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PA-PANCE

PA-PANCE

Stay up to date on the latest medical knowledge with this PA-PANCE activity. In this online self-assessment activity, you'll read our reference articles and test your knowledge with 4601 activities in PA-PANCE for 4137.25 total CME hours.


6 Month Unlimited Physician MD/DO/PA CME

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1 Year Unlimited Physician MD/DO/PA CME

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Access to all the Physician MD/DO/PA CME activities in all specialties.

Featured Article Activities

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Diabetic Perioperative Management

With the rising prevalence of diabetes mellitus; an increasing number of people with diabetes undergo surgery each year. ...
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Hours: 1

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Albendazole

Albendazole has FDA approval for the treatment of cystic hydatid disease of the liver, lung, and peritoneum resulting fr ...
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Hours: 0.75

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Neonatal Jaundice

Neonatal jaundice is yellowish discoloration of the skin, conjunctiva, and sclera due to elevated serum or plasma biliru ...
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Hours: 1

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Vitamin E

Vitamin E is a medication used in the management and treatment of vitamin E deficiency states as well as disease prevent ...
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Hours: 0.75

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Colitis

Colitis is an increasingly common condition in which the mucosal lining of the colon becomes acutely or chronically infl ...
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Hours: 1

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Trench Foot

Trench foot is one of three subclasses of immersion foot, which are differentiated by the temperature of the exposure. T ...
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Hours: 0.75

