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is the sudden blockage of the central retinal artery, resulting in retinal hypoperfusion, rapidly progressive ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central Retinal Vein Occlusion Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is the second most common retinal vascular disease and is a common loss of vision in older patients. There are two types ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central Serous Chorioretinopathy Central serous chorioretinopathy is a retinal disorder characterized by localized serous detachment of the macula. It is secondary to retinal pigment ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central Toxic Keratopathy Central toxic keratopathy (CTK) was initially described as a complication of LASIK surgery, and the vast majority of published reports are associated ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Subluxation Subluxation is an essential entity of traumatic subaxial cervical spinal injuries. There is a varying degree of slippage of the body of one vertebra r ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chalazion Chalazia (plural of chalazion), are the most common inflammatory lesions of the eyelid. They are typically slowly enlarging, non-tender eyelid nodules ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chemical Burns Healthcare professionals should be knowledgeable about chemical burns from exposure to acids (pH less than 7), alkalis (pH greater than 7), and irrita ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cherry Red Spot A cherry-red spot refers to a red-tinted region at the center of macula surrounded by retinal opacification. Cherry-red spots may be present in a vari ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chloramphenicol Chloramphenicol is a medication used in the management and treatment of superficial eye infections such as bacterial conjunctivitis, and otitis extern ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chloroquine And Hydroxychloroquine Toxicity Chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine, a less toxic metabolite of chloroquine, can cause pathologic ocular damage unless strict prescribing and screening ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chorioretinitis Chorioretinitis is a type of uveitis affecting the posterior segment of the eye. It is a vision-threatening condition that is associated with many sys ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Choroidal Folds The choroidal fold is a clinical feature wherein subretinal folds are seen usually over the posterior pole or peripheral retina of the eye. The choroi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Closed Angle Glaucoma Chronic closed-angle glaucoma, also called chronic angle-closure glaucoma, is a condition that can be a cause of permanent vision loss if not diagnose ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cicatricial Pemphigoid Cicatricial pemphigoid is a rare, chronic autoimmune blistering disorder which can produce scarring. It can affect the skin, the mucous membranes, or ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cilia Incarnata Cilia incarnata is the misdirection of eyelashes whereby they grow under the skin through to the surface or posteriorly to the conjunctival surface in ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cockayne Syndrome Cockayne syndrome, first described in 1936 by Dr. Cockayne, is a rare genetic disorder, mainly characterized by growth disorders, intellectual deficit ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Collagen Cross Linking For Keratoconus Keratoconus (KC) is one of the most prevalent corneal ectatic disorders characterized by progressive, non-inflammatory changes in stromal collagen str ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Compressive Optic Neuropathy Compressive optic neuropathy can be caused by intrinsic or extrinsic compression anywhere along the optic nerve. In addition to damage by compression, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Hereditary Endothelial Dystrophy Congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy (CHED) presents as bilateral corneal opacification present at birth or in the immediate newborn period and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Muscular Dystrophy Congenital muscular dystrophy is one of the variants of muscle weakness disorders presenting early in life during infancy and soon after birth. The di ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Syphilis Congenital syphilis (CS) is caused by transmission of the spirochete Treponema pallidum from mother to fetus, resulting in diverse clinical presentati ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic infection in humans and animals. Infection in healthy immunocompetent adults is asymptomatic in about 50% of the cases al ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Conjunctival Concretions A conjunctival concretion is a benign entity characterized by single or multiple discrete yellowish-white deposits of varying size. They may be idiopa ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Conjunctivitis Conjunctivitis refers to the inflammation or infection of the conjunctiva. It is the most common presentation of eye redness in both primary care and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Convergence Insufficiency Convergence insufficiency is a binocular vision disorder that results in symptoms such as eyestrain, headaches, and diplopia when looking at a near ta ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cornea Foreign Body Removal A corneal foreign body can be the cause of agonizing eye pain and loss of vision. This activity reviews the safe removal of a corneal foreign body and ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cornea Transplantation Corneal disease ranks as the fifth leading cause of blindness in the world. Keratoplasty is the most common and successful transplantation in humans w ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Corneal Abrasion A corneal abrasion (also called scratched eye or scratched cornea) is an eye injury that causes significant discomfort, photophobia, and erythema. Thi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Corneal Dystrophy Corneal dystrophies are a collection of genetic diseases that affect corneal transparency and refraction due to increased deposition of abnormal mater ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Corneal Endothelial Transplantation There are numerous endothelial keratoplasty (EK) techniques used to treat disorders of the corneal endothelium. They include deep lamellar endothelial ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Corneal Foreign Body Corneal foreign bodies account for the second most common form of ocular trauma, with corneal abrasions being number one. In general, major morbidity ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Corneal Graft Rejection Despite the relative immune privilege of the cornea as a transplanted tissue (both the recipient corneal bed and the anterior chamber are immune-privi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Corneal Imaging Corneal topography evaluates the anterior curvature of the cornea while corneal tomography includes the posterior curvature and corneal thickness. Thi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Corneal Injury Approximately 3 percent of all visits to the emergency department are due to eye trauma, with the vast majority of these presentations involving corne ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Corneal Mucous Plaque Corneal mucous plaques are most commonly associated with dry eye syndrome. They are made of a collection of mucin, corneal epithelial cell debris admi ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Corneal Ulcer A corneal ulcer is a defect in the surface epithelium of the cornea that involves the underlying stroma. It is common in contact lens wearers and pres ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Artery Thrombus The pathogenesis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and unstable angina is the rupture of the coronary artery plaque resulting in acute thrombotic o ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cortical Blindness Cortical blindness is an important cause of blindness due to damage to the occipital cortex. It is commonly associated with posterior circulation stro ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cranial Nerve III Palsy The third cranial nerve is also known as oculomotor nerve and has two major components, the outer parasympathetic fibers that supply the ciliary muscl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Crigler Technique For Congenital Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction Congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction leading to epiphora is a common condition that may be seen in up to 20% of infants. The management ranges fro ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Crocodile Tears Syndrome The term “crocodile tears” is derived from the ancient belief that crocodiles weep after killing their victims. “crocodile tears syndrome,” also known ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Crohn Disease Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are two conditions commonly referred to as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). They are immunologically m ... Read the Article 2.25 34 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Crouzon Syndrome Crouzon syndrome is a genetically inherited syndrome characterized by craniosynostosis (premature fusion of coronal sutures) resulting in the skull an ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cutis Verticis Gyrata