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Hand Surgery

Hand Surgery

Stay up to date on the latest medical knowledge with this Hand Surgery activity. In this online self-assessment activity, you'll read our reference articles and test your knowledge with 216 activities in Hand Surgery for 233.75 total CME hours.


6 Month Unlimited Physician MD/DO/PA CME

$199

Access to all the Physician MD/DO/PA CME activities in all specialties.
1 Year Unlimited Physician MD/DO/PA CME

$299

Access to all the Physician MD/DO/PA CME activities in all specialties.

Featured Article Activities

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Trigger Thumb

Trigger thumb is a simple term for stenosing flexor tenosynovitis of the thumb. This is a narrowing of the flexor tendon ...
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Hours: 1

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Bone Cyst

A simple bone cyst is a solitary, benign, fluid-filled, cyst that may be a single chamber or septated. The most common s ...
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Hours: 1

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Hyperbaric Management Of Frostbite

Although evidence for treating frostbite with hyperbaric oxygen is sparse and limited to case reports and animal studies ...
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Hours: 1

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Acrokeratosis Verruciformis of Hopf

Acrokeratosis verruciformis is a rare genodermatosis that usually develops in childhood and is characterized by verrucou ...
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Hours: 1

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Colles' Fracture

This activity outlines the evaluation, treatment, and management of Colles fractures. Colles fractures are forearm injur ...
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Hours: 1.25

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Barton's Fracture

Philadelphia orthopedic surgeon John Rhea Barton first described a Barton fracture. It is a fracture of the distal radiu ...
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Hours: 1