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PA-PANCE Activities

Title Description Hours Questions
131 I Sodium Iodide Radioiodine-131 is a therapeutic agent used in the management and treatment of hyperthyroidism and thyroid carcinoma. This activity describes the ind ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
21 Hydroxylase Deficiency 21-hydroxylase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency in one of the enzymes required for the synthesis of cortisol in th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
3,4-Methylenedioxy-Methamphetamine This activity reviews the class 1 drug 3,4 - methylenedioxymethamphetamine, also known as MDMA, Ecstacy or Molly. The drug is known to promote a sens ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
5 Alpha Reductase Deficiency This activity reviews 5-alpha-reductase deficiency, an important cause of ambiguous genitalia in children. Initially, the phenotype of children with 5 ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
5 Alpha Reductase Inhibitors The 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (finasteride and dutasteride) are a class of medication used in the management and treatment of benign prostatic hype ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
5th Metatarsal Fracture Fractures of the fifth metatarsal are common injuries that must be recognized and treated appropriately to avoid poor clinical outcomes for the patien ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
A Review Of Hereditary Colorectal Cancers Colorectal cancer is the fourth leading cause of death in the world. Many cases of colorectal cancer are associated with lifestyle factors such as obe ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abacavir Abacavir is an approved nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used to treat human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection in combination with ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abciximab Abciximab is widely used in interventional cardiology for the treatment of unstable angina and as an adjunct therapy following percutaneous coronary i ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominal Abscess Abdominal abscesses contain cellular debris, enzymes, and liquid and can be from an infectious or non-infectious source. They are a common and serious ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominal Angina Abdominal angina is postprandial pain that occurs in mesenteric vascular occlusive disease when blood flow to the colon is unable to meet visceral dem ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm An abdominal aortic aneurysm is a life-threatening condition which requires monitoring or treatment depending upon the size of the aneurysm and/or sym ... Read the Article 1.5 23 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Imaging Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAAs) are a relatively common pathology. Ruptured aneurysms have an exceptionally high mortality rate. Early diagnosis an ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Rupture Abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture represents a catastrophic emergency and if not recognized and appropriately treated, carries significant morbidity a ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominal Aortic Repair Abdominal aortic repair is a major surgical procedure done to treat an aortic aneurysm. Elective surgery on an abdominal aortic aneurysm is indicated ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominal Compartment Syndrome Abdominal compartment syndrome occurs when the pressure in the abdominal cavity elevates beyond 20 mmHg. It is associated with multiorgan dysfunction. ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominal Hysterectomy This activity describes the current status of abdominal hysterectomy, which represents the most common gynecologic surgical procedure performed in the ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominal Thrust Maneuver The abdominal thrust maneuver, also known as the Heimlich maneuver, is used to treat upper airway obstructions caused by foreign bodies. This maneuver ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abducens Nerve Palsy The abducens nerve, also known as cranial nerve VI, is responsible for ipsilateral eye abduction. Visualizing the anatomy of the nerve allows for bett ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abetalipoproteinemia Abetalipoproteinemia is a rare autosomal recessive disorder marked by low or absent levels of plasma cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins and very-lo ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abnormal Respirations There are multiple types of normal and abnormal respiration. They include apnea, eupnea, orthopnea, dyspnea, hyperpnea, hyperventilation, hypoventilat ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Abnormal uterine bleeding is a broad term that describes irregularities in the menstrual cycle involving frequency, regularity, duration, and volume o ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abortion Elective termination of pregnancy (abortion) is a common procedure despite the ethical and moral controversy surrounding it. With the availability of ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abortion Complications Roughly one million abortions are performed each year in the United States alone. The total abortion-related complication rate is estimated to be abou ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abrasion Abrasion is the superficial denudation of the epithelium due to scraping, impact or pressure. While the management of abrasions is relatively simple, ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Absence Seizure Absence seizures are brief seizures during which the patient is unresponsive. They are generally seen in children between 4 and 12 years of age. It ha ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abulia Abulia, also known as apathy, psychic akinesia, and athymia, refers to a lack of will, drive, or initiative for action, speech and thought, and is fel ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abuse and Neglect Abuse and neglect refer to the actions or inactions of an individual's caregiver or parent inflicting physical, sexual, or emotional harm on the indiv ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acalculous Cholecystitis Acalculous cholecystitis is a hypokinetic condition of gallbladder emptying. It often presents as an acute ailment (acute cholecystitis), but it can a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acanthosis Nigricans Acanthosis nigricans is a cutaneous manifestation of an underlying condition. It usually develops in in skin folds, such as the back of the neck, axil ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acarbose Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a growing concern around the world, and in the USA in particular, with clinicians encountering the condition more frequent ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Accessory Nerve Injury Cranial nerve XI is also known as the accessory nerve. It is prone to injury due to its long and superficial nature. Injury to the accessory nerve can ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
ACE Inhibitors ACE inhibitors are a medication class used in the treatment and management of hypertension, which is a significant risk factor for coronary disease he ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acetabular Fractures Acetabular fractures primarily occur in young people who are involved in high-velocity trauma. Since the advent of mandatory seatbelt use, there has ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acetaminophen Many diseases and conditions list pain as a component of their presentation; as a result, pain management is of great importance to both clinicians an ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acetaminophen Toxicity Acetaminophen toxicity is the second most common cause of liver transplantation worldwide and the most common cause of liver transplantation in the US ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acetaminophen/Aspirin/Caffeine The FDA recognized the combination of acetylsalicylic acid (250 mg), acetaminophen (250 mg), and caffeine (65 mg) as safe and effective in treating ac ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acetazolamide Acetazolamide is a diuretic and carbonic anhydrase inhibitor medication that is used to treat several illnesses. FDA-approved indications include glau ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors Toxicity Nerve agents are some of the most deadly and easily employed chemical warfare agents. Given the global threat of terrorism, it is prudent to have a ba ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Achalasia Achalasia is an esophageal smooth muscle motility disorder that occurs due to a failure of relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter. This conditio ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Achilles Tendon Rupture Achilles tendon rupture is the most common tendon rupture in the lower extremity. The injury most commonly occurs in adults in their third to fifth d ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Achilles Tendonitis The Achilles tendon ranks as the strongest tendon in the human body connecting the plantaris, gastrocnemius, and soleus to the calcaneus bone. This ac ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Achlorhydria Achlorhydria is a condition in which the stomach does not produce hydrochloric acid, one of the components of gastric acid. Hydrochloric acid plays an ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Achondroplasia Achondroplasia is the most common skeletal dysplasia found in humans, accounting for 90% of cases of disproportionate short stature. It is caused by a ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acinetobacter Acinetobacter is a gram-negative, nonmotile organism that is often found in soil and water and is known to colonize intravenous fluids. In general, Ac ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acitretin Acitretin belongs to a group of drugs known as retinoids. Retinoids include natural and synthetic compounds that have similar activity to vitamin A. V ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acne Fulminans Acne fulminans or acne maligna is a rare skin disorder presenting as an acute, painful, ulcerating, and hemorrhagic clinical form of acne. It may or m ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acne Vulgaris Acne vulgaris is an inflammatory disorder of pilosebaceous unit, which runs a chronic course and it is self-limiting. Acne vulgaris is triggered by pr ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acneiform Eruptions Acneiform eruptions are a group of disorders characterized by papules and pustules resembling acne vulgaris. Acneiform eruptions demonstrate an acute ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acoustic Neuroma Acoustic neuromas are tumors that develop from the sheath of Schwann cells. They tend to occupy the cerebellopontine angle and are usually found adjac ... Read the Article 1.25 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acquired Angioedema Angioedema is characterized by one or more areas of well-demarcated, non-pitting edema of deep subcutaneous tissues. It is primarily known to involve ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acquired Digital Fibrokeratoma Acquired digital fibrokeratoma (ADFK) is a rare, benign, fibrous tumor. It usually occurs in adults as a solitary lesion on fingers and toes. Since AD ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acquired Hemophilia Acquired hemophilia is an uncommon but severe bleeding disorder. It is caused by the development of autoantibodies directed against one of the antihem ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Human immunodeficiency virus is transmitted sexually, via blood transfusions, sharing intravenous needles, and from the mother to a child during the b ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acral Lentiginous Melanoma Acral lentiginous melanoma is a subtype of cutaneous malignant melanoma. It is comprised of malignant melanocytes, which can become invasive with time ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acrochordon Acrochordons (fibroepithelial polyps, skin tags, papillomas) are common benign neoplasms of the skin, often associated with obesity. These small pedun ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acrodermatitis Chronica Atrophicans Acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans (ACA) is a late and chronic manifestation of Lyme borreliosis. If untreated, ACA progresses from an early inflamma ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acrodermatitis Papular Papular acrodermatitis of childhood (Gianotti-Crosti syndrome) is a benign rash that occurs in childhood associated with multiple viral illnesses and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acrodynia Acrodynia is a rare disorder caused due to chronic mercury poisoning or idiosyncrasy to mercury. It is a Greek term that means 'painful extremities.' ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acrokeratoelastoidosis Acrokeratoelastoidosis is a rare, benign, and generally asymptomatic condition that usually begins in childhood and is characterized by flesh-colored ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acrokeratosis Verruciformis of Hopf Acrokeratosis verruciformis is a rare genodermatosis that usually develops in childhood and is characterized by verrucous papules on the dorsum of the ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acromegaly Acromegaly is a disorder caused by excessive production of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary gland, resulting in excessive growth of body tis ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acromioclavicular Joint Injection The most frequently encountered causes of non-traumatic pain in the AC joint are overuse, degenerative changes, and distal clavicle osteolysis. Conser ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acromioclavicular Joint Injury Acromioclavicular joint injuries account for more than forty percent of all shoulder injuries. Mild injuries are not associated with any significant ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Actinic Cheilitis Actinic cheilitis is a precancerous lesion that forms most commonly on the lower lip. Similar to actinic keratosis, actinic cheilitis can undergo mali ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Actinic Keratosis Actinic keratoses (AKs) are premalignant cutaneous lesions that may progress to squamous cell carcinoma. They are a common skin condition and develop ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Actinic Purpura Actinic purpura, also known as solar purpura, Bateman purpura, senile purpura, or Bateman disease is a common disorder of dermal connective tissue due ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Actinomycosis Actinomyces are gram-positive filamentous non-acid fast anaerobic to microaerophilic bacteria that typically colonize the human mouth, urogenital trac ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Activated Charcoal An oral suspension of activated charcoal should be considered in poisonings when gastrointestinal decontamination of an ingested toxin is indicated. A ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Active Tuberculosis Active tuberculosis is a condition in which Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes infection; typically in the lungs, although many systems can be involved ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Activities of Daily Living Activities of daily living (ADLs) are essential and routine tasks that most young healthy individuals can perform without assistance. The inability to ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Abdomen An acute abdomen is a condition that demands urgent attention and treatment. The acute abdomen may be caused by an infection, inflammation, vascular o ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute and Chronic Thermal Burn Evaluation and Management Thermal burns are a significant cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality. They can lead to debilitating, lifelong injuries and have serious psycholo ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Anemia Acute anemia occurs when there is an abrupt drop in red blood cells, usually due to acute hemorrhage or hemolysis. This activity reviews the presentat ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Ankle Sprain Acute ankle sprains are commonly seen in both primary care practices and emergency departments and can result in significant short-term morbidity, rec ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Arterial Occlusion Acute arterial occlusion is synonymous with acute limb ischemia and is considered a vascular emergency. Acute limb ischemia is defined as a sudden los ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Bronchitis Acute bronchitis is the inflammation of the lining of the bronchi. It is a common presentation in emergency departments, urgent care centers, and in p ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Cardiac Tamponade Cardiac tamponade occurs when excessive fluid accumulates in the pericardium, in turn compressing the heart and restricting the filling of the cardia ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Cholecystitis Acute cholecystitis is inflammation of the gallbladder that occurs due to occlusion of the cystic duct or impaired emptying of the gallbladder. Often ... Read the Article 1.5 22 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Closed Angle Glaucoma Acute angle-closure glaucoma is an ocular emergency that results from a rapid increase in intraocular pressure due to outflow obstruction of aqueous h ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Compartment Syndrome Acute compartment syndrome is a condition in which there is increased pressure within a closed osteofascial compartment, resulting in impaired local c ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Coronary Syndrome Acute coronary syndrome refers to a group of diseases in which blood flow to the heart is decreases. Some examples include ST-elevation myocardial inf ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Cystitis Urinary tract infections are the most common bacterial infection in women, and result in roughly eight million emergency department or clinic visits a ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis also referred to as post-infectious encephalomyelitis, is an acute, rapidly progressive autoimmune process that i ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Diverticulitis Acute diverticulitis is inflammation of a diverticulum, a sac-like protrusion from the colon wall, due to micro-perforation. Diverticulitis presents i ... Read the Article 1.25 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Eclampsia Eclampsia is a pregnancy-related disorder that manifests as new onset generalized tonic colonic seizures. Typically eclampsia occurs after gestational ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Febrile Neutrophilic Dermatosis Acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis, also known as Sweet syndrome, consists of erythematous plaques and papules along with constitutional symptoms s ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Headache Headache is a nearly universal complaint. Most headaches are benign, and the majority of patients can be safely treated and discharged with minimal wo ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Hepatic Porphyria Hepatic porphyrias are genetic disorders caused by the defect in an enzyme involved in heme synthesis and accumulation of heme precursors. Hepatic por ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Hepatitis Acute hepatitis is a term used to describe a wide variety of conditions characterized by acute inflammation of the hepatic parenchyma or injury to hep ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Intermittent Porphyria Acute intermittent porphyria is a rare autosomal dominant disease, characterized by a deficiency of hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS). It presents w ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Interstitial Pneumonia Acute interstitial pneumonia is a form of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia with an acute onset and a rapidly progressive course that frequently leads ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Kidney Injury Acute kidney injury, previously known as acute renal failure, denotes a sudden and often reversible reduction in the kidney function, as measured by ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Laryngitis Laryngitis refers to inflammation of the larynx. This is often due to an acute viral infection, which is typically a mild and self-limiting condition ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Liver Failure Acute liver failure is defined as severe acute liver injury for fewer than twenty six weeks duration with encephalopathy and impaired synthetic functi ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is a malignancy of B or T lymphoblasts characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of abnormal, immature lymphocytes ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Mastitis Mastitis can be broken down into lactational and non-lactational causes. While non-lactational causes of mastitis are less common, lactational mastiti ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Mesenteric Ischemia Acute mesenteric ischemia is caused by a sudden decline in blood flow through the mesenteric vessels. Diagnosis can be difficult because symptoms are ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Mountain Sickness At higher altitudes, the decreased partial pressure of oxygen can cause several pathological presentations, including high altitude pulmonary edema, h ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Myocardial Infarction Acute myocardial infarctions are one of the leading causes of death in the developed world, with prevalence approaching three million people worldwide ... Read the Article 1.75 25 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Myocarditis Acute myocarditis is inflammation of the myocardium. It is typically seen in infants and teenagers but can occur at any age. It most commonly results ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG) is a rapidly destructive, non-communicable microbial disease of the gingiva in the context of an impair ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Nerve Injury Peripheral nerve injuries (PNIs) can present in approximately 3% of trauma patients. They vary in severity and complexity, necessitating different app ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute On Chronic Liver Failure Acute on chronic liver failure is a clinical syndrome of sudden hepatic decompensation observed in patients with pre-existing chronic liver disease. A ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Otitis Media Acute otitis media (AOM) is defined as an infection of the middle ear and is the second most common pediatric diagnosis in the emergency department fo ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Pancreatitis Acute pancreatitis is the leading cause of gastrointestinal-related hospitalization in the United States, and its frequency continues to rise in the ... Read the Article 2 35 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Pneumothorax Evaluation and Treatment A pneumothorax is an accumulation of gas in the pleural space (the space between the visceral and parietal pleura of the chest cavity), which can imp ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Porphyria Acute porphyrias are a group of rare disorders characterized by an enzymatic defect in the heme biosynthetic pathway. Patients present with acute, deb ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Postpartum Hemorrhage Obstetric hemorrhage is the most common and dangerous complication of childbirth. Traditionally, postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) has