Cutis verticis gyrata (CVG), also known by the name paquidermia verticis gyrata, cutis verticis plicata, and “bulldog” scalp syndrome, is a rare benig ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cytomegalovirus Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a wide-spread virus, with manifestations ranging from asymptomatic to severe end-organ dysfunction in immunocompromised patie ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dacryoadenitis Dacryoadenitis refers to acute or chronic inflammation of the lacrimal gland and can be due to infectious, inflammatory, or idiopathic causes. Acute d ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dacryocystitis Dacryocystitis is characterized as an inflammatory state of the nasolacrimal sac. It is typically caused by an obstruction within the nasolacrimal duc ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dacryocystorhinostomy Nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO) often results in intractable, bothersome epiphora. In longstanding NLDO, mucus can accumulate, resulting in a muc ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dacryostenosis Dacryostenosis is an acquired or congenital condition that can cause epiphora but can progress to dacryocystitis in children and in adults. This activ ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Deferoxamine Deferoxamine is a medication used in Iron and aluminum toxicity. It is in the chelator class of drugs. This activity reviews the indications, mechanis ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dermal Melanocytosis This activity outlines the evaluation & management of congenital dermal melanocytosis (Mongolian spot). It explains the role of the interprofessional ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dermoscopy Overview and Extradiagnostic Applications Dermoscopy, also known as dermatoscopy, epiluminescence microscopy, or skin surface microscopy is a non-invasive, in-vivo technique that has tradition ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetic Macular Edema The retina is a thin layer of tissue in the posterior segment of the eye near the optic nerve. It contains a layer of photoreceptor cells, and receive ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetic Retinopathy Diabetic Retinopathy is the leading cause of visual loss in adults of working age group in the western population. It is the most common microvascular ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diplopia Diplopia refers to seeing two images and is due either to ocular misalignment in which case it disappears when either eye is occluded or to an optical ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Direct Brow Lift With aging, the periorbital soft tissues migrate inferiorly, which may create both functional and cosmetic concerns for the patient. Many techniques, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diseases of the Eyelashes Eyelashes are important anatomical structures that protect the eye by stopping the particulate matter from getting to the eye and also by diverting wa ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diving Mask Squeeze Mask squeeze is a common injury among divers and occurs when a diver fails to equalize the air space in their mask during descent, resulting in damage ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dry Eye Syndrome Dry eyes affect a significant number of people but treatment remains unsatisfactory. The cause of this condition may be anatomical or systemic. It is ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dysthyroid Optic Neuropathy Dysthyroid optic neuropathy (DON) is a sight-threatening complication of thyroid eye disease (TED), characterized by thyroid-related impairment of vis ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Eales Disease Eales disease is a disease of young males usually, who are generally residents of the Indian subcontinent. It is a disease of retinal vessel wall infl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ectropion Ectropion is an outward turning of the eyelid margin. This typically occurs on the lower eyelids. When the globe is not protected properly, the eye ca ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ectropion Lower Eyelid Reconstruction Ectropion is an eversion or outward turning of the eyelid margin leading to loss of the natural apposition of the eyelid to the globe. Ectropion may b ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Endophthalmitis Endophthalmitis is defined as an inflammation of inner coats of the eye, resulting from intraocular colonization of infectious agents with exudation w ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Endoscopic Brow Lift An endoscopic brow lift aims to restore a more youthful and rested appearance. This activity reviews the evaluation and management of patients underg ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Enophthalmos Enophthalmos is defined as the posterior displacement of the globe in an anteroposterior plane within the orbit. This is to be distinguished from hype ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Entropion Entropion is an inversion or inward turning of the eyelid margin. This can result in trichiasis, where the eyelashes are directed posteriorly toward t ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Entropion Eyelid Reconstruction Entropion is an inversion of the eyelid margin. Often the eyelashes are directed posteriorly at the globe. It is an extremely common lid malposition. ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Enucleation Enucleation is the removal of the eye from the orbit and involves the separation of all tissue connections between the globe and the orbit. This is on ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is a genetic dermatologic condition in which patients show a decreased immunologic ability to defend against and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epiphora Epiphora is a common presentation to the general ophthalmologist. Causes of epiphora may be caused by secretory problems or problems with the excretor ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epiretinal Membrane Epiretinal membrane is a commonly occurring condition affecting the posterior pole of the retina over the macula. It appears as a greyish semi-translu ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Episcleritis Episcleritis is an acute unilateral or bilateral inflammation of the episclera, the thin layer of tissue between the conjunctiva and sclera. The episc ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epithelial Downgrowth Epithelial downgrowth is a potentially visually devastating complication of intraocular surgery or trauma characterized by invasion of epithelial cell ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is a common hematology test that measures how quickly red blood cells settle to the bottom of an elongated tu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ethambutol Ethambutol is a medication used in the management and treatment of tuberculosis. It is a bacteriostatic drug that inhibits cell wall synthesis. This a ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Evaluation And Management of Perioperative Hypertension This activity reviews the role of the interprofessional team involved in the perioperative care of patients with hypertension (HTN). These providers i ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Evaluation Of Visual Acuity Visual acuity is an often overlooked aspect of an emergency or outpatient department visit but can be vital to making a diagnosis. In reality, there a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Exophthalmos Exophthalmos is the protrusion of one or both eyes anteriorly out of the orbit due to an increase in orbital contents within the rigid bony orbit. It ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Exudative Retinitis Coats disease is an idiopathic ocular condition characterized by retinal telangiectasia and exudation. The incidence is quite low, hence recognizing i ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Eyelid Coloboma Eyelid coloboma is a rare condition that affects congenitally. It’s a very annoying and disturbing condition for the parents also. While treating the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Eyelid Laceration Eyelid lacerations are managed differently depending on the depth, width, and location of the injury. Surgical management will be broken down into the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Eyelid Myokymia Eyelid myokymia is described as continuous and fine contractions that affect lower eyelid mainly. The causes of this condition are not well known, but ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Eyelid Papilloma The term papilloma refers to a group of various benign epithelial proliferations that can affect the eyelid skin. These lesions are not necessarily as ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fluorescein Fluorescein is a diagnostic contrast agent particularly used in various ophthalmic procedures, such as checking for any corneal or vessel abnormalitie ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fuchs Endothelial Dystrophy Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FED) is a progressive hereditary disease of the cornea characterized by the slow deterioration of endothelial cel ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fuchs Uveitis Syndrome Fuchs uveitis syndrome (FUS) is a chronic form of unilateral uveitis manifesting as heterochromia, a unique clinical presentation. This activity will ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Full-Field Electroretinogram The full-field electroretinogram (ffERG) is a specialized electrophysiologic test of retinal