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Hand Surgery Activities

Title Description Hours Questions
Acrokeratosis Verruciformis of Hopf Acrokeratosis verruciformis is a rare genodermatosis that usually develops in childhood and is characterized by verrucous papules on the dorsum of the ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Nerve Injury Peripheral nerve injuries (PNIs) can present in approximately 3% of trauma patients. They vary in severity and complexity, necessitating different app ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Advancement Flaps Advancement flaps permit scar camouflage along cosmetic subunit junctions and play a vital role in wound coverage. Advancement flap design and executi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ainhum Ainhum, also called dactylolysis spontanea, is a rare disease of fibrotic constricting bands that most commonly occur over digits. These rings of fibr ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Allen Test The Allen test (AT) is used to assess collateral blood flow to the hands. The radial artery is easily palpable. The need for this test arises from the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Animal Bites Animal bites account for approximately one percent of all emergency visits in the U.S. yearly and can range from superficial injuries to disfiguring a ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anterior Interosseous Syndrome Anterior interosseus syndrome is an isolated palsy of flexor pollicus longus, the index and long fingers of the flexor digitorum profundus, and the pr ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Apert Syndrome Apert syndrome is an autosomal dominant inherited craniosynostosis syndrome. Males and females are equally affected. The incidence of the disease sign ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arteriovenous Fistula Arteriovenous fistulas are abnormal connections between arteries and veins. AVFs can be surgically created, can occur as a result of a congenital or g ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Artery Cannulation Arterial cannulation is a procedure frequently performed in acute and critical care settings. It serves as an invasive means to more accurately measur ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Avascular Necrosis Osteonecrosis is a degenerative bone condition characterized by death of cellular components of bone secondary to an interruption of the subchondral b ... Read the Article 1.75 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Axillary Block The axillary approach to the brachial plexus nerve block was first described by Dr. Halstead et al. in 1884. Before the prevalence of ultrasound, this ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Axonotmesis This activity reviews the etiology, epidemiology, anatomy, physiology, and prognosis of peripheral nerve injury with a particular focus on axonotmesis ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Barton's Fracture Philadelphia orthopedic surgeon John Rhea Barton first described a Barton fracture. It is a fracture of the distal radius which extends through the do ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Basic Flap Design Flaps are sometimes used to close skin defects and vary from simple local flaps to complex free flaps. The design of a flap is a key step in treating ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bennett Fracture The Bennett fracture is the most common fracture involving the base of the thumb. This fracture refers to an intraarticular fracture that separates th ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bier Block The Bier block, also known as intravenous local anesthesia (IVRA), is a safe, effective, and cost-efficient way to provide short-term anesthesia and a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blister Agents Sulfur mustard (dichlorethylsulphide) and nitrogen mustard are blistering agents, or vesicants, that have been used in chemical warfare since before t ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bone Age Bone age assessment can be of utmost importance in various complicated situations involving medical, surgical, forensic, and legal issues. Apart from ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bone Cyst A simple bone cyst is a solitary, benign, fluid-filled, cyst that may be a single chamber or septated. The most common sites are the proximal humerus ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Boutonniere Deformity Boutonniere deformity describes a medical condition in which the finger is flexed at the proximal interphalangeal joint (PIP), and there is hyperexten ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brachial Plexus Block Techniques Blockade of the brachial plexus is an effective method for providing anesthesia to the upper limb from the shoulder to the fingertips. There are multi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brachial Plexus Injuries The earliest written description of a brachial plexus injury (BPI) is attributed to Homer circa 800 BC in his depiction of a battle during which Hecto ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Burn Debridement, Grafting, and Reconstruction When treating patients with thermal burns, the major surgical procedures will be debridement/excision, grafting, and reconstruction. This activity rev ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carpal Ligament Instability Carpal instability secondary to ligamentous disruption is a broad, complex topic that includes a number of causes. This activity will cover the two mo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carpal Tunnel Injection Carpal tunnel injections are performed because of the extremely high prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome in the general population. Carpal tunnel syn ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is an entrapment neuropathy caused by compression of the median nerve as it travels through the wrist's carpal tunnel. It ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Disc Injuries The spinal cord is a nervous tissue bundle from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region, and the vertebral column protects it. The ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Myelopathy Cervical myelopathy is a condition describing a compression at the cervical level of the spinal column resulting in spasticity (sustained muscle contr ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Subluxation Subluxation is an essential entity of traumatic subaxial cervical spinal injuries. There is a varying degree of slippage of the body of one vertebra r ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cheiralgia Paresthetica Cheiralgia paresthetica is a compression neuropathy of the superficial radial nerve. It manifests as sensory disturbances, such as paresthesias, to