been defined as great ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia Acute promyelocytic leukemia is a distinguished subset of acute myeloid leukemia which is characterized by fusion gene transcript PML-RAR-alpha and hi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Pulmonary Embolism Acute pulmonary embolism is a common clinical condition with a variable clinical presentation, making its diagnosis challenging. This activity outline ... Read the Article 2 30 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Pyelonephritis Acute pyelonephritis is a bacterial infection causing inflammation of the kidneys. Pyelonephritis occurs as a complication of an ascending urinary tra ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Renal Colic Acute renal colic is severe pain resulting from the presence of a stone in the urinary system. The stone can be present anywhere along the path betwee ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Renal Tubular Necrosis The most common intrinsic cause of acute kidney injury is acute tubular necrosis. Acute tubular necrosis is most common in hospitalized patients and c ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening that is characterized by poor oxygenation and non-compliant or "stiff" lungs. The dis ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Scrotum Pain Acute scrotum pain is an umbrella term that includes a wide variety of unique disease processes. Patients may describe the rapid onset of symptoms wit ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Sinusitis Rhinosinusitis is among the most common conditions encountered in the primary care clinic. It can result from viral, bacterial, or fungal infections, ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction An acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction occurs due to occlusion of one or more coronary arteries, causing transmural myocardial ischemia which in ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Stress Disorder Acute stress disorder (ASD) was first outlined in 1994 at the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) as a new ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Stroke Acute strokes, also known as cerebrovascular accidents, are broadly classified as either ischemic or hemorrhagic. Acute strokes result in loss of bloo ... Read the Article 1.75 26 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Subarachnoid hemorrhages are true emergencies that demand prompt treatment. Subarachnoid hemorrhages result from a medical aneurysmal rupture or traum ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Transplantation Rejection Acute transplant rejection occurs days to months after a transplant when the immune system identifies a grafted organ as foreign and attacks it. Acute ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Traumatic Ischemia Hyperbaric Evaluation and Treatment Trauma to a limb leads to direct tissue damage and local hypoxia due to edema, resulting in acute traumatic peripheral ischemia. The trauma can vary f ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acyclovir Acyclovir is a medication used in the management and treatment of infections caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). It is FDA approved to treat gen ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adalimumab Adalimumab is a fully human, high-affinity, recombinant anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha monoclonal antibody, used to treat rheumatoid arthritis ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adapalene Adapalene is a topical retinoid with FDA-approval for the treatment of acne vulgaris. Clinicians use retinoids are used to treat a wide variety of ski ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Addiction The laymen's definition of addiction is a "fact or condition of being addicted to a particular substance, thing, or activity." Medically it is a "chro ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Addiction Relapse Prevention Individuals recovering from various forms of addiction frequently encounter relapses that have gained acceptance as an almost inevitable part of the r ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Addison Disease Though Addison disease is a relatively rare condition, it can have devastating consequences if not diagnosed and managed appropriately. Often the insi ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Addisonian Crisis An Addisonian crisis, or adrenal crisis, is a potentially life-threatening condition that results from an acute insufficiency of adrenal hormones (glu ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adductor Strain An adductor strain or injury to the adductor muscle group of the thigh is a common cause of medial leg and groin pain, especially among athletes. This ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adenocarcinoma Adenocarcinomas are malignant tumors formed from glandular structures in epithelial tissue. They can arise from a variety of tissues. This activity re ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adenoid Hypertrophy Adenoid hypertrophy is an obstructive condition due to enlarged adenoids. This can occur with or without an acute or chronic infection of the adenoids ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adenoiditis Adenoiditis occurs when there is inflammation of the adenoid tissue resulting from infection, allergies, or irritation from stomach acid. Adenoiditis ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adenomyomatosis Adenomyomatosis is a benign condition that can present with right upper quadrant pain and is characterized by hyperplasia of the gallbladder wall muco ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adenomyosis Adenomyosis is a gynecologic condition characterized by ectopic endometrial tissue within the uterine myometrium. Presenting signs and symptoms vary, ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adenopathy Lymphadenopathy is a common abnormal finding during the course of the physical exam in general medical practice. Adenopathy can be caused by neoplasm, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adenosine Adenosine has uses as both a diagnostic or therapeutic agent. As a diagnostic agent, adenosine can be utilized in myocardial perfusion stress imaging ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adenoviruses The adenoviruses are DNA viruses common in animals and humans, occurring frequently in both adults and children. There are more than 100 serologically ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adhesive Capsulitis Adhesive capsulitis, also known as frozen shoulder, is an inflammatory condition characterized by shoulder stiffness, pain, and significant loss of pa ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adie Syndrome Adie syndrome, also known as the Holmes-Adie syndrome, is a neurological disorder of unknown etiology comprising unilateral or bilateral tonically dil ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adiposis Dolorosa Adiposis dolorosa is a rare disorder of multiple painful subcutaneous growths of adipose tissue most commonly affecting the proximal extremities, trun ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adolescent and Idiopathic Scoliosis Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the most common form of pediatric scoliosis occurring in individuals between the ages of 10 to 18. By definit ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adrenal Adenoma Adrenal adenomas are benign neoplasms of the adrenal cortex. Non-secreting adrenal adenomas secrete low levels of hormones, are usually asymptomatic a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adrenal Cancer Adrenal masses are a frequent observation in the adrenal gland. While most lesions are benign, adrenocortical carcinoma should be a consideration when ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adrenal Cortical Nodular Hyperplasia A number of heterogeneous disorders can result in adrenal cortical nodular hyperplasia. Cortical hyperplasia is a benign enlargement of the gland. Nor ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adrenal Crisis Adrenal crisis is an acute life-threatening condition precipitated by an internal or external process in the setting of known or unknown adrenal insuf ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adrenal Hemorrhage Adrenal hemorrhage represents a rare disease of variable etiologies. The disease often presents in a wide variety of clinical settings and presents a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adrenal Hypoplasia Adrenal hypoplasia is a condition in which there is underdevelopment or hypotrophy of the adrenal cortex due to several clinical conditions. It falls ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adrenal Insufficiency Adrenal glands produce hormones which are necessary for normal body functioning, deficiency of these hormones is called adrenal insufficiency. Adrenal ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adrenal Metastasis Adrenal metastases are the most common malignant lesions involving the adrenal gland and the second most common tumor of the adrenal gland after benig ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adrenalectomy Adrenalectomy is performed to adrenal tumors that secret excess hormone and for those that are concerning for malignancy. There are many approached to ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adrenergic Drugs Adrenergic drugs are a broad class of medications that bind to adrenergic receptors throughout the body. These receptors include: alpha-1, alpha-2, be ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adrenoleukodystrophy Adrenoleukodystrophy is a peroxisomal disorder resulting from abnormal metabolism of the very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA). It is classified into di ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adult Acquired Flatfoot Adult acquired flatfoot (AAFD), formerly described as posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD), is a debilitating condition with complex pathology d ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adult Dehydration Dehydration is a common condition that affects patients of all ages. Dehydration may complicate other medical problems and may cause significant illne ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adult Diabetic Ketoacidosis Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is characterized by uncontrolled hyperglycemia, metabolic acidosis, and increased body ketone concentration. It is a life- ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adult Inguinal Hernia Inguinal hernia is one of the most common surgical pathologies encountered by a general surgeon. Worldwide, there are more than 20 million inguinal he ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adult T Cell Leukemia Adult T- cell leukemia (ATL) is a rare and aggressive peripheral T-cell neoplasm associated with human T-cell leukemia virus type -1 (HTLV-1) infectio ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adverse Effects Of Radiation Therapy Radiotherapy causes DNA break and subsequent cell death. This affects the cancer cells more severely than the normal cells. However, with the growing ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adverse Events Adverse events (AE) occur frequently in our medical system and at least one in ten patients are affected. An AE is a harmful and negative outcome that ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aerospace Decompression Illness Decompression sickness in aviation is most commonly seen following flights in nonpressurized aircraft, in flights with cabin pressure fluctuations, or ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Afatinib Afatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is a widely used medication for non-small cell lung carcinoma. This activity educates health care providers on ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aflatoxin Toxicity Aflatoxins are metabolites produced by toxigenic strains of molds, mainly Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus which grow in soil, hay, decaying vege ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
African Trypanosomiasis African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness is transmitted via the bite of the tsetse fly and is predominantly seen in subsaharan Africa. ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Agammaglobulinemia Agammaglobulinemia or hypogammaglobulinemia is a rare inherited immunodeficiency disorder, characterized by low or absent B cells with absent immunogl ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ageusia Ageusia is a symptom reflecting various underline pathological conditions. It is a rare condition that is characterized by complete loss of the taste ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aggression Aggression has been treated by both medications and psychotherapy, but relapses are common. Aggressive patients frequently run into legal problems bec ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Agitation Agitation is a nonspecific constellation of relatively unrelated behaviors that can be seen in various clinical situations, usually presenting with a ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Agnosia Agnosia is a rare disorder whereby a patient is unable to recognize and identify objects, persons, or sounds using one or more of their senses despite ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Agoraphobia Agoraphobia is the anxiety that occurs when one is in a public or crowded place, from which a potential escape is difficult, or help may not be readil ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Agranulocytosis Agranulocytosis is a condition in which the absolute neutrophil count (ANC) is less than 100 neutrophils per microlitre of the blood. Agranulocytosis ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Air Leak An air leak is the leakage of air from an air-containing cavity into spaces that under normal circumstances do not contain air. The term air leak synd ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Airborne Precautions An airborne disorder is any disease that is caused by a microorganism that is transmitted through the air. There are many airborne diseases that are o ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Airway Assessment A thorough, but brief, airway assessment is essential for the proper management of patients requiring advanced airway management. Indications for the ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Airway Foreign Bodies Foreign body aspiration is the fourth leading cause of death in preschool and younger age children and accounts for a significant number of emergency ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Airway Glottic Insufficiency Glottic insufficiency is characterized by incomplete closure of the vocal folds with phonation, which causes an increased risk of aspiration. Glottic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Airway Management Interprofessional team members must be familiar with the important anatomical, physiological, and pathological features related to the airway and have ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Airway Monitoring Airway monitoring involves assessing both a patient’s ventilatory function and their ability to perform adequate gas exchange. Determining a patient’s ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Airway Obstruction Airway obstruction secondary to a foreign body is often easily treated, as the foreign body can be removed, and the patency of the airway restored. Ho ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Airway Suctioning Airway suctioning is a procedure routinely performed in the inpatient and outpatient settings. It is important to maintain patency of the natural or a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Akathisia Akathisia is a neuropsychiatric syndrome that can occur as an adverse effect of antipsychotic medications and manifests as psychomotor restlessness. I ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Akinesia Akinesia or "absent movement" is a clinical sign that could be indicative of a number of disorders, depending on the age group of the patient. The var ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ala Dehydratase Deficiency Porphyria ALA dehydratase porphyria is an extremely rare type of acute porphyria that follows a chronic course punctuated by acute attacks. To avoid multiple re ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Albendazole Albendazole has FDA approval for the treatment of cystic hydatid disease of the liver, lung, and peritoneum resulting from the larval form of the dog ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Albumin Colloid Albumin is the most abundant protein in the blood and accounts for about 50 percent of all plasma proteins. It gets synthesized by the liver and secre ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Albuterol Albuterol is used for the treatment and prevention of bronchospasm (acute or severe) in patients with reversible obstructive airway disease. It also h ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alcohol Related Psychosis Psychosis associated with alcohol can occur with acute intoxication, alcohol withdrawal, and chronic alcoholism. Alcohol-related psychosis is also kno ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alcohol Sanitizer Compliance with hand hygiene recommendations is critical to reducing colonization and infection, specifically among healthcare workers (HCW). This wil ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alcohol Use Disorder Alcohol use disorder is very common in the United States. The cause of alcohol use disorder is not well understood, however, several factors are thou ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alcohol Withdrawal Alcohol withdrawal symptoms usually appear when an individual discontinues or reduces the intake of alcohol after a period of prolonged consumption. I ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alcoholic Cardiomyopathy Alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM) is a cardiac disease caused by chronic alcohol consumption. It is characterized by ventricular dilation and impairment ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alcoholic Hepatitis Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe syndrome related to alcoholic liver disease. It is characterized by rapid onset of jaundice, malaise, tender hepatomeg ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alcoholic Ketoacidosis Alcoholic ketoacidosis (AKA) is a condition seen commonly in patients with alcohol use disorder or after a bout of heavy drinking. It is a clinical di ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alcoholic Liver Disease The first stage of alcoholic liver disease is hepatic steatosis, which involves the accumulation of small fat droplets under liver cells approaching t ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alcoholic Neuropathy Alcoholic neuropathy is one of the most common adverse effects of chronic alcohol consumption. There is damage to the nerves due to the direct toxic e ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alcoholic Pancreatitis Pancreatitis is defined as inflammation of the pancreas, leading to damage and dysfunction of the retroperitoneal organ. It can be classified as Acute ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alendronate Alendronate is FDA-approved for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis, steroid-induced osteoporosis, ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alexander Disease Alexander disease is a relatively rare leukodystrophy that generally presents in the infantile period, although other variants are occasionally seen. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alexia Alexia is a rare condition in which reading comprehension is nonexistent or significantly limited due to brain injury, damage, or trauma. It can be as ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alfentanil Alfentanil is a short-acting opioid analgesic commonly compared to fentanyl, a medication that is ubiquitous in the hospital setting along with remife ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aliskiren Aliskiren is a direct renin inhibitor medication that is FDA approved to treat hypertension in adults and children six years and older. It may be used ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alkali Toxicity Alkali toxicity, though rare, can lead to serious medical problems. Adult caustic ingestions are usually intentional, involving more substantial amou ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alkalosis Alkalosis is an abnormal pathophysiological condition characterized by the buildup of excess base or alkali in the body. It results in an abnormally h ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alkaptonuria Alkaptonuria is a rare genetic inborn error of protein metabolism. It is the result of the deficiency of an enzyme (homogentisate 1,2 dioxygenase - HG ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Allen Test The Allen test (AT) is used to assess collateral blood flow to the hands. The radial artery is easily palpable. The need for this test arises from the ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Allergic And Environmental Induced Asthma Asthma is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Numerous studies have shown that early institution of inhaled corticosteroids ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a common fungal infection in uncontrolled asthmatics, cystic fibrosis patients, and immunocompromise ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Allergic Conjunctivitis Allergic conjunctivitis is encountered in up to 40 percent of the population, but only a small proportion of affected individuals seek medical help. I ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Allergic Contact Dermatitis Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a type 4 or delayed-type hypersensitivity response (DTH) by an individual’s immune system to a small molecule (le ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Allergic Interstitial Nephritis Allergic interstitial nephritis (AIN) is the most common form of acute interstitial nephritis. It is most often caused by exposure to a drug. AIN is o ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Allergic Rhinitis Allergic rhinitis (AR) is an atopic disease presenting with symptoms of sneezing, nasal congestion, clear rhinorrhea, and nasal pruritis. It is an IgE ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Allergy Allergy is described as an exaggerated response from the body’s immune system to otherwise inert substances present in the environment. The usual symp ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Allergy Desensitization Allergy desensitization also termed allergen immunotherapy (AIT) or hyposensitization was first introduced by Leonard Noon in 1911, who proposed that ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Allgrove Syndrome Allgrove syndrome (AS) or 3A syndrome (AAA) is characterized by a triad of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) resistant adrenal insufficiency, alacri ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Allodynia Allodynia is defined as "pain due to a stimulus that does not normally provoke pain." An example would be a light feather touch (that should only prod ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Allopurinol Allopurinol is a urate-lowering medication that is FDA approved for the management of gout, prevention of tumor lysis syndrome, and prevention of recu ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Almotriptan Almotriptan is a medication used in the management and treatment of acute migraines. It is in the triptan 5-HT class of drugs. This activity reviews t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alogliptin Alogliptin was first approved by the FDA in January 2013 and is indicated to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alopecia Areata Alopecia areata (AA) is a form of alopecia that impacts hair