function in response to a full-field light stimulus. Ther ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fungal Endophthalmitis Fungal endophthalmitis is a rare disease of ocular inflammation caused by fungal infections from either endogenous or exogenous sources. Because the c ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fungal Keratitis Fungal keratitis is an important eye infection, especially in outdoor workers. In most cases, eye trauma, corticosteroid use, or contact lens usage ar ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Furrow Degeneration Furrow degeneration (FD) is a rare pathology consisting of circumferential non-progressive corneal thinning leading to an evenly distributed tensile s ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gardner Syndrome Gardner syndrome is a phenotypic variant of familial adenomatous polyposis. It is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by numerous adenomatous ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glaucoma Glaucoma is a condition of increased intraocular pressure in the eye that may progress to a loss of vision. This results in a characteristic optic ner ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Globe Rupture Globe rupture is a vision-threatening emergency. It is essential that clinicians have a high index of suspicion for globe rupture when treating patien ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gonococcal Conjunctivitis Gonococcal conjunctivitis (GC), also known as gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum when it occurs in neonates, is an infection that is transmitted by cont ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Graves Disease Orbital Decompression Thyroid eye disease (TED), also known as thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO), thyroid orbitopathy, Graves’ orbitopathy, or Graves’ ophthalmopathy ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Graves Orbitopathy Graves orbitopathy occurs in patients with Graves disease and is an autoimmune disease of retro-ocular tissue. Complications can be serious and sight- ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gyrate Atrophy Of The Choroid and Retina Gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina is a rare autosomal recessive condition characterized by elevation of plasma ornithine levels due to deficien ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemianopsia Hemianopsia (hemianopia) is a clinical term used to describe the loss of one half of a vertical visual field. A careful history and physical examinati ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemifacial Spasm Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is a disorder characterized by paroxysmal, involuntary twitching of facial muscles of one side of face innervated by ipsilatera ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemolacria Hemolacria or bloody epiphora is the presence of blood in tears. Multiple disorders can cause hemolacria. This activity reviews the evaluation and man ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Herpes Simplex Keratitis Herpes simplex virus can cause infection in the eye. Recurrent infection of the cornea due to this virus causes herpes simplex keratitis. It can easil ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Herpes Simplex Ophthalmicus Herpes simplex ophthalmicus is an eye infection by the herpes simplex type 1 and type 2 viruses. It is ubiquitous and affects all the ages of the popu ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Herpes Simplex Type 1 Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a linear dsDNA virus that is a member of the Alphaherpesviridae subfamily. HSV-1 is responsible for establishin ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus Herpes zoster ophthalmicus occurs due to the reactivation of the latent varicella-zoster virus. It is a variation of herpes zoster that can cause a va ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
HIV Retinopathy Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a retrovirus which causes a multisystemic disease called acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Ocular mani ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
HIV-1 Associated Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis is a common cause of central nervous system (CNS) infection in patients with HIV/AIDS who do not take appropriate prophylaxis. Cerebral ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hollenhorst Plaque Stroke is the third most common cause of death in the United States. Eighty percent of all strokes are due to occlusion of a vessel secondary to ather ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Homonymous Hemianopsia Homonymous hemianopsia (or hemianopia) is a field loss deficit in the same halves of the visual field of each eye, often resulting from cerebrovascula ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Homonymous Superior Quadrantanopia The visual field test maps the vision in each individual eye by measuring the entire scope of vision when vision is focused on a central point. A visu ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hordeolum A hordeolum is an acute, common bacterial infection of the eyelid. Patients with this condition often present to their primary care provider with pain ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Horner Syndrome Horner syndrome is a rare condition classically presenting with partial ptosis (drooping or falling of the upper eyelid), miosis (constricted pupil) a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Cardiovascular Effects Both the high-pressure environment as well as the hyperoxygenation that is associated with hyperbaric oxygen treatments (HBOT) have numerous consequen ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Cataracts Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is the administration of 100% oxygen at pressures greater than one-atmosphere absolute pressure (1 ATA) for a therape ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Complications Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is generally a relatively safe therapy for various conditions. However, there are some adverse side effects. When adv ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Related Myopia and Cataract Formation Oxygen has been shown to be harmful to many tissues in the body via the formation of oxygen free radicals through normal metabolic processes. The high ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Treatment Of Central Retinal Artery Occlusion Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is a relatively rare but potentially devastating ocular emergency. Patients present with sudden, painless mono ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperopia Hyperopia is a very common refractive condition of childhood and adults. Proper assessment and treatment can prevent multiple complications in the fut ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypertelorism Orbital hypertelorism is defined as an increased distance between the orbits, with true lateral displacement of the orbits. Hypertelorism is associate ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypertensive Retinopathy Poorly controlled hypertension (HTN) affects several systems such as the cardiovascular, renal, cerebrovascular, and retina. The damage to these syste ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyphema Hyphema is the accumulation of red blood cells (RBCs) in the anterior chamber of the eye. By definition, blood must be grossly visible, either on dire ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ichthyosis Fetalis Harlequin ichthyosis (HI) is an extremely rare, autosomal recessive congenital disorder of the epidermal skin layer. Neonates with HI have a high mort ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ichthyosis X-Linked X-linked ichthyosis (XLI), known as steroid sulfatase (STS) deficiency and X-linked recessive ichthyosis, is a genetic skin disorder recognized in 196 ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Increased Intracranial Pressure The pressure in the cranial vault is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) and is normally less than 20 mm Hg. The cranium is a rigid structure ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Infantile Cortical Hyperostosis Infantile cortical hyperostosis (ICH), also known as Caffey disease, was first reported by Roske in 1930 and described by Caffey and Silverman in 1945 ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Infectious Scleritis Infectious scleritis is an inflammatory process of the sclera due to a microbial agent. In order to avoid the risk of enucleation or evisceration due ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Inflammatory Bowel Disease Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract and is divided into Crohn disease and ulcerative coli ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Interferon Induced Retinopathy Interferons are glycoproteins that have antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory functions. They are used widely for the treatment of many c ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia Internuclear ophthalmoplegia is an ocular movement disorder caused by a lesion of the medial longitudinal fasciculus. It is characterized by impaired ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Iritis Acute anterior uveitis, also known as iritis, is the inflammation of the anterior or posterior chamber and iris. It is not a true ocular emergency, an ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ivabradine Ivabradine is FDA-approved in the United States for use in patients with symptoms due to stable heart failure and an ejection