th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Child Syndrome Congenital hemidysplasia with ichthyosiform erythroderma and limb defects syndrome, also known as CHILD syndrome, is a rare condition that affects dif ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Claw Hand Ulnar nerve palsy is the loss of sensory and motor function. This can occur after injury to any portion of the ulnar nerve. The ulnar nerve is the ter ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cleft Hand Cleft hand, otherwise referred to as ectrodactyly or colloquially as "split hand," is defined as a central longitudinal deficiency expressed as suppre ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clinodactyly Clinodactyly is defined as a congenital curvature of a digit distal to the metacarpal phalangeal joint in the coronal plane. Curvatures with an angula ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clostridium Perfringens Clostridium perfringens is an anaerobic Gram-positive spore-forming bacillus that is associated with acute gastrointestinal infection ranging in sever ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Colles' Fracture This activity outlines the evaluation, treatment, and management of Colles fractures. Colles fractures are forearm injuries that require medical manag ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a neuropathic pain disorder defined by the presence of distinct clinical features including allodynia, hypera ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cryoanalgesia This activity reviews the role of cryoanalgesia (the use of cold temperatures for analgesia) for pain control, its indications, contraindications and ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cubital Tunnel Syndrome Cubital tunnel syndrome is neuropathy of the ulnar nerve causing symptoms of numbness and shooting pain along the medial aspect of the forearm, also i ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cubitus Varus Malunion of supracondylar fractures often leads to cubitus varus, or "gunstock deformity." This condition is a triplanar malalignment of the elbow, ch ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cutaneous Melanoacanthoma Cutaneous melanoacanthoma is a rare benign epithelial lesion that typically presents as a solitary black plaque or nodule, usually on either the head ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
De Quervain Tenosynovitis De Quervain tenosynovitis is named after the Swiss surgeon, Fritz de Quervain, who first described it in 1895. It is a condition which involves tendon ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dialysis Fistula Dialysis fistula creation is a commonly performed procedure for patients with end-stage renal disease who require permanent vascular access for hemodi ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Digit Amputation Digital amputation is often associated with traumatic injuries but is also seen within the elective surgery setting, such as in the case of cancer res ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Digit Replantation The focus of replantation of any part of the upper extremity is maximizing functional outcome rather than simple survival of the amputated part. Funct ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Digital Mucous Cyst Digital mucous cysts are a type of ganglion commonly found on the hand. They commonly have an association with underlying DIP joint osteoarthritis. Th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Digital Nerve Block Digital nerve block is a simple procedure that can be performed to provide immediate anesthesia for a multitude of injuries and procedures, such as fr ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Distal Radius Fractures Emergency Department and primary care clinics are frequently called on to evaluate orthopedic complaints. It is essential for most providers to feel c ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Disulfiram Disulfiram is one of three drugs approved by the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of alcohol dependence. It is a second-line option ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dupuytren Contracture Dupuytren contracture is a myofibroplastic disease that affects the hands. It results in painless cords that eventually leads to flexion contracture o ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dyskeratosis Congenita Dyskeratosis congenita, also known as Zinsser-Engman-Cole syndrome, is an uncommon genodermatosis classically associated with the triad of oral leukop ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Elbow Dislocation Elbow dislocations are a common large joint dislocation experienced in children and adults. They can occur with associated fractures or damage to surr ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Electrical Burns Electrical injuries are when high-energy current travels through the body due to contact with an electrical source. Injuries occur due to either the f ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Electrodiagnostic Evaluation Of Ulnar Neuropathy Electrodiagnostic testing, which includes electromyography and nerve conduction studies, can be used to confirm the diagnosis of ulnar neuropathy, loc ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Enchondroma Enchondromas are benign tumors of unknown etiology that occur in the hyaline cartilage in bones of endochondral origin. Enchondromas account for appro ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Endotracheal Tube Intubation Techniques Endotracheal intubation is an essential resuscitative procedure in the emergency setting. Direct and video laryngoscopy are the two most common approa ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Enthesopathies Enthesopathies encompass a broad range of pathologies that include ligamentous and tendinous injuries. They are relatively common and can be the initi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidermal Inclusion Cyst Epidermal inclusion cysts are the most common cutaneous cysts and can occur anywhere on the body. These cysts typically present as fluctuant nodules u ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epithelioid Sarcoma Epithelioid sarcoma is a rare soft tissue sarcoma of young adults that presents as a painless, slow growing mass. Complete surgical resection can be c ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Escharotomy Burns commonly present acutely . They can be due to many modalities, including thermal, chemical, electrical or radiation. Often, burns result in supe ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Felon A felon is an infection that occurs within the closed-space compartments of the fingertip pulp. The swelling leads to intense throbbing pain. The sur ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fifth Metacarpal Fractures Metacarpal fractures account for 40% of all hand fractures. A fracture of