follicles, nails, and rarely, the retinal pigment epithelium. It typically presents with ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alosetron Alosetron is a medication used in the management and treatment of severe diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D). It is in the class of ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alpers-Huttenlocher Syndrome Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome (AHS) is a rare disease that is important to consider in children presenting with neurologic and hepatic symptoms. This a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alpha 1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is a clinically under-recognized genetic disorder that causes the defective production of alpha-1 antitrypsin pro ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alpha 1 Antitrypsin Mutation Alpha-1 antitrypsin is a protease inhibitor produced primarily in the liver. It inhibits the neutrophil elastase activity in the lung and hence can pr ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alpha 1 Receptor Agonists Alpha-1 agonists are a class of medications used in the management of many disorders, including vasodilatory shock, hypotension, hypoperfusion, septic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alpha Adrenergic Receptors The indication for the use of an alpha-receptor modifying medication depends on which receptor is the target: the alpha-1 receptor or the alpha-2 rece ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alpha Blockers Alpha-blockers are medications used in the management and treatment of essential hypertension, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and pheochromocytom ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alpha Glucosidase Inhibitors Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs) are a group of antidiabetic drugs used for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This activity outlines the ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alpha Receptor Agonist Toxicity Alpha-adrenergic agonist toxicity is due to a broad group of pharmaceutical agents known as alpha agonists, which can be further broken down into cent ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alpha Thalassemia Hemoglobin H disease (alpha-thalassemia) can be found in patients that live in areas with a high incidence of malaria. Symptoms at presentation, such ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alpha-Lipoic Acid Alpha-lipoic acid is a medication used in managing and treating chronic diseases associated with oxidative stress such as diabetic neuropathy and slow ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alport Syndrome Alport syndrome is a genetic condition characterized by kidney disease, loss of hearing, and eye abnormalities. It takes place due to an abnormality o ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alprazolam Alprazolam, known by various trade names, is the most commonly prescribed psychotropic medication in the United States. Alprazolam is frequently presc ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alprostadil Alprostadil is a medication used in the management and treatment of erectile dysfunction in males and for temporary patency of ductus arteriosus in ne ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alteplase Alteplase is a thrombolytic agent that is manufactured by recombinant DNA technology. It is FDA approved for use in acute ischemic stroke, pulmonary e ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alternobaric Facial Paresis Alternobaric facial paresis, facial baroparesis, baroparesis facialis, or alternobaric facial nerve palsy is a neurapraxia of the seventh cranial nerv ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Altitude Induced Pulmonary Hypertension This activity describes the development of pulmonary hypertension due to high altitude. We describe a phenomenon known as HAPH (high altitude pulmonar ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aluminum Hydroxide Aluminum hydroxide is a medication used in the management and treatment of acid indigestion. It is in the antacid class of drugs. This activity outlin ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alzheimer Disease Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common cause of a decline in cognitive ability. It is a neurodegenerative disorder that usually affects people over ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amantadine Amantadine is an antiviral agent with mild antiparkinsonian activity. Amantadine was used in the early 2000s for Influenza A treatment. However, high ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amantadine Keratopathy Amantadine keratopathy is a rare dose-dependent disease process in which the drug amantadine causes damage to corneal endothelial cells through unknow ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amatoxin Mushroom Toxicity Amatoxin containing mushrooms are a rare but significant cause of acute fulminant liver failure. However, not all Amanita species have this toxin, and ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amaurosis Fugax The term amaurosis fugax is often used interchangeably to describe transient visual loss (TVL). However, it is employed widely in medicine to refer to ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ambiguous Genitalia And Disorders of Sexual Differentiation Infants born with a disorder of sex development (DSD) prompt multiple medical, surgical, ethical, psychosocial, and physical issues for patients and t ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amebiasis Amebiasis or amoebic dysentery is a parasitic intestinal infection caused by any of the amoebas of the Entamoeba group. It may be asymptomatic or pres ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amebic Colitis Amebic colitis is the result of invasive infection of the colonic mucosa by Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica). Losch first reported disease due t ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amebic Liver Abscess Amebic liver abscess is the most common extra-intestinal manifestation of the protozoan, Entamoeba histolytica. The life cycle involves consumption of ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amebic Meningoencephalitis Amebic encephalitis is a rare but lethal central nervous system infection caused by free-living amoebae found in freshwater, lakes, and rivers. There ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amenorrhea Amenorrhea is defined as the absence of menstruation during the reproductive years of a woman's life. Physiological states of amenorrhea are seen, mos ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
American Society of Anesthesiologists Classification The American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status classification system was developed to offer clinicians a simple categorization of a p ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amikacin Amikacin is an antimicrobial with activity against more resistant gram-negative bacilli such as Acinetobacter baumanii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amiloride Amiloride is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension and heart failure. It is in the diuretic class of drugs. This activity ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aminocaproic Acid Aminocaproic acid, an antifibrinolytic agent, is a medication used in the management and treatment of acute bleeding disorders. This activity outlines ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aminoglycosides While aminoglycosides are an older class of medication, they continue to be clinically valuable. Aminoglycosides have a broad spectrum of activity cov ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amiodarone Amiodarone is one of the most commonly used anti-arrhythmic drugs. While the United States FDA has labeled amiodarone for the treatment of life-threat ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amitriptyline Amitriptyline is FDA approved medication to treat depression in adults. The Non-FDA approved indications are anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amlodipine Amlodipine is an oral dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. Compared to nifedipine and other medications in the dihydropyridine class, amlodipine h ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amniocentesis Amniocentesis is the aspiration of amniotic fluid from the amniotic cavity and is the most common invasive fetal testing procedure. It is usually perf ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amoxapine Amoxapine is an FDA approved drug belonging to the class of second-generation tricyclic dibenzoxazepine antidepressants. Generally, it is reserved for ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amoxicillin Amoxicillin is one of the most commonly used antibiotics in the primary care setting. It is an amino-penicillin, created by adding an extra amino grou ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amoxicillin Clavulanate Amoxicillin-clavulanate is a mainstay antibiotic in emergency departments and primary care offices throughout the country. It is a combination of two ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amphetamine Amphetamine is a medication used in the management and treatment of ADHD and narcolepsy. It is classified as a central nervous system stimulant. This ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amphetamine Related Psychiatric Disorders Amphetamines belong to a class of compounds called phenethylamines which induce catecholaminergic effects in the CNS and peripheral circulation. Recre ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amphetamine Toxicity Amphetamine abuse is widespread, and overdose is associated with significant and negative impacts on the cardiovascular and neurological systems. Pati ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amphotericin B Amphotericin B deoxycholate belongs to the polyene class of antifungals. It is also known by the name conventional amphotericin B and has been used fo ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ampicillin Ampicillin is a medication used in the management and treatment of certain bacterial infections. It is in the penicillin class of medications. This ac ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ampicillin/Sulbactam Ampicillin/sulbactam combination shows synergy to cover strains of bacteria resistant to ampicillin, thus providing broader coverage. This combo adds ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amsler Grid Wet age-related macular degeneration is a leading cause of severe vision loss in the elderly population, both in the United States and worldwide. Earl ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amyloidosis Amyloidosis is a heterogeneous acquired or hereditary disease that results from the abnormal deposition of beta-sheet fibrillar protein aggregates in ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as “Lou Gehrig’s disease,” is a neurodegenerative disease of the motor neurons. This activity reviews ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anabolic Steroid Toxicity Anabolic steroids such as testosterone are produced naturally and enhance protein synthesis at the cellular level. There are also synthetic analogs av ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anabolic Steroid Use Disorder Androgen use has become a major public health concern due to the transition of use of androgens from strictly sports to a much a wider spectrum of th ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anabolic Steroids Anabolic steroids (also known as androgenic steroids) are synthetic derivatives of testosterone. Legal, as well as the illegal use of anabolic steroid ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anaerobic Infections Anaerobic bacteria are part of the normal flora of human skin and mucosal membranes. The site of anaerobic infection is commonly the site of normal co ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anal Cancer Anal cancer is a rare tumor comprising only 2.5% of all digestive system malignancies in the United States. The pathophysiology of the development of ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anal Fissures An anal fissure is a superficial tear in the skin distal to the dentate line. Anal fissures are common in those with a history of constipation or hard ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anal Fistulotomy Seton placement for anal fistulas is an accepted procedure in the treatment of anal fistulas that are deep to the sphincter complex. This activity rev ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Analgesic Nephropathy Analgesic nephropathy is chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis caused by chronic use of analgesics such as acetaminophen, aspirin, and NSAIDs as the pr ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anaphylaxis Anaphylaxis is an acute, life-threatening hypersensitivity disorder, defined as a generalized, rapidly-evolving, multi-systemic allergic reaction. Ana ... Read the Article 1.5 23 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anaplasma Phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a gram-negative intracellular bacteria that causes an acute febrile illness known as anaplasmosis or human granulocytic a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma Anaplastic lymphoma kinase positive (ALK+) anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), is a T-cell lymphoma characterized by large, pleomorphic lymphoid ce ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, also known as undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma, is a rare, highly aggressive malignant tumor accounting for 2 to 3 per ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anasarca Anasarca is a serious condition in which there is a generalized accumulation of fluid in the interstitial space. This accumulation of fluid occurs whe ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
ANCA Positive Vasculitis Antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) associated vasculitides are a heterogeneous group of rare autoimmune conditions that causes an inflammati ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ancylostoma Ancylostoma duodenale, the human hookworm, is the most common parasitic infection in countries with poor access to adequate water, sanitation, and hyg ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Andexanet Alfa Andexanet alfa is a recombinant modified Factor Xa protein approved by the FDA in May 2018 for the reversal of apixaban and rivaroxaban in patients wi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is a common etiology of sexual developmental disorders and results in varying phenotypes. These disorders of and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Androgen Replacement Testosterone is FDA-approved as replacement therapy in men who have low testosterone levels and those with symptoms of hypogonadism. It is essential t ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anembryonic Pregnancy A blighted ovum, also known as an anembryonic pregnancy, occurs when a fertilized egg implants and a gestational (embryonic) sac forms and grows, but ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anemia Anemia is a reduction in hemoglobin (Hb) or hematocrit (HCT) or RBC count. It is a presentation of an underlying condition and can be subdivided into ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anemia Of Chronic Renal Disease Anemia of chronic renal disease, also known as anemia of chronic kidney disease (CKD), is a form of normocytic, normochromic, hypoproliferative anemia ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anesthesia Monitoring Of Mixed Venous Saturation While oxygen saturation refers to the percentage of hemoglobin bound to oxygen within red blood cells, mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) refers to ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aneurysmal Bone Cysts Aneurysmal bone cysts are non-malignant, tumor-like, vascular lesions that can grow aggressively, be locally destructive, and weaken bones to the poin ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angelman Syndrome Angelman syndrome is a rare disorder caused by loss of function of the maternal UBE3A. It presents in childhood with psychomotor delay, absent speech, ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angina Angina is the most common symptom of ischemic heart disease, which is the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Approximately 9 million pa ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angiodysplasia Angiodysplasia is an abnormal, tortuous, dilated small blood vessel in the mucosal and submucosal layers of the GI tract. It is the most common vascul ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angioedema Angioedema is non-pitting edema that involves subcutaneous and/or submucosal layers of tissue that affects the face, lips, neck, and extremities, oral ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angiography Angiography is performed to image the anatomical and structural details of the vascular system, including the cardiac chambers. Initially used for str ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angioid Streaks Angioid streaks occur due to breaks in a degenerated and mineralized Bruch's membrane, that typically radiate outward from the optic disc. Angioid st ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angioma Serpiginosum Angioma serpiginosum is a benign vascular condition. It is characterized by pinpoint violaceous to coppery-red punctate maculopapular eruptions that c ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angioneurotic Edema Angioneurotic edema is a relatively common presentation in the emergency department. It presents as unpredictable frequent edematous episodes of cutan ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEI) ACE inhibitors are medications used in the treatment and management of hypertension, which is a significant risk factor for coronary disease heart fai ... Read the Article 1.5 24 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angiotensin II Angiotensin is a peptide endocrine hormone and an important part of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, an inter-related endocrine system import ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARB) Pharmaceutical RAAS blockade has is a common and successful strategy in the treatment of several diseases, including hypertension, congestive heart fa ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angular Chelitis Angular cheilitis describes an inflammatory skin process of variable etiology occurring at the labial commissure, the angle of the mouth. It is usuall ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anhidrosis Anhidrosis is the inability to sweat. It is important to recognize anhidrosis as it can be potentially life-threatening due to heat-related illnesses. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anifrolumab Anifrolumab is a novel investigational agent used in the management and treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). It is a fully humanized IgG1k ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Animal Bites Animal bites account for approximately one percent of all emergency visits in the U.S. yearly and can range from superficial injuries to disfiguring a ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anisocoria Anisocoria is a condition characterized by unequal pupil size. The etiology of anisocoria is complex, ranging from benign to potentially life-threaten ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ankle Arthrocentesis Acute arthritis, particularly monoarthropathy, is a common acute presentation. In regards to the ankle, there is not always a clear etiology for the m ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ankle Brachial Index The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is a non-invasive tool for the assessment of vascular status. It consists of the ratio between the systolic blood press ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ankle Dislocation An ankle dislocation occurs when there is an abnormal separation between the talo-tibial joint. This most often occurs concomitantly with an ankle fra ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ankle Fractures Acute ankle fractures can affect many different structures. Classification systems can help delineate the mechanism of injury and the structures damag ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ankle Splinting Splinting is primarily used to immobilize a joint to allow for pain control, injury stabilization, and ultimately tissue healing. In the acute setting ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ankylosing Spondylitis Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic, inflammatory disease of the axial spine. Chronic back pain and progressive spinal stiffness are the most common f ... Read the Article 2 34 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Annular Disc Tear An annular fissure or tear is a deficiency of one or more layers of the annulus fibrosus. Most annular fissures are asymptomatic, but some may be pain ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Annular Pancreas Annular pancreas (AP) is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by encasement of the duodenum by a band of pancreatic tissue. AP is not commonly enco ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anorectal Fistula An anorectal fistula is a connection between the anorectal canal and perianal area. It is a morbid condition that commonly occurs following perianal a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anorexia and Cachexia Cachexia is a significant loss of muscle and adipose tissue. It occurs in patients with advanced cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chroni ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anorexia Nervosa Anorexia nervosa is defined by a restriction of energy intake relative to requirements, which leads to significantly low body weight. Patients with th ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anoscopy Anoscopy is a bedside procedure that is inexpensive and can be performed quickly without bowel preparation or sedation. With this method, the examiner ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anosmia Anosmia is the inability to perceive smell/odor. It can be temporary or permanent and acquired or congenital. There are many causes. Neurological caus ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anosognosia Anosognosia is a neurological condition in which the patient is unaware of their neurological deficit or psychiatric condition. It is associated with ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anovulatory Bleeding Abnormal uterine bleeding due to ovulatory dysfunction causes irregular and often heavy menses. This condition, if left untreated, can have a signific ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anoxia Hypoxia is a state in which oxygen is not available in sufficient amounts at tissue level to maintain adequate homeostasis; this can result from inade ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anoxic Encephalopathy Anoxic encephalopathy, or hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, is a process that begins with the cessation of cerebral blood flow to brain tissue, which mos ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antacids Antacids are a group of drugs that have been on the market for many years. They were initially first-line defense against peptic ulcer disease; howeve ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antalgic Gait in Adults Antalgic gait is one of the most common forms of altered gait in patients presenting to the emergency department and primary care offices. It refers t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antalgic Gait In Children Antalgic gait is common in pediatric patients. The differential diagnosis is broad and includes both benign and more serious etiologies. A careful his ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antepartum Infections