fraction of 35% or less ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Jessner Lymphocytic Infiltration Of The Skin Jessner lymphocytic infiltration of the skin (JLIS) is a rare, benign skin disorder characterized by asymptomatic, erythematous papular, or plaque-lik ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Juvenile Glaucoma Juvenile open-angle glaucoma is an uncommon and more severe form of primary open-angle glaucoma. It occurs as a result of abnormal development of trab ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Juvenile Xanthogranuloma Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is a non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis and is fairly common, often affecting infants and young children. Cutaneous lesi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Kayser-Fleischer Ring Kayser–Fleischer (KF) rings are a common ophthalmologic finding in patients with Wilson disease. Initially thought to be due to the accumulation of si ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Kearns Sayre Syndrome Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS) is a subtype of chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO). KSS is defined by the following triad: Onset before t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Keratitis Keratitis is a clinical entity wherein inflammatory cells infiltrate different corneal layers in response to noxious stimuli, either infectious exogen ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Keratoconjunctivitis Keratoconjunctivitis refers to an inflammatory process that involves both the conjunctiva and the superficial cornea. It can occur in association with ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Keratoconus Keratoconus (KCN) is a progressive non-inflammatory bilateral corneal ectatic disorder. It manifests with characteristic cone-like steepening of the c ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Keratoendotheliitis Fugax Hereditaria Keratoendotheliitis fugax hereditaria is a rare inflammatory genetic condition characterized by recurrent episodes of debilitating unilateral corneal ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Keratopathy The literal meaning of keratopathy is a disease of the cornea. Each keratopathy is seen in association with different clinical scenarios. Some may rep ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lagophthalmos Lagophthalmos describes the incomplete or abnormal closure of the eyelids and has many different causes. This activity reviews the evaluation and mana ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Laser Erbium-Yag Resurfacing Erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser skin resurfacing is an effective technique for minimally invasive and effective management of a number o ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Laser In Situ Keratomileusis Laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) is a laser-assisted surgical procedure for the correction of visual refractive errors. This activity will review ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Laser Treatment Of Pigmented Lesions Lasers are often used in the treatment of pigmented lesions of the mucosa and skin. Their minimally invasive nature, combined with their efficacy, has ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Latanoprost Latanoprost is an eye drop formulation for the treatment of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with ocular hypertension or open-angle gla ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lateral Orbital Canthotomy Orbital compartment syndrome (OCS) is caused due to rapidly increasing intra-orbital pressure and can lead to permanent blindness. OCS is a sight-thre ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lattice Corneal Dystrophy Lattice corneal dystrophy (LCD) is an inherited disorder of the eye characterized by the deposition of amyloid resulting in steadily progressive loss ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Le Fort Osteotomy The LeFort I osteotomy is utilized extensively within the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery when repositioning of the maxilla is required for co ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Leber Hereditary Optic Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a rare mitochondrial disorder that typically presents in young males with progressive visual loss due to o ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Leukemia Cutis Leukemia cutis is skin involvement in patients with peripheral leukemia; it is relatively rare and typically signifies an advanced disease stage. This ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Leukocoria Leukocoria means ‘white pupil’ or ‘cat’s eye pupil’. Leukocoria is an abnormal pupillary reflex more clearly seen on mydriasis or photography. It is o ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Limbal Epithelial Transplant Simple limbal epithelial transplantation (SLET) is used to treat unilateral limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). It involves harvesting healthy limbal ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lipemia Retinalis Lipemia retinalis (LR) is characterized by creamy white discoloration of retinal vessels. It is a feature of chylomicronemia. Proper ophthalmic evalua ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lipoprotein Lipase Deficiency Lipoprotein lipase deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder of lipid metabolism. It is characterized by severe hypertriglyceridemia a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lisch Nodules Lisch nodules, traditionally described as iris hamartomas is one of the pathognomic markers of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and are rarely seen in i ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lower Eyelid Reconstruction Proper function of the eyelids is necessary to maintain healthy globes. Patients with cancer or with traumatic injuries to the eyelids need special at ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lower Lid Transconjunctival Blepharoplasty A transconjunctival lower lid blepharoplasty aims to restore a more youthful and rested appearance to the periorbita. This activity reviews the evalu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, also known as Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia, is a low-grade B cell lymphoproliferative neoplasm characterized by small lym ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lymphoproliferative Disorders Lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) comprise a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled production of lymphocytes that cause mono ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Macular Degeneration Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is the most common cause of blindness prevalent in developed countries, particularly in people older than 60 y ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Macular Hole A macular hole is a clinical condition of the central retina, which leads to the gross impairment of central vision. Many ocular conditions may predis ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mandibulofacial Dysostosis Treacher Collins syndrome is a congenital disorder of craniofacial development that has variable phenotypic expression. It can be inherited in an auto ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Marcus Gunn Jaw Winking Syndrome Marcus Gunn Jaw winking syndrome (MGJWS) is one of the congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders (CCDD) and these individuals have variable degrees ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Marcus Gunn Pupil Marcus Gunn pupil is indicative of a defect in the afferent pathway of the light reflex. To avoid the high morbidity associated with this condition, i ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Maxillary Fracture Maxillary fractures are common in patients sustaining facial trauma and may be caused by road traffic accidents, sports, or assault. Maxillary fractur ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Maxillary Sinus Fracture Maxillary sinus fractures (MSFs) are most commonly caused by blunt force trauma to the face. Depending on the magnitude and location of the direct inj ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Megalocornea Megalocornea, also known as anterior megalophthalmos, X-linked megalocornea, and macrocornea, is a rare bilateral nonprogressive congenital defect tha ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Meige Syndrome Meige syndrome is a focal dystonic movement disorder involving blepharospasm, or involuntary eyelid spasm, and oromandibular dystonia, or involuntary ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Merkel Cell Carcinoma Of The Skin Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive neuroendocrine tumor of the skin with increasing incidence. It most frequently presents on the head ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Methanol Toxicity Methanol (CH3OH) is a toxic alcohol that is found in various household and industrial agents. Methanol exposure can be extremely dangerous, with signi ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Microsporidium Microsporidia are an unusually large group of unique, eukaryotic, obligate, intracellular parasites that biologists have studied for more than 150 yea ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Millipede Envenomation This activity reviews millipede envenomation and the identification and evaluation of exposure by an interprofessional team. It discusses the manageme ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