the neck of the fifth metacarpal, or boxer's fracture, named for the classic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Finger Dislocation Finger joint dislocation is a common hand injury. Finger dislocation can occur at the proximal interphalangeal (PIP), distal interphalangeal (DIP), or ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fingertip Injuries The fingertip is the most distal portion of the finger providing the tactile and sensory functions that are then relayed to the brain. It is anatomica ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Finkelstein Sign Harry Finkelstein, an American surgeon, described the Finkelstein's test or Finkelstein's sign in 1930. It is a provocative test for diagnosis of De Q ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Flexor Tendon Lacerations Flexor tendon injury is frequently seen in household accidents involving knives, glass, or mirror injuries, but also can be due to chainsaw injuries, ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Forearm Amputation Forearm amputations are a life-changing but often unavoidable procedure, most commonly needed secondary to trauma. These are a complicated process, an ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Forearm Splinting The main goal of forearm splinting is to prevent pronation and supination of the forearm. There are a variety of indications for forearm splinting, in ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Free Tissue Transfer Of The Lateral Thigh And Anterolateral Thigh The Anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap is a versatile flap with broad indications and can cover almost any defect in the body from head to foot. It has be ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Frostbite Frostbite, also known as freezing cold injury is tissue damage that occurs due to cold exposure, occurring at temperatures below zero degrees celsius. ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Full Thickness Skin Grafts Skin grafts consist of fully detached pieces of skin taken from one anatomic site and placed in a wound elsewhere. Full-thickness skin grafts include ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gamekeepers Thumb The metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint of the thumb plays an important role in functional hand movements such as gripping and pinching. The radial and ul ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ganglion Cyst Ganglion cysts are synovial cysts that are filled with gelatinous mucoid material and commonly encountered in orthopedic clinical practice. Although t ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glomus Cancer Glomangioma or glomuvenous malformation is a rare cutaneous venous malformation that shows glomus cells (undifferentiated smooth muscle cells which ar ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Golfers Elbow Golfer’s elbow (medial epicondylitis or pitcher's elbow) is tendinopathy caused by overuse or overload and affects the medial common flexor tendon of ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Granuloma Annulare Granuloma annulare is a cutaneous granulomatous disease that is not caused by an infection. It is the most common non-infectious granulomatous disease ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Guyon Canal Syndrome Guyon canal syndrome is a relatively rare peripheral ulnar neuropathy that involves injury to the distal portion of the ulnar nerve as it travels thro ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hamate Fractures Fractures of the hamate are rare, under-reported injuries. They can be divided anatomically into two groups: body or hook. While conventional X-rays m ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hand Amputation This activity reviews the presentation and evaluation of patients with hand amputations. Additionally, it highlights the treatment options and associa ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hand and Wrist Rheumatoid Arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an immune-mediated multisystem inflammatory disease that predominantly affects the synovial joints. This activity provide ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hand Extensor Tendon Lacerations Extensor tendon lacerations are relatively common injuries and, when not treated appropriately, may result in a lasting impairment of hand function. T ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hand High Pressure Injury High-pressure injection injuries of the hand occur when the hand comes into contact with the nozzle of a high-pressure injecting system such as a pain ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hand Infection Hand infections comprise a broad spectrum of pathology, dependent upon which superficial or deep structures are involved. Given the anatomical complex ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hand Nerve Compression Syndromes Nerve compression syndrome is a common complaint in the general population. The severity of the disease can range from mild to severe. This activity w ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hand Splint There are many different indications for hand splinting. These include phalanx fractures, conditions requiring immobilization of the metacarpophalange ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hand Tendon Transfers Functional deficits in the hand arise most commonly as sequelae of radial, median, or ulnar nerve injury, but can also be secondary to brachial plexus ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Heterotopic Ossification Heterotopic ossification is frequently observed in the rehabilitation population. It consists of the formation of mature, lamellar bone in extraskelet ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hirayama Disease Hirayama is a rare nonfamiliar monomelic amyotrophy that is also known as benign juvenile brachial spinal muscular atrophy, juvenile asymmetric segmen ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Holt Oram Syndrome Holt-Oram syndrome also referred to as the heart-hand syndrome, is an autosomal dominant disorder that is distinguished by upper limb abnormalities in ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Humerus Fractures Overview Humerus fractures account for 4 to 6 percent of all fractures in young patients and 1 to 3 percent of all fractures in elderly patients. In young men, ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hydrofluoric Acid Burns Hydrofluoric (HF) acid is an extremely powerful inorganic acid and a vigorous dehydrating agent that is used in many industrial branches. Domestic con ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Management Of Frostbite Although evidence for treating frostbite with hyperbaric oxygen is sparse and limited to case reports and animal studies, the proposed mechanism of ac ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Treatment