This activity reviews the evaluation and management of antepartum infections and highlights the role of the interprofessional team in improving matern ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anterior Cord Syndrome Anterior cord syndrome is an incomplete cord syndrome that predominantly affects the anterior 2/3 of the spinal cord, characteristically resulting in ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anterior Cruciate Ligament Knee Injuries The anterior cruciate ligament is one of the two cruciate ligaments which aids in stabilization of the knee joint. It is the most commonly injured li ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anterior Elbow Dislocation The elbow is one of the most common large joints to be dislocated. Anterior elbow dislocations are a rare injury due to the high force and position ne ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anterior Epistaxis Nasal Pack Among the nasal emergencies, epistaxis is one of the most common chief complaints in patients presenting to the emergency department. Typically, anter ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anterior Glenohumeral Joint Dislocation Anterior glenohumeral joint dislocations are the most commonly encountered joint dislocations. They can be the result of low or high energy trauma. Th ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anterior Interosseous Syndrome Anterior interosseus syndrome is an isolated palsy of flexor pollicus longus, the index and long fingers of the flexor digitorum profundus, and the pr ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anterior Mediastinal Mass The most common anterior mediastinal masses in the adult population are thymoma, teratoma, thyroid goiter, and lymphoma. This activity describes the e ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anterior Myocardial Infarction Anterior myocardial infarction (AMI) is a common heart disease associated with significant mortality and morbidity. Advancement in diagnosis and treat ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anterior Shoulder Instability Anterior shoulder instability is defined as soft-tissue or bony insult of the shoulder that causes the humeral head to sublux or dislocate from the gl ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anterior Spinal Artery Syndrome The anterior spinal artery syndrome refers to ischemic infarction of the spinal cord resulting from direct occlusion of the anterior spinal artery, ar ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anterior Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome Anterior tarsal tunnel syndrome occurs due to compression or entrapment of the deep peroneal nerve. Most commonly, the deep peroneal nerve becomes ent ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anteroseptal Myocardial Infarction Anteroseptal myocardial infarctions are commonly caused by rupture of an unstable atherosclerotic plaque in the left anterior descending artery. Delay ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anthracycline Medications (Doxorubicin) Doxorubicin is an anthracycline class medication used in the management and treatment of various types of malignancies and tumors. This activity will ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anthracyclines Anthracyclines are drugs extracted from Streptomyces spp and used in the treatment of various types of cancers. These agents are among the most effect ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anthrax Anthrax is an infectious disease caused by an encapsulated, spore-forming, gram-variable bacteria called Bacillus anthracis. This commonly presents wi ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anthrax Infection Anthrax is a spore-forming rod that is readily found in soil in tropical environments. Anthrax has many features that make it an optimal biologic weap ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antiarrhythmic Medications The antiarrhythmic medications have typically been categorized according to the Vaughan-Williams (VW) classification system. The system classifies the ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antibiotic Resistance Antibiotics are powerful drugs that are used to combat once fatal diseases. As with any powerful medication, antibiotics carry a wide range of adverse ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antibody Deficiency Disorder Antibody deficiency disorders may present soon after birth with recurrent infections. Normal individuals have 5 classes of immunoglobulins and several ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anticholinergic Medications Anticholinergic medications are used in the management and treatment of a wide range of diseases. This activity illustrates the indications, action, ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anticholinergic Toxicity Anticholinergic toxicity is commonly seen in the emergency department but is rarely fatal. According to the 2015 annual American Association of Poison ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anticoagulation This activity reviews the general principles in anticoagulation therapy, with highlights on the different types, indications, and perioperative impact ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anticoagulation Safety One class of drugs that has been implicated in serious adverse drugs reactions for many decades are the oral anticoagulants, especially warfarin. Ther ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anticonvulsants Toxicity Anticonvulsants, or antiepileptics, are an ever-growing class of medications that act through multiple different mechanisms to control seizures. Antie ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antidepressants While antidepressants may be the drug of choice for depression, they also have FDA approval as treatments for other medical disorders. For example, an ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antidotes Overdoses and accidental ingestions or exposures are common throughout the world. With more than 2.4 million toxic exposures each year, poisoning is ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antiemetic Antimuscarinics Scopolamine is a medication used in the management and treatment of motion sickness and postoperative nausea/vomiting. It is in the antimuscarinic cla ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antiemetic Histamine H1 Receptor Blockers First-generation antihistamines have several indications that primarily include nausea and vomiting secondary to motion sickness and vertigo, but seco ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antiemetic Medications Nausea is a commonly encountered symptom in healthcare, one that is difficult for any patient. Causes may be as simple as the body's defense against a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antiemetic Neurokinin-1 Receptor Blockers Neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonists are a new class of antiemetic drugs that possess unique anxiolytic, antidepressant, and antiemetic properties ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antiemetic Serotonin-5-HT3 Receptor Blockers Select serotonin receptor (5-HT3) antagonists block serotonin both peripherally, on gastrointestinal (GI) vagal nerve terminals, and centrally in the ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antiepileptic Drug Monitoring Antiepileptic drug-level monitoring has been a common clinical practice since the advent of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). The practice of maintaining AE ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antifungal Antibiotics Fungi are unicellular or multi-cellular eukaryotic organisms that exist in all environments worldwide. While most fungi do not play a significant role ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antifungal Ergosterol Synthesis Inhibitors The ergosterol inhibitor class of medications ("conazoles") is used in the management and treatment of fungal infections. These drugs inhibit ergoster ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antihistamine Toxicity In 1943, as the planet was engulfed in WWII and the United States was officially announcing the end of The Great Depression, the most common modern an ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antihistamines Antihistamines are a pharmaceutical class of drugs that act to treat histamine-mediated conditions. There are two main classes of histamine receptors: ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antihypertensive Medications Hypertension (HTN) is considered one of the leading causes of increased cardiovascular disease. Lowering blood pressure does reduce cardiovascular ris ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antilipemic Agent Bile Acid Sequestrants Bile acid sequestrants are FDA approved to manage hypercholesterolemia. They can be used in combination with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) or ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antimalarial Medications When treating patients suspected of having malaria, it is essential that treatment does not initiate until the diagnosis of malaria has been establish ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis Anti NMDAR encephalitis is a relatively common autoimmune encephalitis characterized by complex neuropsychiatric features and the presence of Immunogl ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antiparasitic Drugs Antiparasitic drugs are a group of medications used in the management and treatment of infections by parasites, including protozoa, helminths, and ect ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antiphospholipid Syndrome Antiphospholipid antibodies are autoantibodies that are directed against phospholipid-binding proteins. Antiphospholipid syndrome (APLS) is characteri ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antiplatelet Drug Toxicity Antiplatelet medications are primarily used for the management and prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) related events. Currently, there are fou ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antiplatelet Medications Over time, numerous antiplatelet agents have been developed with a multitude of indications. Antiplatelet medications divide into oral and parenteral ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antipsychotic Medications First-generation antipsychotics are dopamine receptor antagonists (DRA) and are known as typical antipsychotics. Second-generation antipsychotics are ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antisialagogues Antisialagogues are medications often used in the management and treatment of patients with noisy breathing near the end of life. These medications ar ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antisocial Personality Disorder This activity reviews the evaluation and treatment of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). ASPD is a deeply ingrained and dysfunctional thought pro ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antitubercular Medications Antitubercular medications: rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol are FDA approved for the treatment of mycobacterium tuberculosis. Antitu ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anxiety Fear is an automatic neurophysiological state of alarm characterized by a fight or flight response to a cognitive appraisal of present or imminent dan ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anxiolytics and Sedative-Hypnotics Toxicity Anxiolytics and sedative-hypnotics are widely consumed at home and in a hospital setting. This activity reviews the most commonly used agents of these ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Arch Aneurysm An isolated aortic arch aneurysm represents the less frequent cause of thoracic aortic aneurysms but poses a significant surgical challenge as it invo ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Dissection While uncommon, acute aortic dissection is an infrequent but catastrophic disorder. Patients present with tearing chest pain that radiates to the back ... Read the Article 1.75 27 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Insufficiency A normal aortic valve is comprised of three semilunar cusps that attach to the aortic wall. Aortic regurgitation (AR), also known as aortic insufficie ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Regurgitation Aortic regurgitation is the inadequate closure of the aortic valve during diastole that results in reverse blood flow through the aortic valve. This c ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Rupture Aortic rupture can occur from multiple causes, which include blunt aortic injury resulting from rapid deceleration, penetrating trauma, and spontaneou ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Stenosis Aortic stenosis is a common valvular disorder, especially in the elderly population, causing left ventricular outflow obstruction. Etiologies include ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Trauma Aortic injury is one of the most time-sensitive, life-threatening conditions. It is second only to head injury as a global leading cause of death. Mos ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Valve Disease Aortic valve disease consists of both regurgitations comprising retrograde flow throw the aortic valve and stenosis or narrowing of the orifice limiti ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Valve Endocarditis Infective endocarditis occurs globally and is defined by the infection of the endocardial surface of the native valve, prosthetic heart valve, or an i ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Valve Repair Aortic valve repair is performed to treat aortic valve insufficiency with outcomes comparable to the valve replacement. When performed in a high volum ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Valve Ross Operation The Ross procedure, also known as the switch procedure or pulmonary autograft procedure, is a cardiac surgery in which a diseased aortic valve is repl ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortocaval Compression Syndrome Aortocaval compression syndrome is also known as a supine hypotensive syndrome. It typically occurs in pregnant females, usually after 20 weeks of ges ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortofemoral Bypass Aortofemoral bypass surgery has been used in the management of aortoiliac occlusive disease since the 1950s. Today, revascularization with endovascula ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortoiliac Occlusive Disease Aortoiliac occlusive disease is defined by atherosclerotic blockage of the distal abdominal aorta and iliac arteries. Patients commonly present with c ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortopulmonary Septal Defect An aortopulmonary or septal defect/aortopulmonary window is one of the rarest congenital heart defects. This defect develops embryologically when ther ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
APGAR Score In 1952, Dr. Virginia Apgar, an anesthesiologist at Columbia University, developed the Apgar score. Serendipitously, APGAR is also a useful mnemonic t ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aphasia Aphasia is an impairment of language caused by damage to the language area of the brain, primarily Broca and Wernicke areas. Injury to the brain can b ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aphthous Stomatitis Aphthous stomatitis is a common ailment, idiopathic in nature, with recurrent painful aphthous ulcers (commonly termed “canker sores”) on the non-kera ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Apixaban Apixaban is a novel oral anticoagulant (NOAC) that was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2012 for use in patients with non-valv ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aplastic Anemia Aplastic anemia refers to the syndrome of chronic primary hematopoietic failure from injury leading to diminished or absent hematopoietic precursors i ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Appendicitis Appendicitis is the inflammation of the vermiform appendix. It typically presents acutely, within 24 hours of onset, but can also present as a more ch ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Appendicitis in Pregnancy Appendicitis during pregnancy is a condition in which the appendix becomes inflamed and infected. Its treatment consists of emergent surgery for the r ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Appendix Cancer Appendiceal malignancies are a rare group of tumors often found incidentally during surgical removal of the appendix. Histologically, this malignancy ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Appendix Testes Torsion Torsion of testicular appendages is considered one of, if not the most common cause of acute scrotal pain in the prepubertal children and should be in ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Approach New Breast Mass Breast masses are common and are associated with a wide spectrum of disease, from benign physiological adenosis to advanced malignancy. A structured a ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Apraxia of Lid Opening Apraxia of eyelid opening is defined as a non-motor abnormality characterized by the patient's difficulty in eyelid elevation bilaterally. There is an ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
APUDoma APUDomas, currently known as neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), are a group of heterogeneous tumors that arise from the diffuse neuroendocrine system. They ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arachnoid Cysts Arachnoid cysts are common incidental findings on cross-sectional neuroimaging of the brain. When they are present in the appropriate location and of ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arachnoiditis Arachnoiditis is a persistent inflammation of the arachnoid mater as well as subarachnoid space due to mechanical, chemical, and infectious injuries. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arbovirus Encephalitides Arboviruses refer to a diverse group of viruses that are transmitted via mosquitos, ticks, or sandflies and are capable of causing a wide range of dis ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arcanobacterium Haemolyticum Arcanobacterium haemolyticum is a rare infectious pathogen that principally causes pharyngitis in adolescents and soft-tissue infections in immunocomp ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arcus Senilis Corneal arcus are white or gray incomplete rings that form around the cornea. They are usually clinically insignificant but may be associated with an ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Argatroban Argatroban is a medication used in the management of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia(HIT), which is a rare, life-threatening complication of heparin ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arginase Deficiency Argininemia is an autosomal recessive disorder causing hyperammonemia secondary to arginine accumulation. It is a disorder first noticed in children w ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Argyll Robertson Pupil Argyll Robertson pupil describes the physical exam finding of bilaterally small pupils that do not constrict when exposed to bright light but do const ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aripiprazole Aripiprazole is a medication used in the management and treatment of schizophrenia, mania associated with bipolar I disorder, irritability associated ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aromatase Inhibitors Anastrozole is a medication used in the management and treatment of breast cancer. It is in the aromatase inhibitors class of drugs. This activity des ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aromatic Toxicity Hydrocarbons are organic compounds consisting of carbon and hydrogen atoms. Toluene and benzene can be found in products such as gasoline, nail polis ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arrhythmias Arrhythmia entails a broad spectrum of disorders of heart rate and rhythm abnormalities. Arrhythmia is broadly categorized into bradyarrhythmias and t ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arsenic Toxicity Arsenic poisoning is a global health issue affecting millions of people worldwide through environmental and occupational exposure, as well as intentio ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arterial Gas Embolism Arterial gas embolism is a rare, life-threatening entity, which requires prompt recognition and early intervention. Failure to diagnose, and initiate ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arterial Lines Arterial catheterization is a procedure that is common to the intensive care and the operating room settings. It involves placement of a catheter into ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arterial Pressure Monitoring Arterial pressure monitoring is a form of invasive blood pressure monitoring and is done through the cannulation of a peripheral artery. This form of ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arteriovenous Fistula Arteriovenous fistulas are abnormal connections between arteries and veins. AVFs can be surgically created, can occur as a result of a congenital or g ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arteriovenous Malformations Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are abnormal fistulas between arteries and veins without an intervening capillary bed. High arterial flow directly ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Artery Cannulation Arterial cannulation is a procedure frequently performed in acute and critical care settings. It serves as an invasive means to more accurately measur ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arthritis Arthritis is defined as an acute or chronic joint inflammation in the joint. Arthritis may attribute to a wide variety of symptoms that include pain, ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arthrocentesis Arthrocentesis is a procedure that is performed to obtain synovial fluid from within a joint capsule, both for diagnostic and for therapeutic purposes ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Asbestosis Asbestosis is an interstitial lung disease caused by inhalation of asbestos fibers. Asbestos fibers have been historically chosen for construction, sh ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ascites Ascites is the pathologic accumulation of fluid within the peritoneal cavity. It is the most common complication of cirrhosis and occurs in about 50% ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aseptic Meningitis Aseptic meningitis is an umbrella term for all of the causes of inflammation of the brain meninges that have negative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) bacter ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Asherman Syndrome Asherman syndrome (intrauterine adhesions or intrauterine synechiae) occurs when scar tissue forms inside the uterus and/or the cervix. These adhesion ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ashman Phenomenon Ashman phenomenon was initially described by Dr. Gouaux and Dr. Ashman in 1947. They described that the earlier in the cycle a premature atrial contra ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aspart Insulin Insulin aspart is a rapid-acting, human insulin analog that is FDA approved for the treatment of type-1 and type-2 diabetes mellitus to improve glycem ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Asperger Syndrome Do not edit. Saved in progress JH Asperger syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder within the large family of autism spectrum disorder. It is charac ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aspergilloma An aspergilloma is a fungus ball or mycetoma composed of Aspergillus hyphae along with cellular debris and mucus. It is a noninvasive type of chronic ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aspergillosis Aspergillosis is a disease caused by the fungus Aspergillus. It mostly occurs in the form of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA), aspergilloma