M-plasty An M-plasty is an excisional technique used to remove standing cutaneous deformities, also known as dog ears, from the end of a linear repair. Dog ear ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mucormycosis Mucormycosis results from a variety of fungi that may be typically innocuous environmental fungi and primarily affects immunocompromised patients. Fo ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Multifocal Electroretinogram The multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) is a more recent advancement in electroretinographic testing, which enables a rapid assessment of retinal fun ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Multiple Sclerosis Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by chronic inflammation, demyelination, gliosis, an ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Myasthenia Gravis Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder affecting the neuromuscular junction. It manifests as a generalized muscle weakness which can involve the ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mycobacterium Chelonae Mycobacterium chelonae is a nontuberculous mycobacterium (NTM), which is classified as rapidly growing mycobacterium (RGM), class IV in the Runyon cla ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Myopic Foveoschisis Myopic foveoschisis is a relatively rare entity that manifests in patients with pathological myopia. The schisis, or break, in the layers of the retin ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nasal Fracture Fractures of the naso-orbital-ethmoid (NOE) complex resulting from high impact trauma to the face can have significant ramifications due to the NOE co ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction Nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO) or dacryostenosis is the most common disorder of the lacrimal system, and approximately 6 to 20 percent of newbor ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neonatal Conjunctivitis Neonatal eye discharge is usually due to congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction or either chemical or infectious conjunctivitis. Neonatal conjunctiv ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neonatal Myasthenia Gravis Neonatal myasthenia gravis (MG) is a temporary form of MG. Babies born to mothers with MG are susceptible to it. This is due to the mother’s antibodi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neurofibromatosis Type 1 Neurofibromatosis-1 (NF-1) or Von Recklinghausen's disease is one of the inheritable neurocutaneous disorders manifested by developmental changes in t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neurosarcoidosis Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease that results in the formation of granulomas which classically are non-caseating granulomas, that may be found throug ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neurosyphilis With the advent of antibiotics, neurosyphilis became a rare diagnosis. However, syphilis has recently made a resurgence because untreated neurosyphili ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neurotrophic Keratitis Neurotrophic keratitis, formerly known as neuroparalytic keratitis, is a degenerative corneal disease characterized by decreased or absent corneal sen ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nevus Comedonicus Proper diagnosis and management of nevus comedonicus can lead to better patient outcomes and quality of life. This activity reviews the evaluation, ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nevus Of Ota And Ito Ocular dermal melanosis, also known as nevus of Ota or oculodermal melanocyte, is benign melanosis that involves the distribution of the trigeminal ne ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nicotinic Ganglionic Blocker Mecamylamine is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension. It is in the nicotinic ganglion blocker class of drugs. This activi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nocardia Keratitis Nocardia is a rare and frequently misdiagnosed cause of corneal infection. Nocardia keratitis most often occurs in individuals with prior ocular traum ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Non-arteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy occurs due to decreased blood supply to the optic nerve head. It is divided into a) Arteritic anterior ischemic opt ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nonspecific Orbital Inflammation Orbital pseudotumor, orbital inflammatory pseudotumor (OIP), or idiopathic orbital inflammation (IOI) is a benign, non-infectious, non-neoplastic, spa ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ochronosis Ochronosis is named for the reddish-brown hue of tissue termed "ochre-like" that was first described by a young physician named Archibald Garrod in th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ocular Burns Ocular burns are true medical emergencies that can lead to devastating vision impairment. In a patient presenting with a possible ocular burn, immedia ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ocular Cellulitis Orbital cellulitis is an inflammation of the contents of the orbit posterior to the orbital septum. The inflammation occurs secondary to an infection ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ocular Ischemic Syndrome The ophthalmic artery is the first intradural branch of the carotid artery; thus, its function reflects the activity in ocular microcirculation and ca ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ocular Manifestations of HIV Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus which causes a multisystemic disease called acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Ocular mani ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ocular Melanoma Ocular melanoma is diagnosed from ultrasonography, fluorescein angiography, enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography, and fine-needle aspir ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ocular Neuropathic Pain Ocular neuropathic pain is a diagnosis of exclusion which refers to the heightened perception of pain in response to normally non-painful stimuli. It ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ocular Pemphigoid Ocular cicatricial pemphigoid (OCP) is a form of mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) that features chronic, relapsing-remitting bilateral conjunctivitis. ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ocular Tuberculosis Ocular tuberculosis is a rare extrapulmonary manifestation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Clinical symptoms primarily occur from hematogenou ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ocular Ultrasound Ocular ultrasound has many potential benefits in the evaluation of patients with acute vision loss, ocular trauma, headache or concern for increased i ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Oculocardiac Reflex The oculocardiac reflex (OCR), also known as the Aschner reflex or trigeminovagal reflex (TVR), was first described in 1908 as a reduction in heart ra ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Onchocerciasis Onchocerciasis, also known as river blindness, is the second commonest cause of infectious blindness in the world and is transmitted through the repea ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Open Angle Glaucoma Open-angle glaucoma is a chronic, progressive, and irreversible multifactorial optic neuropathy that is characterized by an open angle of the anterior ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ophthalmia Neonatorum Ophthalmia neonatorum is a type of conjunctivitis that takes place in the neonatal period. This condition is commonly transmitted during vaginal deliv ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ophthalmic Manifestations Of Coronavirus There have been several reports of suspected ocular manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), prompting investigation into ocular signs, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Opsoclonus Opsoclonus is an oculomotor dyskinesia characterized by rapid, repetitive conjugate eye movements that are involuntary, arrhythmic, chaotic, and multi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Optic Atrophy Optic atrophy is the hallmark of damage to the visual pathway. It appears as a pale disc on fundus examination. This clinical appearance is not a dise ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Optic Ischemia The optic nerve may be damaged by ischemia anywhere along its path, starting from its origin. It is mainly divided into anterior and posterior. A port ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Optic Nerve Coloboma The term coloboma derives from the Greek word koloboma, originally used to indicate a part that was removed by mutilation, missing or cut short. Colob ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Optic Nerve Cysts The topic of optic nerve cysts encompasses a variety of etiologies including idiopathic, neoplastic, saccular or tubular expansions of the meninges, t ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Optic Nerve Decompression Optic nerve sheath decompression, more commonly known as optic nerve sheath fenestration (ONSF), is a surgical procedure performed to decompress the o ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Optic Nerve Glioma Optic pathway gliomas are benign CNS tumors that primarily affect children. Although typically slow growing, the location of these tumors makes resect ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Optic Nerve Sheath Meningioma Optic nerve sheath meningiomas are rare benign tumors of the central nervous system. Although they are slow-growing, their location directly affects t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Optic