Of Clostridial Myositis And Myonecrosis Clostridial myonecrosis, also called gas gangrene, can rapidly cause death if not immediately detected and treated. It is caused by the anaerobic spor ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperesthesia Hyperesthesia occurs as a symptom of neuropathic pain and can be present in any disease process that affects the somatosensory nervous system. Treatme ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypertrophic Scarring Hypertrophic scarring represents an undesirable variant in the wound healing process. In hypertrophic scars, excess connective tissue is deposited in ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypothermia Accidental hypothermia occurs when the body dissipates more heat than it absorbs or creates, leaving the body unable to generate sufficient heat to ma ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Infraclavicular Nerve Block The infraclavicular block is a regional anesthetic technique developed to avoid the side effects and complications of supraclavicular blocks, particul ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intersection Syndrome Intersection syndrome is a condition that affects the first and second compartments of the dorsal wrist extensors. The condition is thought to occur a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intrinsic Hand Deformity Intrinsic hand deformities represent a challenging condition that disables the patient if left untreated. A thorough physical examination is essential ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Jersey Finger This activity aims to review "jersey finger" injuries. Jersey finger is a distal avulsion of the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendon from its inse ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Kienbock Disease Kienböck disease refers to avascular necrosis of the lunate carpal bone, known as lunatomalacia. It was first recognized and described by Austrian rad ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Kinkajou Bite Kinkajou (Potos flavus) is an omnivorous rainforest mammal that lives in the tropical forests of Central and South America. It is considered related t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Latex Allergy Latex comes from a sap found in rubber trees, Hevea brasiliensis, which is used to make many products used today. It is allergenic and causes symptoms ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Laugier-Hunziker Syndrome Laugier-Hunziker syndrome, also known as Laugier-Gerbig-Hunziker syndrome or Laugier-Hunziker-Baran syndrome or idiopathic lenticular mucocutaneous pi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lidocaine Lidocaine is a local anesthetic agent that is commonly used for local and topic anesthesia, but which also has antiarrhythmic and analgesic uses and c ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lionfish, Scorpionfish, And Stonefish Toxicity More than 50 percent of all venomous vertebrates are fish, and which pose a threat to divers around the world. The family Scorpaenidae includes the mo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Local Anesthetic Toxicity Local anesthetics are commonly used in most medical and dental practice. While adverse effects are rare, the rising prevalence of local anesthetics in ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Long Arm Splinting Long arm splints are used in a variety of settings for immobilization of both bony and soft tissue injuries to the upper extremities. This type of spl ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lung Cancer Lung cancer or bronchogenic carcinoma refers to tumors originating in the lung parenchyma or within bronchi. It is one of the leading causes of cancer ... Read the Article 2 23 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lunotriquetral Instability Lunotriquetral joint instability is often misdiagnosed and if left untreated can result in lunotriquetral dissociation. Although patients may lack sym ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Malignant Hyperthermia Malignant Hyperthermia (MH) is a hereditary disorder of skeletal muscle that classically presents as a hypermetabolic response to halogenated anesthet ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Malignant Melanoma A melanoma is a tumor produced by the malignant transformation of melanocytes. Melanocytes are derived from the neural crest; consequently, melanomas, ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mallet Finger Mallet finger injuries are commonly encountered in everyday clinical practice. Mallet, which means hammer, was the term used to describe the hammer-li ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mallet Finger Injuries Mallet finger is the term usually applied to extensor avulsion fractures. However, this entity may also be caused by distal extensor tendon ruptures. ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Median Nerve Block Techniques A median nerve block is a simple, safe, and effective method of obtaining anesthesia to the palmar aspect of the thumb, index finger, middle finger, r ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Median Nerve Injury This activity reviews the evaluation and treatment of an injury to the median nerve and highlights the role of the healthcare team in managing patien ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Median Nerve Palsy This activity addresses the topic of median nerve palsy in great detail. The median nerve is a critical neurological structure in the upper extremity ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Medical Ethics Familiarity with ethical principles on a basic level is necessary to safely practice medicine. However, most clinicians are unable to elucidate specif ... Read the Article 2 24 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Metacarpal Fracture The metacarpals form the osseous base of the complex lever system of flexor and extensor tendons of the hand. Understandably, fractures of the metaca ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Metacarpal Hand Fracture Hand fractures are common in the general population with relative propensity seen in contact-sport athletes (e.g., boxers, football players) and manua ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Monteggia Fractures The forearm is a vital structure in the human body that is essential for completing activities of daily living. It is designed to help maximize versat ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