or al ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aspergillus Fumigatus Aspergillus is a ubiquitous saprophyte in nature found in air, soil and organic matter. Humans normally inhale the spore form of the fungi. However, t ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aspiration Pneumonia The infectious pulmonary process that occurs after abnormal entry of fluids into the lower respiratory tract is termed aspiration pneumonia. The aspir ... Read the Article 1.25 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aspiration Risk Aspiration is common, even in healthy patients. Aspiration can have significant morbidity and mortality in certain circumstances. It is categorized ba ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Asplenia Asplenia means the absence of a spleen. Asplenia can occur in a variety of clinical settings, and it can refer to an anatomic absence of the spleen or ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Asteatotic Eczema This activity outlines the evaluation and treatment of asteatotic eczema and reviews the role of the healthcare team in managing patients with this co ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Astereognosis Astereognosis is the inability to identify objects by feel only, in the absence of input from the visual system. It may also be defined as the impairm ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Asthma Asthma is a chronic disease of the air passages characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways. Symptoms of asthma include shortness of br ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Asthma Anesthesia Asthma is characterized by variable and often reversible airway obstruction with bronchial hyperreactivity. An estimated 8.4% of people in the US have ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Asthma In Pregnancy Bronchial asthma (BA) is considered the most common chronic disease in pregnancy, complicating 4% to 8% of pregnancies. Bronchial asthma exacerbation ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Asthma Medication in Children Asthma typically presents with a history of respiratory symptoms such as wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness and cough, and is characterize ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Asthma Medications Asthma is a wide-reaching, chronic, inflammatory illness that impacts millions of people daily. It is frequently responsible for unscheduled healthcar ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Astrocytoma Astrocytoma originates in astrocytes, which are a kind of glial cells in the cerebrum which are star-shaped. It is the most common glioma, usually aff ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Asymmetric Periflexural Exanthem In Childhood Asymmetric Periflexural Exanthem (APEC) is a distinctive and a self-limited exanthem which classically affects children and less frequently adults. Th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Asymptomatic Bacteriuria Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the presence of bacteria in the properly collected urine of a patient that has no signs or symptoms of a urinary tract inf ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Asystole Asystole, colloquially referred to as flatline, represents the cessation of electrical and mechanical activity of the heart. Asystole typically occurs ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ataxia Ataxia is a neurological sign that manifests in a lack of coordination in the movement of different muscles in the body. It is a clinical finding and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ataxia Telangiectasia Ataxia telangiectasia (Louis-Bar Syndrome) is a rare autosomal recessive condition characterized by cutaneous telangiectasias, cerebellar atrophy with ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atazanavir Atazanavir is FDA approved for the treatment of HIV-1 infection, in combination with other antiretroviral agents, for patients who are 3-months-old or ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atelectasis The word "atelectasis" is Greek in origin; It is a combination of the Greek words atelez (Ateles) and ektasiz (ektasis) meaning "imperfect" and "expan ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atenolol Atenolol is a second-generation beta-1-selective adrenergic antagonist indicated in the treatment of hypertension, angina pectoris, and acute myocardi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atheroembolic Kidney Disease Atheroembolic renal disease is caused by occlusion of small arteries in the kidneys by cholesterol crystal emboli from ulcerated atherosclerotic plaqu ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease in which there is a build up of plaques inside arteries. These plaques are principally composed of l ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Athetoid Cerebral Palsy Athetoid cerebral palsy, also known as dyskinetic cerebral palsy, is the second most common subtype of cerebral palsy. It is a non-progressive, perman ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atlantoaxial Instability The atlantoaxial segment consists of the atlas (C1) and axis (C2) and forms a complex transitional structure bridging the occiput and cervical spine. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atomoxetine Atomoxetine is indicated for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children over the age of 6. Although atomo ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atopic Dermatitis Atopic dermatitis (AD), which is a specific form of eczema, is the most common chronic inflammatory skin disease. Atopic dermatitis has a complex etio ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atopy Atopy is a predisposition to an immune response against diverse antigens and allergens leading to CD4+ Th2 differentiation and overproduction of immun ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atorvastatin HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are lipid-lowering medications used in the primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. This act ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atracurium Atracurium is indicated as an addition to general anesthesia to facilitate endotracheal intubation and provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surge ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrial Fibrillation Atrial fibrillation is the most common type of cardiac arrhythmia. It is the leading cardiac cause of stroke. Risk factors for atrial fibrillation inc ... Read the Article 2 31 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrial Flutter Atrial flutter, a supraventricular arrhythmia, is one of the most common rhythm disturbances of the heart. It is characterized by a fast atrial rate w ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrial Myxoma Myxomas are the most common primary cardiac tumor. It is estimated that more than 75% of myxomas originate in the left atrium either at the mitral ann ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrial Septal Defect Atrial septal defect (ASD) is one of the most common types of congenital heart defects, occurring in about 25% of children. An atrial septal defect oc ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrial Tachycardia A focal atrial tachycardia is an arrhythmia with electrical impulses originating and confined within the atria. Focal tachycardia typically occurs in ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrioventricular Block Atrioventricular (AV) conduction is evaluated by assessing the relationship between the P waves and QRS complexes. Normally, there is a P wave that pr ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrioventricular Block Second-Degree A delay in conduction between the atria and ventricles results in an atrioventricular conduction block. This is indicated by a prolongation of the PR ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrioventricular Canal Defects Atrioventricular canal defects comprise a spectrum of defects such as exclusive ventricular or atrial defects, septal defects, atrioventricular anomal ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrioventricular Nodal Reentry Tachycardia Atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) is a type of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia that results due to the presence of a re-ent ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrioventricular Reciprocating Tachycardia Atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia (AVRT) is a macroreentrant tachycardia that needs an accessory pathway to bypass the conventional conductio ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrioventricular Septal Defect The atrioventricular septal defect is a congenital cardiac malformation that is characterized by a variable degree of the atrial and ventricular septa ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrophic Gastritis Gastric atrophy (GA) and intestinal metaplasia of the gastric mucosa (GIM) are collectively known as chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG). These early con ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atropine Atropine or atropine sulfate carries FDA indications for anti-sialagogue/anti-vagal effect, organophosphate/muscarinic poisoning, and bradycardia. Atr ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder The diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been surrounded by controversy over the last century. Over the past 30 years, how ... Read the Article 1.5 22 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atypical Antipsychotic Agents In recent years, the atypical antipsychotics or second-generation antipsychotics have become the drugs of choice for acute psychoses. They are “atypic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atypical Bacterial Pneumonia Pneumonia is a lower respiratory tract infection, specifically involving the pulmonary parenchyma. Viruses, fungi and bacteria can cause pneumonia. Th ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atypical Breast Hyperplasia Atypical hyperplasia of the breast is defined as abnormal epithelial proliferative lesions of the breast which are not qualitatively or quantitatively ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atypical Fibroxanthoma Atypical fibroxanthoma is a rare, low-grade superficial sarcoma that frequently presents as a red nodule or plaque. It is considered a superficial var ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atypical Mole A dysplastic nevus is a transition between benign moles and melanoma and is characterized by junctional melanocytic skin lesions showing dysplastic or ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atypical Mycobacterial Disease Atypical mycobacteria or nontuberculous mycobacteria are organisms that cause a variety of diseases such as skin and soft tissue infection, lymphadeni ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) is a category of cervical epithelial cell abnormalities described by the Bethesda system ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Auditory Hallucinations Auditory hallucinations are the sensory perceptions of hearing voices without an external stimulus. This symptom is particularly associated with schiz ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Auricular Hematoma An auricular hematoma is a collection of blood underneath the perichondrium of the ear and typically occurs secondary to trauma. Auricular deformity, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Austin Flint Murmur American physician Austin Flint first described his namesake murmur in 1862. In his own poetic words: "The murmur is oftener rough than soft. The roug ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Autism Spectrum Disorder Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of rapidly growing disabilities. They are characterized by repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or ... Read the Article 1.75 26 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Autoimmune And Chronic Neutropenia Neutropenia is a decreased number of neutrophils less than 1500/microliter and can be idiopathic, congenital, autoimmune, and cyclic types. Those last ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Autoimmune Hepatitis Autoimmune hepatitis refers to a chronic and progressive inflammation of the liver from an unknown cause. Proposed mechanism for the development of au ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Autoimmune Hepatitis and Pregnancy Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic inflammatory liver disorder that is usually characterized by circulating autoantibodies and elevated serum glo ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Autoimmune Myopathies Idiopathic inflammatory myositis (IIM) is classified into four subtypes based on clinical and histopathological features. Polymyositis (PM) and dermat ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Autoimmune Pancreatitis Autoimmune pancreatitis is a clinical condition characterized by inflammation of the pancreas from an autoimmune etiology. It is an uncommon cause of ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Autonomic Dysfunction The autonomic nervous system (ANS) includes all regions implicated in the control of autonomic, unconscious, and involuntary functions in total body h ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Autonomic Dysreflexia Autonomic dysreflexia is a condition that emerges after a spinal cord injury, usually when the injury has occurred above the T6 level. The higher the ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Avascular Necrosis Osteonecrosis is a degenerative bone condition characterized by death of cellular components of bone secondary to an interruption of the subchondral b ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Avian Influenza Avian influenza is a deadly disease caused by infection from an influenza virus native to birds. While often not fatal in birds, it can carry a high m ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Avulsed Tooth Dentoalveolar trauma are injuries caused by an external impact on the teeth, palate, mandible, maxilla, and gums. These injuries can result in anythin ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Avulsion Fractures Avulsion fractures can happen anywhere in the body where soft tissue attaches to the bone. The failure of bone most commonly results from an acute eve ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Axillary Lymphadenectomy Axillary lymphadenectomy is a procedure performed most commonly for breast cancer lymph node metastasis, and this activity focuses on breast cancer sp ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Axillary Nerve Injury Peripheral nerve injury can vary wildly in severity and presentation, ranging from mild soreness to severe muscle weakness. Axillary nerve injuries ty ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Axillary Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy Sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer is an essential part of staging patients with early-stage breast cancer. This activity reviews the indica ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Axonotmesis This activity reviews the etiology, epidemiology, anatomy, physiology, and prognosis of peripheral nerve injury with a particular focus on axonotmesis ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Azathioprine Azathioprine (AZA) is a medication used in the management and treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the prevention of kidney transplant r ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Azilsartan Azilsartan is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension. It is in the angiotensin-receptor blocking (ARB) class of drugs. This ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Azithromycin Azithromycin is an antibiotic medication used in the treatment and management of bacterial infections, including community-acquired pneumonia and sexu ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Azotemia Azotemia is a biochemical abnormality, defined as elevation, or buildup of, nitrogenous products (BUN-usually ranging 7 to 21 mg/dL), creatinine in th ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Babesiosis Babesiosis is an infection caused by the parasitic protozoa Babesia. This parasite is carried and transferred by ticks and primarily infects erythrocy ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Babinski Reflex The Babinski reflex was described by the neurologist Joseph Babinski in 1899. Since that time, it has been incorporated into the standard neurological ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Baby Bottle Syndrome Baby bottle syndrome, now known as early childhood caries (ECC), is defined as the presence of 1 or more decayed teeth or missing teeth (resulting fro ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacillary Angiomatosis Bacillary angiomatosis (epithelioid angiomatosis) is an uncommon disease characterized by neovascular proliferation in the skin or the internal organs ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacillus Calmette Guerin Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is the live attenuated vaccine form of Mycobacterium bovis used to prevent tuberculosis and other mycobacterial infecti ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacillus Cereus Bacillus cereus is a facultatively anaerobic, toxin-producing gram-positive bacteria that can be found in soil vegetation and even food. This may caus ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacitracin Topical Bacitracin is a topical antibiotic ointment widely used by both medical professionals and the general public to treat minor skin injuries including cu ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Back Pain Back pain is one of the most common causes for patients to seek emergency care. It has a broad range of potential etiologies for both adult and pediat ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Back Safety Low back pain (LBP) is common among healthcare professionals with prevalence of low back pain among health care workers being greater than among those ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Baclofen Baclofen is used to treat muscle spasticity; it is FDA-approved for the management of reversible spasticity, particularly for the relief of flexor spa ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacteremia Bacteremia, in the strictest sense, refers to viable bacteria in the blood. Asymptomatic bacteremia can occur in normal daily activities such as condu ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacterial Acute Prostatitis Bacterial prostatitis (BP) is an infection of the prostate gland occurring in a bimodal distribution in younger and older men. It can be acute (ABP) o ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacterial Conjunctivitis Conjunctivitis, also informally known as "pink eye," makes up the majority of ophthalmologic disorders seen at primary care clinics. Patients present ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacterial Diarrhea Diarrhea consists of the passage of watery and loose stools multiple times a day (usually more than 3), though specific definitions may vary when appl ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacterial Endocarditis Bacterial endocarditis refers to infection of the endocardial surface of the heart. It usually involves heart valves, but it can occur on the endocard ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacterial Endophthalmitis The word "endophthalmitis" can be broken down in greek to "interior-eye-inflammation" and is used to describe an infection of the vitreous or the aque ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacterial Gastroenteritis Gastroenteritis is a diarrheal disease characterized by an increase in bowel movement frequency with or without fever, vomiting, and abdominal pain. T ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacterial Meningitis Bacterial meningitis is an infection of the meninges that results in inflammation. It is a serious and life-threatening condition that requires prompt ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacterial Pharyngitis Pharyngitis, more commonly described as sore throat, represents inflammation or irritation of the posterior oropharynx. While the majority of cases ar ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacterial Pneumonia The word "pneumonia" originates from the ancient Greek word "pneumon," which means "lung," so the word "pneumonia" becomes "lung disease." Medically i ... Read the Article 1.75 26 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacterial Sepsis Bacterial sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to an infection injures its tissues and organs. Sepsis is caused ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacterial Tracheitis Bacterial tracheitis, also known as bacterial croup, acute laryngotracheobronchitis, or membranous croup, is a potentially lethal infection of the sub ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacterial Vaginosis Bacterial vaginosis is a condition caused by an overgrowth of normal vaginal flora. Most commonly, this presents clinically with increased vaginal dis ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacteriostatic Antibiotics The term "bacteriostatic antibiotics" is used to describe medications whose mechanism of action stalls bacterial cellular activity without directly ca ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacteroides Fragilis The human colon possesses the largest population of bacteria in the body, and the majority of these organisms are anaerobes; of these, about 25 percen ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacteruria Bacteruria is the presence of bacteria in the urine and can be classified as symptomatic or asymptomatic. A patient with asymptomatic bacteruria is de ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bag Mask Ventilation Bag valve mask ventilation is a difficult skill to master. This activity explains how to improve this skill. This activity describes the technique of ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bagassosis Bagassosis belongs to the group of respiratory conditions classified as interstitial lung diseases or hypersensitivity pneumonitis. It presents simila ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Baker's Cyst A Baker's cyst is a fluid-filled sac that forms in the popliteal fossa, which is located on the posterior aspect of the knee. In adults, Baker's cysts ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Balanitis Balanitis is an inflammation of the glans penis. Men with balanitis often present with penile pain and erythema. This activity explains the risk facto ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Balanoposthitis Balanoposthitis is a common disease process involving the glans penis and prepuce. It affects up to 12% to 20% of pediatric and adult males. This acti ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bancroftian Filariasis Bancroftian filariasis is a leading cause of disability worldwide and a significant public health problem. The chronic sequelae of the disease are cri ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Barbiturate Toxicity Barbiturates are a class of sedative-hypnotic drugs. They are commonly used as antiepileptics (phenobarbital) and for the induction of general anesthe ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Barbiturates Barbiturates are a group of sedative-hypnotic medications used for the treatment of seizure disorder, neonatal withdrawal, insomnia, preoperative anxi ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Barium Swallow The barium swallow study, also known as a barium esophagogram or esophagram, is a contrast-enhanced radiographic study commonly used to assess structu ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Barotrauma Barotrauma is physical tissue damage caused by a pressure difference between an unvented space inside the body and surrounding gas or fluid. The damag ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Barotrauma And