Nerve Sheath Ultrasound Point of care optic nerve sheath ultrasound (ONSUS) is a bedside practice that can be used to evaluate for increased intracranial pressure. This activ ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Optic Neuritis This activity describes the evaluation and management of optic neuritis and details the role of the interprofessional team in managing patients with t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Orbital Cellulitis Orbital cellulitis is defined as a serious infection that involves the muscle and fat located within the orbit. It is also sometimes referred to as po ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Orbital Floor Fracture Fractures of the orbital floor and the medial orbital wall (blowout fractures) are common midface injuries. Orbital fractures have a distinct trauma m ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Palytoxin Keratitis PTX exposure, and resulting toxicity, are most frequently associated with inhalation of vapors while cleaning or eradicating the coral from home aquar ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Papilledema Papilledema is a disease entity that refers to the swelling of the optic disc due to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP). This term should be distin ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Paraproteinemic Keratopathy Ocular manifestations of monoclonal gammopathy may include corneal, retinal, vascular, or inflammatory changes that may lead to vision loss. This arti ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Parinaud Syndrome Parinaud syndrome is also known as sylvian aqueduct syndrome, dorsal midbrain syndrome, pretectal syndrome, and Koerber-Salus-Elschnig syndrome. Parin ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pars Planitis Pars planitis is chronic intermediate uveitis for which no systemic disease or associated infection has been found. Patients with pars planitis presen ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pattern Electroretinogram The pattern electroretinogram (PERG) is a specialized electrophysiologic test of central retinal function in response to a pattern reversing stimulus. ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
PDE5 Inhibitor The discovery of phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (PDE5 inhibitors) for causing the erection of the penis was accidental, noticed as a side effect while ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pediatric Abusive Head Trauma Pediatric abusive head trauma (AHT), or shaken baby syndrome, most often involves shaking, blunt impact, or a combination of both in infants and young ... Read the Article 2 24 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pediatric Facial Trauma Pediatric facial trauma includes blunt and penetrating trauma to the structures of the face in patients ages less than 18 years. This article primaril ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pellucid Marginal Corneal Degeneration Pellucid marginal corneal degeneration is a progressive peripheral corneal thinning disorder with an adjoining area of ectasia above it. It is a relat ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Periorbital Cellulitis Periorbital cellulitis is sometimes called preseptal cellulitis. It is is a skin and soft tissue infection around the eye that is anterior to the orbi ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
PHACE Syndrome Infantile hemangioma is the most prevalent benign tumor of infancy, with an estimated incidence between 4 and 5 percent. Large facial segmental hemang ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Phakic Intraocular Lens Myopia The phakic intraocular lens (IOLs) is a technology that expands the range of refractive surgery to cover higher degrees of myopia, hyperopia, and asti ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Phenylephrine The FDA-approved indication for intravenous (IV) phenylephrine hydrochloride is for increasing blood pressure in adults with clinically significant hy ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Photodynamic Therapy Photodynamic therapy is an FDA approved indication for actinic keratoses and has the advantage of providing better cosmetic outcomes with less pain an ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Photorefractive Keratectomy Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) is a laser refractive procedure used to ablate the corneal stroma to correct refractive errors. Though not performed ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Phthiriasis Palpebrarum Phthiriasis palpebrarum also called phthiriasis ciliaris, or ciliary phthiriasis is an ectoparasitosis of the eyelashes due to an infestation with Pht ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Physostigmine Physostigmine is a medication most commonly used in the management and treatment of antimuscarinic toxicity as well as glaucoma. This article will hig ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pilocarpine Pilocarpine is a medication used in the management and treatment of xerostomia and glaucoma. It is a muscarinic receptor agonist. This activity descri ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pinguecula Pinguecula is a benign, common degeneration of the conjunctiva. It appears as grey white-yellow mass on the bulbar conjunctiva. It presents in people ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pituitary Adenoma Pituitary adenomas are tumors of the anterior pituitary. Most pituitary tumors are slow-growing and benign. They are classified based on size or cell ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pituitary Cancer Pituitary gland tumors are rarely cancerous and mostly benign. The pituitary tumors may be functioning with hormone production or non-functioning with ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Poikiloderma Congenitale Congenital poikiloderma, also known as Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (RTS), is a rare genodermatosis with autosomal recessive inheritance. It is character ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Posterior Polymorphous Corneal Dystrophy Posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy (PPCD) is a congenital anomaly of Descemet membrane. This article describes the pathophysiology, etiology, di ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Posterior Vitreous Detachment Posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) is the separation of the posterior vitreous cortex and the internal limiting membrane of the retina and is the mos ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Prazosin Prazosin is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension, benign prostatic hyperplasia, PTSD associated nightmares, and Raynaud p ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Presbyopia Presbyopia is a condition which every individual is bound to face around their forties. This activity talks about the pathophysiology, evaluation, and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pseudopapilledema Optic disc edema and papilledema are critical examination findings as they can be the first sign of a variety of disease processes with potential for ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pseudotumor Cerebri Pseudotumor cerebri (PTC), also known by the name idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), is a disorder with increased intracranial pressure (ICP) ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pterygium Pterygium is a common ocular surface disorder. There is a lack of consensus among ophthalmologists about the optimal medical and surgical management o ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ptosis Ptosis is known as the drooping of the upper eyelid, and the patient usually presents with the complaint of the defect in vision and cosmesis. It can ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ptosis Correction The term “ptosis” is derived from the Greek word falling and refers to drooping of a body part. Blepharoptosis is upper eyelid drooping with the eyes ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Punctal Stenosis Punctal stenosis refers to the narrowing or complete occlusion of the external opening of the lacrimal canaliculus. It may also be associated with occ ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pupillary Light Reflex Eyes allow visualization of the world by receiving and processing the energy of light as it enters the eye. This light interacts with the structures a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Purtscher Retinopathy Purtscher retinopathy, also known as traumatic retinal angiopathy, lymphorrhagia retinae, or retinal teletraumatism, is an occlusive microvasculopathy ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radial Keratotomy Correction Radial keratotomy correction for refractive error was a commonly performed surgical procedure in the latter part of the 20th century. This type of cor ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ranibizumab Ranibizumab is a medication used in the management and treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration, macular edema following retinal vein ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Reactive Arthritis Reactive arthritis (ReA) is inflammatory arthritis which manifests in several days to weeks after a gastrointestinal or genitourinary infection. It is ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Recurrent Acute Rhinosinusitis Sinusitis, also referred to as rhinosinusitis, is defined as the symptomatic inflammation of paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity mucosa. This inflammat ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Retinal Detachment