M-plasty An M-plasty is an excisional technique used to remove standing cutaneous deformities, also known as dog ears, from the end of a linear repair. Dog ear ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Necrotizing Fasciitis Necrotizing fasciitis is a subset of aggressive skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) that cause necrosis of the muscle fascia and subcutaneous tiss ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nerve Block Anesthesia The purpose of peripheral nerve blocks is to inhibit impulse transmission distally in a nerve terminal, thus terminating the pain signal perceived by ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nerve Stimulation Chronic pain conditions, including low back pain, neck pain, and neuropathic pain states like chronic regional pain syndrome, causalgia, and diabetic ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neuroma A neuroma is a benign tumor of nerve tissue that is often associated with pain or in specific types of various other symptoms. Neuromas most commonly ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neurotmesis Neurotmesis is a complete transection of a peripheral nerve. The severity of peripheral nerve injury can be classified as neurapraxia, axonotmesis, or ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nightstick Fracture Nightstick fractures are a relatively rare injury presenting in patients of all ages that can result in discomfort, weakness, and loss of function. T ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Olecranon Bursitis The olecranon bursa is synovial membrane located immediately posterior to the olecranon bone of the elbow. The bursa's function is to allow the bony o ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Olecranon Fracture The olecranon is the proximal articular portion of the ulna. Along with the coronoid process, it forms the greater sigmoid notch which articulates wi ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Oral Hypoglycemic Medications The most effective management of diabetes mellitus demands an interprofessional approach involving both lifestyle modifications with diet and exercise ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Orf Disease Orf disease, also known as ecthyma contagiosum or contagious pustular dermatitis, is an occupational disease acquired from infected sheep and goats. T ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Osteomyelitis Osteomyelitis is a serious infection of the bone that can be either acute or chronic. It is an inflammatory process involving the bone and its structu ... Read the Article 1.75 19 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pediatric Lateral Humeral Condyle Fractures This activity reviews the injury mechanism, presentation, evaluation, management, and post-operative care of pediatric lateral humeral condyle fractur ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pediatric Torus Buckle Fracture Buckle fractures are incredibly common injuries that present to the emergency department, which are invariably always managed conservatively, and do n ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Perilunate Dislocation Perilunate dislocations (PLDs), lunate dislocations (LDs), and perilunate fracture-dislocations (PLFDs) are rare high-energy injuries. Because these i ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Perioperative Cardiac Management The importance of the appropriate perioperative cardiac management in non-cardiac surgery lies in the high number of surgical procedures performed eac ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Peripheral Magnetic Stimulation Peripheral magnetic stimulation (PMS) or so-called transcutaneous magnetic stimulation is a noninvasive method of delivering a rapidly pulsed, high-in ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Peripheral Nerve Blocks Recent advances in surgical techniques and the development of a greater number of minimally invasive procedures have led to an increase in outpatient ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Peripheral Vascular Bypass Peripheral vascular bypass (PVB) refers to surgical revision of blood flow to restore perfusion distal to an occluded or otherwise disrupted arterial ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pfeiffer Syndrome Pfeiffer syndrome is an inherited craniofacial disorder that is associated with primary craniosynostosis, midface hypoplasia, broad thumbs and great t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Phalanx Fracture Phalangeal fractures of the hand are a common injury that presents to the emergency department and clinic. Injuries can be located at the proximal, mi ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Phalanx Fractures of the Hand Phalanx fractures of the hand are some of the most common fractures occurring in humans. They are often noted to be in the more common of all upper ex ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Phantom Limb Pain Phantom limb pain is the perception of pain or discomfort in a limb that is no longer there. PLP most commonly presents as a sequela of amputation. Th ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Plantar Fibromatosis Plantar fibromatosis is a benign fibroblastic, connective tissue proliferative disorder of the superficial plantar aponeurosis of the foot. It belongs ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Polydactyly Polydactyly may indicate the presence of a very serious underlying disease or may present as an isolated finding. It may present in upper extremity or ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Poroma Poroma is a benign glandular adnexal tumor. Initially, It was thought of as a pure eccrine tumor, but now it is clear that it has both eccrine and apo ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Posterior Interosseous Nerve Syndrome There are multiple compression neuropathies of the upper extremity. Some neuropathies, like carpal tunnel, are quite common; others like posterior in ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Premalignant Fibroepithelial Tumor Of Pinkus In 1953, Dr. Herman Pinkus first described the fibroepithelial tumor of Pinkus (FEP) as a pre-malignant epithelial tumor. Although there has been some ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Procaine Procaine is a medication used for analgesia before a procedural intervention. It is in the local anesthetics class of drugs. This activity reviews the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pronator Teres Syndrome Pronator teres syndrome (PTS), first described by Henrik Seyffarth in 1951, is caused by a compression of the median nerve (MN) by the pronator teres ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pyogenic Granuloma Pyogenic granuloma, sometimes known as granuloma pyogenicum, refers to a common, acquired, benign, vascular tumor that arises in tissues such as the s ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radial Dysplasia Radial club hand encompasses a spectrum of complex congenital malformations of the radial side of the forearm. These are uncommon and can range from a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radial Forearm Tissue Transfer he radial forearm free flap (RFFF) has gained tremendous popularity since its