Mechanical Ventilation Pulmonary barotrauma is a potentially life-threatening complication in patients on mechanical ventilation. It is important to recognize and quickly ac ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Barrett Esophagus Barrett esophagus (BE) is a pre-malignant condition characterized by conversion of the normal esophageal squamous epithelium into metaplastic columnar ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Barrett Metaplasia Barrett's esophagus is the condition in which a specialized columnar epithelium replaces the normal stratified squamous epithelium of the esophagus. P ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bartholin Gland Cyst A Bartholin gland cyst is usually a unilateral, asymptomatic blockage of the Bartholin gland that may be incidentally discovered during a pelvic exam ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bartonellosis Bartonellosis is the term used to describe any infectious disease produced by the bacteria Bartonella. These include trench fever, Oroya fever, Carrio ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bartter Syndrome Bartter syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder of salt reabsorption resulting in extracellular fluid volume depletion with low/normal blood press ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Basal Cell Cancer Basal cell carcinoma a common cutaneous malignancy that occurs mostly on sun-damaged skin of the head, neck, and trunk. Basal cell carcinoma can be di ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Basilar Artery Infarct The basilar artery (BA) is formed over the surface of pons by two vertebral arteries to supply the critical areas of the brain and brainstem. Anatomic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Basilar Artery Thrombosis The basilar artery is formed by the convergence of the vertebral arteries at the junction of the pons and medulla. It provides oxygen-rich blood to th ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Basilar Migraine A migraine with predominant brainstem aura symptoms is known as a basilar migraine. Bickerstaff first described it in 1961. Other names for it are bas ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Basophilia Basophils are typically the least numerous myeloid cells seen in a peripheral blood smear. Their numerous dark azurophilic granules easily distinguish ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Battle Sign Battle Sign is bruising over the mastoid process that is typically the result of head trauma. Battle sign typically requires significant head trauma a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Becker Muscular Dystrophy Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) is an X-linked recessive disorder due to mutation in the Dystrophin gene that results in progressive muscle degenerati ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Beckwith Wiedemann Syndrome Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome is the most common overgrowth syndrome. It is a genetic imprinting disorder, and it can present as a wide and varied clini ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bedbug Bites There are as many as 90 species of "bugs" (bed bugs are true bugs with specialized elongated mouthparts) within the family Cimicidae; however, few bit ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Beeturia Beeturia is the discoloration of urine following the consumption of beets or foods colored with beetroot. The typical color can range from pink to dee ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Behavior Modification Behavior modification is a psychotherapeutic intervention primarily used to eliminate or reduce maladaptive behavior in children or adults. While some ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Behavioral And Psychological Symptoms In Dementia Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) include a range of neuropsychiatric disturbances such as agitation, aggression, depression, a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Behcet Disease Behcet disease, also known as an oculo-orogenital syndrome, is a chronic remitting and relapsing inflammatory disorder characterized by recurrent oral ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bekhterev Jacobsohn Reflex The Bekhterev-Jacobsohn reflex is also known as the Jacobsohn finger flexion sign. Dr. Vladimir Bekhterev (a Russian neurologist) and Dr. Louis Jacobs ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bell Palsy Bell palsy is the most common peripheral paralysis of the seventh cranial nerve with an onset that is rapid and unilateral. This is an idiopathic cond ... Read the Article 1.25 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Benazepril Benazepril is a drug used in the management of hypertension. It is in the ACE inhibitor class of medications. This activity outlines the indications, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Benedikt Syndrome Benedikt syndrome is an eponymously named neurological condition secondary to specific damage in the midbrain that causes ipsilateral oculomotor nerve ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Benign Breast Calcifications Benign breast calcifications are common. If benign breast calcifications are not appropriately identified, unnecessary intervention and use of finite ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Benign Mesothelioma Mesotheliomas represent a proliferative neoplasm made up of epithelial and mesenchymal cells of the mesothelium which make up part of the serosal cove ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Benign Occipital Seizure Benign occipital seizures are classified as an occipital onset epilepsy syndrome, which occurs in children with normal developmental milestones, norma ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo Vertigo is the perception of motion in the absence of motion, which may be described as a sensation of swaying, tilting, spinning, or feeling unbalanc ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common condition encountered in aging men and a common cause of lower urinary tract symptoms. Histological pre ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Benzathine Penicillin Benzathine penicillin is formulated from two penicillin G molecules reacting with diphenylethylene diamine. It is active against gram-positive bacteri ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Benzocaine Benzocaine is a local anesthetic used in the management of pain control. It is in the ester local anesthetic class of medications. This activity descr ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Benzodiazepine Toxicity Since the 1960s, with the development of chlordiazepoxide (Librium) and shortly thereafter diazepam (Valium), benzodiazepines quickly became mainstrea ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Benzodiazepines Benzodiazepines are especially important in the cessation of seizure activity, as 1% to 2% of emergency department visits annually in the United State ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Benzoyl Peroxide Benzoyl peroxide is an over-the-counter topical medication and is also an FDA-approved prescription medication for the treatment of acne vulgaris. It ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Benztropine Benztropine is FDA approved as adjunctive therapy of all forms of parkinsonism. It is also used for drug-induced extrapyramidal symptoms and the preve ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Berger Disease Berger disease is a common cause of primary glomerulonephritis and it involves the deposition of IgA in the glomerular mesangium. It is a cause of pro ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bernard Soulier Syndrome Bernard-Soulier syndrome is a rare inherited blood clotting disorder that is characterized by unusually giant platelet cells, thrombocytopenia, and pr ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Berry Aneurysm Berry (saccular) aneurysms are the most common type of intracranial aneurysm, representing 90% of cerebral aneurysms. Generally speaking, there is a b ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Berylliosis Berylliosis, also known as chronic beryllium disease (CBD), is a granulomatous disease caused by exposure to beryllium. CBD has a variable clinical co ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Beta 2 Agonists Beta-2 adrenergic receptor agonists are a class of medications used in the frontline management and treatment of bronchial asthma and COPD. This activ ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Beta 2 Receptor Agonists/Antagonists Beta-2 adrenergic receptors are cell-surface receptors clinically taken advantage of in the management of bronchospasm as in patients with bronchial a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Beta Blockers Beta-blockers, as a class of drugs, are primarily used to treat cardiovascular diseases and other conditions. Beta-blockers are indicated and have FDA ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Beta Lactam Antibiotics Beta-lactam antibiotics are used in the management and treatment of bacterial infections. This activity will highlight the mechanism of action, advers ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Beta Lactamase Inhibitors Beta-lactamase inhibitors are drugs that are co-administered with beta-lactam antibiotics to prevent antibiotic resistance by inhibiting serine beta-l ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Beta Thalassemia Thalassemias are a common cause of microcytic anemia and are due to impaired synthesis of the globin protein component of hemoglobin. Beta-thalassemia ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Beta-Blocker Toxicity Beta-blockers antagonize beta-adrenergic receptors and are used mainly in the treatment of hypertension, heart failure, tachydysrhythmias, and angina ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Betaxolol Betaxolol is a medication used mostly in the management and treatment of open-angle glaucoma, essential hypertension, post-myocardial infarction, and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bethanechol Bethanechol is FDA approved for the treatment of postoperative urinary retention, postpartum urinary retention, and overflow incontinence caused by ne ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bezold Abscess Bezold's abscess is a rare deep neck abscess and is an intratemporal complication of a coalescent mastoiditis via direct extension into the peri-masto ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biceps Tendon Rupture The biceps tendon consists of 2 heads originating from the coracoid process (short head) and supraglenoid tubercle of the scapula (long head). The ten ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biceps Tendon Rupture of the Lower Limb Rupture of the biceps femoris tendon can be treated conservatively or surgically, depending on the severity of the tendon retraction. Most of the pati ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bicornuate Uterus A bicornuate uterus is a uterine malformation that is produced due to impairment in the fusion of Mullerian ducts. The bicornuate uterus is a rare ano ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bicuspid Aortic Valve A bicuspid aortic valve is a common congenital heart defect in which the bicuspid aortic valve contains two cusps instead of the usual three. This lea ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bile Duct Stricture Bile duct strictures are segments of the narrowing of the intrahepatic and/or extrahepatic biliary ductal system. The narrowing impedes the normal ant ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biliary Colic Biliary colic is defined as pain in the abdomen, due to obstruction usually by stones in the cystic duct or common bile duct of the biliary tree. It t ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biliary Obstruction Biliary obstruction refers to blockage of the bile duct system preventing bile from flowing from the liver into the intestinal tract. Bile obstructio ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biliary Tract Cancer Biliary tract cancer consists of tumors that arise from epithelial cells lining the biliary tract, which consists of the intrahepatic bile duct, extra ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biliary Tract Cholangiocarcinoma The diagnosis and management of cholangiocarcinoma are challenging and complex. To achieve good results and provide appropriate patient care, the trea ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biliopancreatic Diversion With Duodenal Switch The biliopancreatic diversion was first described by Scorpinaro in 1979. This procedure combined a horizontal gastric resection with the closure of a ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bilirubinuria Bilirubinuria is the presence of bilirubin in the urine, usually detected while performing a routine urine dipstick test. Its presence is abnormal and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bimalleolar Ankle Fractures A bimalleolar fracture is a fracture of the lateral malleolus and the medial malleolus. This fracture is a bimodal distribution, most likely affects o ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Binge Eating Disorder Binge eating disorder is an eating disorder associated with various psychological and non-psychological issues with some degree of impairment of daily ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biofeedback Biofeedback is a technique to augment the normal sensory feedback and allow better control of body functions that are usually considered involuntary. ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biologic Response Modifiers (BRMs) Biologic response modifiers (BRMs), also known as immunomodulators, are the class of medications that target the disease-causing mechanism. They are u ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biologic Warfare Agent Toxicity Biological warfare agents include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and biological toxins. Some agents are frequently lethal while others are intended to caus ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biologic, Chemical, and Radiation Terrorism Review Terrorism is the intentional use of indiscriminate violence to create fear and terror as a means to achieve an ideological, financial, religious, or p ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biotin Biotin is an alternative medication used in the management and treatment of pathological hair conditions. It is in the vitamin class of drugs. This ac ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biotin Deficiency Biotin is a B-complex vitamin that serves as an essential coenzyme for five carboxylases: pyruvate carboxylase, 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase, prop ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biotinidase Deficiency Biotin acts as a coenzyme for four carboxylation enzymes in the body: 3-methylcrontonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCC), pyruvate carboxylase (PC), acetyl-CoA c ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bipolar Affective Disorder The bipolar affective disorder is a chronic and complex disorder of mood that is characterized by a combination of manic (bipolar mania), hypomanic an ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Birth Trauma This activity reviews common birth-related injuries. The mechanism of injury, clinical features, and management of various birth-related traumatic eve ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bisacodyl Bisacodyl is a medication used in the management and treatment of chronic or functional constipation. This activity outlines the indications, action, ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bishop Score In 1964, Edward Bishop set forth criteria for elective induction of labor which included parity, gestational age, fetal presentation, obstetric histor ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bismuth Subsalicylate Bismuth subsalicylate is a medication that is used in the management and treatment of gastrointestinal discomfort and traveler's diarrhea. It is in th ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bisoprolol Bisoprolol is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure. It is in the selective beta-blocker clas ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bisphosphonate Bisphosphonates define a class of drugs that are widely indicated since the 1990s to treat osteoporosis both in men and women. Their effectiveness in ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bisphosphonate Related Jaw Osteonecrosis Bisphosphonates are synthetic pyrophosphate analogs used to treat hypercalcemia secondary to conditions affecting bone resorption such as malignancy, ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bisphosphonate Toxicity In the second half of the 20th century, bisphosphonates have emerged as a novel treatment for bone metabolism disorders. Currently, bisphosphonates ar ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bivalirudin Bivalirudin is a medication used in the management and treatment of patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarc ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Black Cohosh Black Cohosh, or Cimicifuga racemosa, is a perennial dicot of the Buttercup family native to the Eastern half of the United States and Canada. It is a ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Black Piedra Piedra is a superficial fungal infection of hair shafts, which presents with small nodules stuck-on to the shaft. Black piedra, caused by Piedraia hor ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Black Widow Spider Toxicity The black widow spider species, also known by its biological nomenclature as the Latrodectus species is one of more than 40,000 different species of s ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bladder Cancer Bladder cancer is any neoplasm that arises from the urinary bladder. It is the most common urinary tract neoplasm with urothelial carcinoma (UC) being ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bladder Catheterization Bladder catheterization is a commonly performed procedure in all hospitals. It can be performed by external, urethral, and suprapubic techniques. It i ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bladder Rupture Bladder rupture is most commonly due to abdominal and/or pelvic trauma but may be spontaneous or iatrogenic in association with surgical or endoscopic ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bladder Sphincter Dyssynergia Detrusor sphincter dyssynergia is a common cause of lower urinary tract symptoms in a patient with spinal cord injury and various other neurological d ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bladder Stones Bladder stones are solid calculi that are primarily found in the urinary bladder. While often calcified, they may also be composed of non-calcific mat ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bladder Trauma Bladder injury is broadly divided into extraperitoneal and intraperitoneal injuries. Extraperitoneal bladder injuries generally occur with pelvic frac ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blast Injuries Explosions are unique in their ability to inflict acute injuries on many people at the same time, resulting in high levels of mortality and morbidity. ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blastomycosis Blastomycosis is a fungal infection caused by Blastomyces dermatitidis. It presents as a pulmonary infection after the inhalation of spores, and it ma ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bleach Toxicity Bleach refers to a large class of compounds used to whiten or color-lighten materials. They are frequently used for cleaning and disinfection; bleache ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bleeding Disorders Hereditary bleeding disorders occur due to the absence or deficiency of specific clotting proteins. The three most common hereditary bleeding disorder ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bleomycin Bleomycin has approval for adult use in the treatment of squamous cell cancer of head and neck regions, Hodgkin's lymphoma, testicular carcinoma. It i ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blepharoconjunctivitis Blepharoconjunctivitis is an ocular condition involving the inflammation of the eyelid and conjunctiva. It is a common chronic condition that can lead ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blepharoplasty Ptosis Surgery Blepharoplasty is the general term for correcting defects, deformities, and disfigurations of the eyelids either for functional reasons, cosmetic reas ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blindness The term blindness is a general term that can include those with low vision and legal blindness. Low vision is a term used to describe those whose vis ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blistering Distal Dactylitis Blistering distal dactylitis (BDD) is a bacterial infection of the fingers presenting as multiple fluid-filled lesions. This condition is common in ch ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blood Donation Blood donation is a vital part of worldwide healthcare. It allows for blood transfusion as a life-sustaining and life-saving procedure. Over one hundr ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blood Product Safety Transfusion of blood products is one of the most commonly performed clinical procedures in healthcare today. Blood product safety has been an improvin ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blood Transfusion Blood transfusions are a relatively common medical procedure and while typically safe, there are multiple complications that practitioners need to be ... Read the Article 1.25 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bloom Syndrome Bloom syndrome, also called Bloom-Torre-Machacek syndrome or congenital telangiectatic erythema, is a rare autosomal recessive inherited disorder char ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blue Nevus Blue nevi are melanotic dermal lesions that commonly presents as a blue nodule on the scalp, extremities, sacrococcygeal region, or buttocks. Its char ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus Syndrome Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome is also known as Bean syndrome. It is a rare syndrome of venous malformations that arise in the skin and gastrointesti ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blunt Abdominal Trauma Abdominal trauma caused by blunt force is a common presentation in the emergency room seen in adults and children. The chief cause of blunt abdominal ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blunt Cardiac Injury A cardiac contusion is a misnomer used to indicate injury to the heart after blunt chest trauma. Because of the term's ambiguity in describing a spect ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blunt Eye Trauma Blunt injury to the eye can lead to various intrinsic eye injuries. Globe rupture and retrobulbar hematoma are two emergent entities that are of impor ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blunt Head Trauma Traumatic Brain Injury is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States, with an annual occurrence of more than 1.5 million. Fal ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bochdalek Hernia Bochdalek hernia is a developmental defect in the posterolateral diaphragm, allowing herniation of abdominal contents into the thorax causing mechanic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Body Dysmorphic Disorder Body dysmorphic disorder, or BDD, formally known as dysmorphophobia, is a psychiatric condition defined in the DSM 5 as a preoccupation with a perceiv ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Body Fluid Exposures Health care workers have serious concerns about exposures to bodily fluids. Accidental exposures to bodily fluids present a wide variety of issues to ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Body Image Distortion Body image is a complex construct. Body image distortion and body