Retinal detachments constitute a serious ocular condition and can lead to permanent vision loss. When the retina, the neurosensory layer, detaches fro ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Retinal Dystrophies Retinal dystrophies (RD) are a group of degenerative disorders of the retina with clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Common presentations include col ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Retinal Hemorrhage Retinal hemorrhages are a common clinical manifestation in patients visiting an eye clinic. Retinal hemorrhages give a clue to an underlying systemic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Retinal Migraine Headache Ocular or retinal migraines are generally defined as a transient monocular scotoma or loss of vision which is accompanied or followed by a headache wi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Retinal Traction Detachment Retinal traction detachment (RTD) is the separation of the neurosensory retina from the underlying retinal pigment epithelium due to the traction resu ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Retinitis Retinitis is an inflammation of the retina, which can cause permanent vision loss. Numerous microbes can cause retinitis. These pathogens can affect p ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Retinitis Pigmentosa The term Retinitis Pigmentosa encompasses a group of hereditary retinopathies which result in progressive vision loss. This activity will cover the un ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Retinoblastoma Retinoblastoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy of childhood. Patients management is best in consultation with an experienced ophthal ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Retinopathy Retinopathy refers to pathological alterations to the retina resulting from a variety of causes, including environmental conditions and genetic factor ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Retinopathy Hemoglobinopathies The World Health Organization estimates that about 7 percent of the world’s population are carriers of hemoglobinopathies and about 300,000 to 400,000 ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Retinopathy Of Prematurity Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a disease of retinal vascular and capillary proliferation affecting premature infants undergoing oxygen therapy. S ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Retrobulbar Block The retrobulbar block, initially described in 1884, had been widely referred to as the "gold standard" in ophthalmological surgery for many years. Tho ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rhino-orbital Cerebral Mucormycosis Rhino-orbital cerebral mucormycosis in an uncommon infection caused by the angiotropic fungus belonging to the order Mucorales and has high morbidity ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rosacea Rosacea is a common chronic inflammatory disease that presents with recurrent flushing, erythema, telangiectasia, papules, or pustules on nose, chin, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Roth Spots White-centered retinal hemorrhages, also known as Roth spots, are retinal hemorrhages that can be seen in a variety of medical conditions. Roth spots ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Salzmanns Nodular Corneal Degeneration This activity describes the evaluation and management of Salzmann nodular corneal degeneration; it also highlights the role of the ophthalmologist and ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disorder of unknown etiology characterized by the presence of noncaseating granulomas in organs. This condition mostly af ... Read the Article 2 28 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Scleritis Scleritis is a severe ocular inflammatory condition affecting the outer covering of the eye. Scleritis has high association with systemic disease. Thi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sebaceous Gland Carcinoma Sebaceous carcinomas are rare malignant tumors of the sebaceous glands. They most commonly develop on the eyelid, but may arise from anywhere sebaceou ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Seborrheic Dermatitis Seborrheic dermatitis is a common papulosquamous skin disease that is most prevalent in infancy and middle age, and it usually presents differently in ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Seidel Test The Seidel test assesses for the presence of aqueous humor leakage from the anterior chamber. This leakage is from a defect in the cornea or sclera fr ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Septic Thrombophlebitis Suppurative (septic) thrombophlebitis describes thrombosis in a vein that occurs in the setting of inflammation and infection. This condition is chara ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sjogren Syndrome Primary Sjogren syndrome is a systemic autoimmune disorder commonly presenting with dryness involving the eyes and mouth due to inflammation and resul ... Read the Article 1.75 24 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Skin Antiseptics Antiseptics are chemical agents applied to the skin to reduce the microbial count and reduce the risk of surgical site infections (SSIs). SSIs are def ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Small Incision Lenticule Extraction Small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) is a laser refractive surgery that has become increasingly popular for the correction of myopia and myopic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spinocerebellar Ataxia Ataxia is the absence of voluntary muscle coordination and loss control of movement that affects gait stability, eye movement, and speech. Spinocerebe ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Steroid Induced Glaucoma Steroids are one of the most commonly prescribed drugs, used mainly in the treatment of various autoimmune and inflammatory conditions. Although they ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Strabismus Strabismus is a common childhood disorder that causes deviation or squinting of eyes. If untreated it can affect the vision permanently and can have a ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sturge-Weber Syndrome Sturge-Weber syndrome, also known as encephalotrigeminal angiomatosis, is a neurocutaneous disorder characterized by angiomas involving the face, chor ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Stye Stye, or hordeolum, is an acute, painful infection of the eye which involves the upper or lower eyelid. Patients present with a pustule with erythema ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a devastating complication of the measles virus. Although it is a rare complication and the measles viru ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Subconjunctival Hemorrhage Subconjunctival hemorrhage is a common ocular complaint that most clinicians will see in their practice. This article is to describe its causes and it ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Superior Ophthalmic Vein Cannulation for Carotid Cavernous Fistula The superior ophthalmic vein (SOV) approach for embolization of carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCFs) was first described over 25 years ago. Carotid-caver ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Supertrochlear Nerve Block The supratrochlear nerve block is a special procedure, which can be utilized to relieve pain in the mid-forehead region. It can provide anesthesia for ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Supraorbital Nerve Block The supraorbital nerve block is a procedure performed to provide immediate localized anesthesia for a multitude of injuries such as complex laceration ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Surfactant Pulmonary surfactant is a lipoprotein complex that lines the alveoli and decreases the surface tension to prevent lung atelectasis. Surfactant deficie ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Syphilis Syphilis is a systemic, bacterial infection caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum. Due to its many protean clinical manifestations, it has been ... Read the Article 2.75 46 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Syphilis Ocular Manifestations Syphilis is caused by infection by the spirochete, Treponema pallidum. Ocular manifestations can occur at any stage of the disease with varied clinica ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tabes Dorsalis Tabes dorsalis, one of two manifestations of late neurosyphilis, is a slowly progressive parenchymatous degenerative disease of the dorsal column and ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tarantula Spider Toxicity Tarantula toxicity is a rare occurrence. There are over 900 species of tarantula, and they are popular as pets. While tarantulas do possess venom, the ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tay-Sachs Disease Tay Sachs disease is a rare autosomal recessive progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Patients usually exhibit a severe clinical course with death i ... Read the Article 1.75 22 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tear Gas and Pepper Spray Toxicity Tear gas and pepper spray are lay terms to describe a group of agents used to subdue combative persons in a non-lethal manner. The three most commonly ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Temporal Arteritis Temporal arteritis (TA), also called giant cell arteritis (GCA) or cranial arteritis, is a systemic inflammatory vasculitis of medium and large-sized ... Read the Article 2 28 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Temporoparietal Fascia Flaps This activity reviews the temporoparietal fascia flap and highlights the background, indications, and technique of this surgical approach. This techni ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thioridazine Similar to other first-generation, or typical, antipsychotics, thioridazine is a medication used to treat schizophrenia. Other indications for use inc ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thymic Hyperplasia Thymic hyperplasia could be true thymic or lymphoid hyperplasia. It is usually found incidentally or could present with compressive symptoms or system ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Timolol Timolol is a medication used in the treatment and management of open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension. It is in the beta-blocker class of drugs. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tobramycin Tobramycin is an antibiotic used in the management and treatment of systemic and ocular infections. It is a type of aminoglycoside. This activity desc ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tolosa-Hunt Syndrome Tolosa Hunt syndrome (THS), also known as painful ophthalmoplegia, recurrent ophthalmoplegia, or ophthalmoplegia syndrome, is described as severe and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tonometry Tonometry is a common procedure employed by health care professionals to measure intraocular pressure (IOP) using a calibrated instrument. Instruments ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Topiramate Topiramate is a medication used in the management and treatment of epilepsy and migraine. It is in the second-generation anti-epileptic drugs class of ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Toxic and Nutritional Optic Neuropathy Toxic and nutritional optic neuropathy both present with symmetric and progressive bilateral vision loss, decreased color vision, central or cecocentr ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Toxocara Canis Human toxocariasis is a helminth infection that primarily impacts individuals of lower socioeconomic class in tropical and subtropical regions around ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Toxoplasma Retinochoroiditis Toxoplasma retinochoroiditis (TRC) is likely the most common cause of infectious retinochoroiditis worldwide. One-quarter of patients with a history o ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis is caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan. Although many people are infected worldwide, the disea ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Trachoma Trachoma is a bacterial infection of the eyes caused by Chlamydia trachomatis. The infection causes roughening and scarring of the inner surface of th ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Transconjunctival Blepharoplasty Transconjunctival blepharoplasty is usually used for cosmetic improvement of the lower eyelid or reconstructive surgery. There is no skin incision inv ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Transient Loss Of Vision Transient loss of vision instills apprehension in the minds of patients and providers. Patients commonly worry about the potential for permanent loss ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tropicamide Tropicamide is a safe drug used for pupillary dilation prior to a comprehensive eye exam or ocular procedure. Dilation is also necessary for specific ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tumid Lupus Erythematosus Tumid lupus erythematosus (TLE) is currently considered to be a subtype of cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE). TLE differs from the other subtypes of ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Keratitis Tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) keratitis is an ocular complication of certain antineoplastic medications, primarily those that inhibit the epidermal ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Uhthoff Phenomenon Uhthoff phenomenon, also known as Uhthoff sign or Uhthoff syndrome, is a transient worsening of neurological function lasting less than 24 hours that ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Uncal Herniation Uncal herniation occurs when rising intracranial pressure causes portions of the brain to move from one intracranial compartment to another. It is a l ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Upper Eyelid Blepharoplasty Upper eyelid blepharoplasty, whether performed for cosmetic or functional reasons, is one of the most common operations performed on the face. Eyes an ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Upper Eyelid Reconstruction This article reviews the various types of upper eyelid reconstruction that are used to repair lid defects, the principles that govern which approaches ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Uveitic Macular Edema Uveitic macular edema is a complication of acute or chronic uveitis. Characterized by the accumulation of fluid in the retinal layers or in the subret ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Uveitis Uveitis is a disease process that involves inflammation of the eye. There are multiple different causes of uveitis. These include infections, inflamma ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Valsalva Retinopathy Valsalva retinopathy is a specific form of retinopathy characterized by pre-retinal hemorrhage secondary to raised intrathoracic pressure. Patients pr ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vasculitis Vasculitis is a heterogeneous group of pathologies characterized by inflammation if vessels. They share common links of clinical, laboratory, and path ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt A ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt is a cerebral shunt used to treat hydrocephalus. The shunt removes excess cerebrospinal fluid. In pediatric patients ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency Vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI) represents inadequate blood flow through the posterior circulation of the brain, which is supplied by the two vert ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vigabatrin Vigabatrin is a medication used in the management and treatment of infantile spasms and refractory complex partial seizures. It is in the anti-epilept ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Viral Conjunctivitis Conjunctivitis, also known as "pink eye", is inflammation of the conjunctiva. The three most common causes of conjunctivitis are viral, allergic, and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Visual Acuity A visual acuity test is only one part of a comprehensive ophthalmologic examination. The goal of the visual acuity test is to determine the visual cla ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) Vitamin B1 is one of the eight B vitamins, also known as thiamin (thiamine). Because thiamin can only be stored in the body for a short time before it ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vitrectomy Pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) is a surgical technique originally introduced by Robert Machemer. The pars plana approach to the vitreous cavity allows ac ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vitreous Floaters Vitreous floaters can often be the presenting symptom of a retinal tear or detachment. Early recognition of floaters can help prevent vision loss or b ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vitreous Hemorrhage Vitreous hemorrhage is described as blood in the vitreous cavity. It can occur due to a myriad of causes. Its timely diagnosis and management can cons ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Waardenburg Syndrome Waardenburg syndrome is a group of genetic conditions inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. During embryogenesis, there is an abnormal distribut ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Weber Syndrome Weber syndrome is a midbrain stroke characterized by crossed hemiplegia along with oculomotor nerve deficits. This activity reviews the etiology and t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Whipple Disease The gram-positive bacterium, Tropheryma Whipplei causes Whipple's disease. Whipple disease is a systemic disorder which not only involves malabsorptio ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
White Dot Syndromes The white dot syndromes constitute a group of inflammatory chorioretinopathies in which the common defining clinical feature is the presence of multip ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wilson Disease Wilson disease (hepatolenticular degeneration) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder caused by abnormal copper accumulation in the body particularly ... Read the Article 2 27 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wyburn-Mason Syndrome Wyburn-Mason syndrome is a rare nonhereditary congenital phakomatoses which presents with multiple arteriovenous malformations that tend to be large a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Xanthelasma Palpebrarum Xanthelasma palpebrarum is a condition in which soft, yellow papules or plaques filled with cholesterol form over the medial canthus of the upper lid. ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Xerophthalmia Xerophthalmia is the leading cause of preventable blindness and childhood blindness. Health education focusing on proper nutrition has the potential t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Zygomatic Arch Fracture The zygoma is the second most common fracture of the face, just behind nasal fractures, which can cause significant cosmetic and functional deformity. ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO

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