introduction in 1978 as a reconstructive option. This flap's relative ea ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radial Head Fractures Radial head fractures account for approximately one in three elbow fractures and 1 to 4 percent of all fractures in adults. In the past, the radial he ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radial Neck Fracture Repair In A Child Radial neck fractures commonly occur in children and tend to be more prevalent at ages 9 to 10 years; they represent up to 10% of all pediatric elbow ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radial Nerve Block A radial nerve block will provide anesthesia and/or analgesia to the hand, specifically the dorsal radial side. This includes anesthesia dorsally to ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radial Nerve Entrapment Radial nerve entrapment is an uncommon diagnosis that is prone to under-recognition. Compression or entrapment can occur at any location within the co ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radial Nerve Injury The radial nerve stems from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus and supplies the upper limb. It also supplies the triceps brachii muscle of the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radial Tunnel Syndrome Radial tunnel syndrome refers to a compressive neuropathy of the posterior interosseus nerve (PIN) in the radial tunnel. Symptoms include pain without ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radius and Ulnar Shaft Fractures The forearm provides the bony structure and muscular origins that allow the hand to operate in many orientations. The two bones of the forearm (the ra ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Raynaud Disease In response to cold temperatures, the body adapts by restricting blood flow to the skin. This is done as a thermoregulating mechanism to prevent furth ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Regional Anesthetic Blocks A regional block is a specific anesthetic technique that inhibits nerve transmission to avoid or relieve pain. This activity reviews the indications, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rheumatoid Arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disorder of the joints characterized by inflammatory arthritis as well as extra-articular involvement. It c ... Read the Article 1.75 25 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rheumatoid Arthritis And Ankylosing Spondylitis Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are among the most common rheumatic diseases. These chronic progressive inflammatory disease ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rolando Fractures The term Rolando fracture was described for the first time in 1910 by Silvio Rolando, an Italian surgeon. The eponym is used to describe a comminuted ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ropivacaine Ropivacaine is FDA-approved for surgical anesthesia and acute pain management. It is used in an epidural block for surgery—such as cesarean sections. ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Scaphoid Wrist Fracture Scaphoid fractures are the most common of the carpal fractures and tend to occur in younger, active individuals. They account for 2-7% of all fracture ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Scapholunate Advanced Collapse Scapholunate advanced collapse (SLAC) is a characteristic degenerative clinical wrist condition of progressive deformity, instability, and arthritis t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Seborrheic Keratosis Seborrheic keratoses are epidermal skin tumors that commonly present in adult and elderly patients. They are benign skin lesions and often do not requ ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Septic Arthritis Septic arthritis is inflammation of the joints secondary to an infectious etiology such as bacterial, fungal, mycobacterial, viral, or other pathogens ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Septic Bursitis Bursae are fluid-filled sacs that produce small amounts of synovial fluid to reduce friction between mobile structures of the musculoskeletal system. ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Smith's Fracture Review A Smith fracture is a fracture of the distal radius featuring volar displacement or angulation. It typically results from a fall on the dorsum of the ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Split-Thickness Skin Grafts Split-thickness skin grafts are versatile adjuncts to wound closure in burns, trauma, reconstruction, and other large wounds. This activity outlines a ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Squamous Cell Skin Cancer Squamous cell carcinoma, the second most common form of skin cancer, is caused by the cumulative exposure of skin to UV light. This condition has prec ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Stener Lesion A Stener lesion occurs when a complete distal, thumb ulnar collateral ligament tear results in the interposition of the aponeurosis of the adductor po ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Subclavian Vein Thrombosis Subclavian vein thrombosis occurs due to either a primary etiology or a secondary etiology. It requires a thorough history and physical exam for diagn ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Subungual Hematoma Drainage Subungual hematomas are injuries of the nail bed in which bleeding develops under the nail. Patients usually complain of pain and discoloration of the ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Subungual Melanoma Subungual melanoma is a distinct subtype of cutaneous malignant melanoma arising from structures within the nail apparatus. The word subungual is deri ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Superficial Peroneal Nerve Block The superficial peroneal nerve (superficial fibular nerve) is a mixed nerve that carries sensory information from the anterolateral aspect of the leg ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Supernumerary Digit Polydactyly or supernumerary digit is a common malformation. It involves mostly the upper limbs. Classifications have been established to ease its man ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Supraclavicular Block The supraclavicular block is a regional anesthetic technique used as an alternative or adjunct to general anesthesia or used for postoperative pain co ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Supracondylar Humerus Fractures Supracondylar fractures of humerus are the most common type of elbow fractures in children accounting for up to 60% of elbow fractures. This activity ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sural Nerve Graft Peripheral nerve injuries are a frequent condition commonly developed as a consequence of trauma. They may occur due to various mechanisms including l ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Swan-Neck Deformity Swan neck deformity is characterized by proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint hyperextension and flexion of the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint. The ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Syndactyly Syndactyly is one of the most common congenital anomalies of the extremities. It is a failure of differentiation of the digits, defined as a fusion of ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Temporoparietal Fascia Flaps This activity reviews the temporoparietal fascia flap and highlights the background, indications, and technique of this surgical approach. This techni ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tenosynovitis Tenosynovitis is an inflammatory condition affecting the tendon sheath has a wide variety of causes and treatment considerations. Infectious forms of ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tetanus Tetanus is an infection characterized by muscle spasms and lockjaw, also called trismus. Toxins produced by Clostridium tetani are responsible for the ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) manifests when pressures in the thoracic outlet increase to the point of impinging vessels or nerves. TOS presents in a ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thumb Spica Splinting Hand and wrist injuries afflict a large proportion of the population and impact patients of all ages and activity levels. Splinting can be effective a ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Topical, Local, and Regional Anesthesia and Anesthetics Nerve impulse transmission occurs when voltage-gated sodium channels on the neuronal membrane open, allowing a massive influx of sodium. This causes m ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex The triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) is a load-bearing structure between the lunate, triquetrum, and ulnar head. The function of the TFCC is t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Trigger Finger Trigger finger, or stenosing tenosynovitis, is tenosynovitis of the flexor sheaths that typically occurs in the 4th finger and thumb as a result of re ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Trigger Thumb Trigger thumb is a simple term for stenosing flexor tenosynovitis of the thumb. This is a narrowing of the flexor tendon sheath which causes a clickin ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ulnar Collateral Ligament Injury Ulnar collateral ligament injury of the thumb, also known as skier's thumb or gamekeeper's thumb, is an injury of the ulnar collateral ligament of the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ulnar Nerve Block Techniques An ultrasound-guided ulnar nerve block can be used to provide surgical anesthesia or analgesia to the ulnar portion of the hand including the little f ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ulnar Nerve Entrapment Ulnar nerve entrapment is a common condition presenting in patients of all ages that can result in discomfort, weakness, and loss of function. This ac ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ulnar Neuropathy The ulnar nerve has several potential compression sites along its course. Although the elbow is the most common site of compression, the ulnar nerve i ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Upper Limb Amputation Upper extremity amputations are a procedure commonly done in a variety of circumstances including infection, trauma, cancer, disease progression or co ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Upper Limb Block Anesthesia Regional anesthesia and the incorporation of peripheral nerve blocks allows for localized, targeted anesthesia for both surgical anesthesia and post-o ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vascular Extremity Trauma Vascular trauma can come in three forms: blunt, penetrating, or combination. These injuries can occur in a civilian or military setting. Fortunately, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Volar Splinting The technique of volar splinting of the upper extremity can be used to immobilize hard and soft tissue injuries as well as painful non-traumatic condi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Volkmann Contracture Volkmann contracture, also known as Volkmann ischemic contracture is a claw-like deformity of the hand named after the 19-century German doctor, Richa ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wound Foreign Body Removal Soft tissue foreign bodies or wounds associated with foreign bodies result from blunt/abrasive trauma or penetrating trauma. Patients may present earl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wrist Arthritis Although the wrist is not a weight-bearing joint, it has a significant function in day-to-day activities, which predisposes it to trauma and arthritis ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wrist Arthrocentesis Wrist arthrocentesis is a procedure where the synovial fluid is aspirated from a patient's wrist. This is a sterile procedure that can be therapeutic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wrist Arthrodesis Wrist arthrodesis, also known as wrist fusion, is a procedure in which the wrist joint is immobilized by fusing the radius to the carpal bones. It may ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wrist Arthroscopy Wrist arthroscopy is quickly being used to treat a variety of intraarticular pathologies. Wrist arthroscopy has been used successfully for arthroscopi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wrist Dislocation Carpal instability represents about 7 to 10 percent of all reported carpal bone injuries. The majority of carpal instability is centered around the lu ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wrist Drop The radial nerve is responsible for innervating the extensor muscles of the wrist and digits. Consequently, injury to the radial nerve results in the ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wrist Fracture Distal radius fractures, commonly known as a wrist fracture, are defined by the involvement of the metaphysis of the distal radius. In younger patient ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wrist Splint The wrist is one of the most frequently splinted parts of the body, often after injury or surgery. Wrist splints provide rigid support to allow proper ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wrist Sprain A wrist sprain is a common injury, particularly in work and athletic environments. An acute wrist sprain is an injury to a ligament often due to an ac ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Z Plasty Z-plasty, previously referred to as converging triangular flaps, is a common surgical technique in reconstructive surgery used in scar revision and co ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO

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