dissatisfaction are common in both clinical and nonclinical populations. Distortions ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Body Piercing Infections Body piercings have become increasingly popular and are a socially acceptable form of body modification. Common site of piercings are the ears, mouth, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Boerhaave Syndrome Boerhaave syndrome is also known as spontaneous esophageal rupture or effort rupture of the esophagus. Although vomiting is thought to be the most com ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bone Age Bone age assessment can be of utmost importance in various complicated situations involving medical, surgical, forensic, and legal issues. Apart from ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bone Marrow Aspiration And Biopsy Bone marrow aspiration and biopsies are often performed both in the inpatient and outpatient settings for the diagnosis of a multitude of hematologic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bone Marrow Edema Syndrome Bone marrow edema syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion that is characterized by pain and increased interstitial fluid within bone marrow without an ob ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bone Metastasis The skeleton is the third most common site of metastatic disease after lung and liver. Eighty percent of bone metastases originate from prostate, brea ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bone Nonunion Nonunion of bone is the body's inability to heal a fracture. The most agreed-upon standard definition of nonunion made by the FDA is a fracture that p ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Borderline Personality Disorder The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5) lists ten personality disorders that are divided into three clusters, c ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Borrelia Burgdorferi Borrelia burgdorferi is a pathogenic spirochete responsible for Lyme disease via a tick vector. This spirochete causes a characteristic annular rash, ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bortezomib Bortezomib is FDA-approved for use in the initial treatment of multiple myeloma in combination with cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone. It is also FDA ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bosentan Pulmonary artery hypertension has proven to cause significant mortality and morbidity worldwide. The first-line treatment option for pulmonary artery ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Botfly Bot fly is a term referring to any member of the Oestridae family of flies. To reproduce, these flies rely on myiasis, the infestation of host skin fo ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Botulinum Toxin Botulinum toxin is a medication used in the management and treatment of therapeutic and cosmetic purposes. Therapeutic uses include chronic migraine, ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Botulism Botulism is a rare, potentially fatal syndrome of diffuse, flaccid paralysis caused by botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) which is elaborated by the bacteriu ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Botulism Antitoxin Botulinum antitoxin, also known as botulism antitoxin, is comprised of antibodies or antibody antigen-binding fragments that block the neurotoxin prod ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Boutonniere Deformity Boutonniere deformity describes a medical condition in which the finger is flexed at the proximal interphalangeal joint (PIP), and there is hyperexten ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bowel Adhesions Bowel adhesions are irregular bands of scar tissue that form between bowel loops, which are normally not bound together. The bands of tissue can devel ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bowel Ischemia Bowel ischemia can classify as small intestine ischemia, which is commonly known as mesenteric ischemia and large intestine ischemia, which generally ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bowel Necrosis Bowel necrosis is a late stage finding of several different disease processes characterized by cellular death due to reduced blood flow to the gastroi ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bowel Obstruction A bowel obstruction can either be a mechanical or functional obstruction of the small or large intestines. Obstruction frequently causes abdominal pai ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bowel Perforation Bowel perforation results from insult or injury to the mucosa of the bowel wall caused due to a violation of the closed system. Bowel perforation can ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bowenoid Papulosis Bowenoid papulosis is an uncommon sexually transmitted condition that occurs in both males and females. It is characterized by multiple well-demarcate ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brachial Neuritis Brachial neuritis, also called neuralgic amyotrophy, has two major clinical symptoms, pain and muscle weakness from atrophy. It is a multifocal, immun ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brachial Plexitis Brachial plexitis is a condition characterized by acute onset of shoulder pain followed by weakness and/or sensory loss of the shoulder and/or upper e ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brachial Plexus Injuries The earliest written description of a brachial plexus injury (BPI) is attributed to Homer circa 800 BC in his depiction of a battle during which Hecto ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brain Abscess Brain abscess is a localized zone of necrosis with a surrounding membrane within the brain parenchyma, usually resulting from an infectious or traumat ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brain Death Brain death is both a legal and clinical term. The term has been present in medical literature and texts for many years as part of the National Confer ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brain Herniation Brain herniation, also called brain code, requires early diagnosis and prompt management in order to prevent irreversible pathological cascades that e ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brain Metastasis Brain metastases are a common complication of cancer and the most common type of brain tumor. Anywhere from 10% to 26% of patients who die from their ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brain Trauma Brain trauma or traumatic brain injury (TBI) results from a blow, bump, jolt, or penetrating injury to the head that disrupts the normal function of t ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brainstem Death The revised memorandum in 1979 correlated the brain stem death with death itself. This activity outlines current recommendations set for diagnosing br ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brainstem Infarction Brainstem infarcts are a collection of difficult to diagnose syndromes affecting the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla oblongata. They can cause a v ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion The human retina is the most metabolically expensive tissue in the human body. Processing visual input in the retina requires high quantities of arter ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Branchial Cleft Cyst Branchial cleft cysts, also known as branchial cleft anomalies, are congenital anomalies arising from the first through fourth pharyngeal pouches. The ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Branchial Cleft Cysts Branchial cleft cysts are congenital epithelial cysts that comprise approximately one-third of congenital neck masses. They are benign lesions and can ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
BRCA 1 and 2 Breast cancer genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 are tumor suppressor genes whose mutations significantly increase the likelihood of developing particular types of ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Abscess Breast abscesses are a common problem, especially in lactating women. Most breast abscesses are benign, however when a non-lactating patient presents ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Biopsy With improved screening and diagnostic techniques, the incidence and prevalence of breast cancer are rising worldwide. In 2018 alone, there were 2.2 m ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Cancer Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women, accounting for more than 1 in 10 new cancer diagnoses each year. It is the second most com ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Cancer Conservation Therapy Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths among females in the world. The rapid growth of breast conservation therapy has significantl ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Cancer Surgery Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in the U.S. with constantly evolving treatment guidelines. The treatment of breast cancer often invo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Cyst Breast cysts are a common diagnosis among women and one of the most common reasons for a referral to a breast clinic. These cysts can be entirely asym ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Examination Techniques The ability to perform a thorough and accurate breast exam is an important skill for medical practitioners of many levels and across many specialties. ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Fat Necrosis Breast fat necrosis is a non-suppurative inflammation of adipose tissue caused by the disruption of oxygen supply to fat cells, ultimately leading to ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Fibroadenoma A breast fibroadenoma is a painless, unilateral, benign tumor that presents as a solid lump. It commonly occurs in women between the age of 14 to 35 y ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Lymphatics Breast cancer is the most commonly seen cancer diagnosis in women worldwide. Lymph node involvement is one of the most important prognostic factors in ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging Over the past several years, magnetic resonance imaging of the breast has become an increasingly important modality for screening for and diagnosing b ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Milk Jaundice Breast milk jaundice is a type of jaundice that occurs in neonates due to breastfeeding. It happens within the first week of life due to the abnormal ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Nipple Discharge Nipple discharge is fluid that leaks from one or both nipples of non-pregnant and non-breastfeeding women. Nipple discharge can at times be a complex ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Transverse Rectus Abdominus Muscle Procedure Free tissue transfer has become a common technique for breast reconstruction following oncologic resection. Free transverse rectus abdominis muscle (T ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Ultrasound Breast ultrasound is performed due to the high incidence rate of breast cancer amongst women globally. Ultrasound is typically used as an adjunct to m ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breath Holding Spells Breath holding spells might be a frightening experience for children and consequently for their parents. Breath holding spells may occur in children w ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breech Presentation Breech presentation refers to the fetus in the longitudinal lie with the buttocks or lower extremity entering the pelvis first. The three types of bre ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brexanolone Brexanolone is a medication used in the treatment of postpartum depression in adult women. It is in the GABA-A modulator class of medications. This ac ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brief Psychotic Disorder Brief psychotic disorder (BPD) according to DSM-5 is the sudden onset of psychotic behavior that lasts less than 1 month followed by complete remissio ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brief Resolved Unexplained Event In 2016, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommended replacing the term apparent life-threatening event (ALTE) with brief resolved unexplained even ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Broca Aphasia Broca’s aphasia is a non-fluent aphasia in which the output of spontaneous speech is markedly diminished and there is a loss of normal grammatical str ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bromocriptine Bromocriptine is a medication currently used in the management and treatment of Type II diabetes mellitus. It is an ergot alkaloid derivative in the d ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bronchiectasis Bronchiectasis is a chronic lung disease characterized by persistent and lifelong widening of the bronchial airways and weakening of the function muco ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bronchiolitis Bronchiolitis is a common lung infection in young individuals. The viral infection involves the lower respiratory tract and can present with signs of ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bronchiolitis Obliterans Bronchiolitis obliterans is also known as obliterative bronchiolitis or constrictive bronchiolitis. When it occurs after lung transplantation or hemat ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bronchoalveolar Cancer Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) is a variant of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that in recent years has received a new identity and nomenclatur ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Bronchoalveolar Lavage or BAL is a minimally invasive procedure that involves instillation of sterile normal saline into a subsegment of the lung, fol ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bronchodilators Bronchodilators are indicated for individuals that have lower than optimal air flow through the lungs. The mainstay of treatment is beta-2 agonists th ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bronchogenic Cyst Bronchogenic cysts are foregut-derived cystic malformations of the respiratory tract. They are usually located within the mediastinum at an early stag ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bronchopleural Fistula Bronchopleural fistula (BPF) is a sinus tract between the main stem, lobar, or segmental bronchus and the pleural space. Treatment for BPF ranges from ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. Despite significant advances in preterm inf ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brow Ptosis Brow ptosis is a common presenting complaint in aging patients; it can affect patients' quality of life because of its cosmetic impact as well as visu ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brown Recluse Spider Toxicity In the United States, Loxosceles reclusa or brown recluse spiders are found mostly in the south, west, and midwest areas. They are usually in dark are ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brown Sequard Syndrome Brown-Séquard syndrome is a neurologic syndrome resulting from hemisection of the spinal cord. It manifests with weakness or paralysis and propriocept ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brucellosis Brucellosis is an infectious disease caused by Brucella species. It is known by many other names, including remitting fever, undulant fever, Mediterra ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brugada Syndrome Brugada syndrome is a rare but potentially life-threatening inherited disease that predisposes patients to fatal cardiac arrhythmias. The syndrome is ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bruxism Management Bruxism can be defined as the involuntary, unconscious, and excessive grinding of teeth. Bruxism may occur while awake, and it is then called wakeful ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Budd Chiari Syndrome Hepatic venous outflow obstruction due to any cause except the cardiac ones regardless of the level of obstruction is known as Budd-Chiari syndrome. T ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Budesonide Budesonide is a medication used in the management and treatment of the inflammatory diseases, mainly affecting the airways and gastrointestinal tract. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Buerger Disease Buerger disease is a nonatherosclerotic, progressive, segmental inflammatory disease affecting the small and medium-sized arteries of upper and lower ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bulimia Nervosa Bulimia nervosa is a disorder that is characterized by binge eating and inappropriate compensatory behavior to control weight with potentially dangero ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bullous Emphysema The definition of a bulla is an air-filled space of 1 cm in diameter within the lung which has developed because of emphysematous destruction of the l ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bullous Myringitis Bullous myringitis (BM) is a relatively common infectious condition characterized by bullae or vesicles on the tympanic membrane without affecting the ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bullous Pemphigoid Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is the most common autoimmune subepidermal blistering disorder, representing 80% of subepidermal immunobullous cases. Bullous ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bullous Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Bullous systemic lupus erythematosus (BSLE) is a rare manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus. It has clinical and histological features that ma ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bullying Bullying is common in our society and has become a public health emergency. It is a form of repeated peer aggression which is intentional and involves ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bumetanide Bumetanide is FDA approved for the management of various edematous conditions secondary to cardiac failure, or hepatic or renal disease, including the ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bupivacaine Bupivacaine is a potent local anesthetic with unique characteristics from the amide group of local anesthetics. Local anesthetics are used in regional ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Buprenorphine Buprenorphine, a synthetic opioid, treats pain and opioid use syndrome. It was developed in the late 1960s. It is a synthetic analog of thebaine, whic ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bupropion Bupropion is an antidepressant medication that is now also used in smoking cessation. Bupropion has been FDA-approved since 1985. The drug is FDA-appr ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Burkitt Lymphoma Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is an aggressive non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma. The disease is associated with Epstein Barr virus (EBV), human immunodeficiency vi ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Burn Evaluation And Management Burns are injuries of the skin involving the two layers: the thin, outer epidermis and the thicker, deeper dermis. 86% of burns are caused by thermal ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Burn Fluid Management In the United States, approximately 500,000 people seek care for burn injuries each year. For civilians, these injuries are typically sustained in hou ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Burn Resuscitation And Management Severe burns cause not only significant injury at the local burn site but also a systemic response throughout the body. Inflammatory and vasoactive m ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Burning Mouth Syndrome Burning mouth syndrome is a condition characterized by extremely painful burning sensation of the tongue and mucosal tissue of the mouth, lips, and/or ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bursitis Bursitis is a swelling or inflammation of a bursa, which is a synovium-lined, sac-like structure found throughout the body near bony prominences and b ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Buspirone Buspirone is an anxiolytic. Originally the drug was being developed as an antipsychotic but found not to be effective for psychosis, but it had anxio ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Busulfan Busulfan is a medication used in the management and treatment of allogeneic hematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation specifically for patients wi ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Butterbur Butterbur (derived from the leaves of Petasites japonicus) is an herbal supplement that has been found to be effective in the prophylaxis of adult mig ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Byssinosis Following its relatively recent birth in the 1700s from the pioneering work of Dr. Bernardino Ramazzini, occupational medicine has grown to encompass ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
C 17 Hydroxylase Deficiency Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) covers a group of autosomal recessive disorders caused by a deficiency of one of the enzymes required for the ste ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
C1 Esterase Inhibitor Deficiency C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency, also known as hereditary angioedema, results in the unchecked production of the vasodilator bradykinin. This increas ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
C1 Fractures The craniocervical junction is comprised of C1 (atlas) and C2 (axis). The occipito-atlantal and atlantoaxial articulations provide 50% of the flexion ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
C2 Fractures Registry study places the incidence of C2 fracture at 6 per 100000 people. In Sweden, across 6370 patients with C2 fractures: 51% were male, and the a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cachexia Cachexia is a complicated metabolic syndrome related to underlying illness and characterized by muscle mass loss with or without fat mass loss that is ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cadmium Toxicity Cadmium is a heavy metal that causes direct harm to humans in several forms. It is regularly found with other heavy metals such as zinc, copper, and ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cafe Au Lait Macules Cafe-au-lait macules (CALMs) are common pigmented lesions found in the general population. They can be described as well-circumscribed, pigmented macu ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Caffeine Caffeine is a naturally occurring, central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class and is the most widely taken psychoactive stimul ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Caffeine Toxicity Caffeine is a stimulant that has been utilized globally for centuries secondary to its ability to improve mental alertness. As many as 85% of American ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Caffeine Withdrawal Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class and is one of the most widely used drugs in the world. Unlike other p ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Calcaneofibular Ligament Injury Isolated calcaneofibular ligament (CFL) injuries are rare. CFL injuries are often described in the lateral ankle compartment, specifically associated ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Calcaneus Fractures Calcaneus fractures are rare but potentially debilitating injuries. The calcaneus is one of seven tarsal bones and is part of the hind-foot which incl ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Calcineurin Inhibitors Calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) are composed of three drugs (cyclosporine, tacrolimus, and pimecrolimus). They are primarily used as immunosuppressive dr ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Calcinosis Cutis Calcinosis cutis occurs when calcium salts are deposited into the skin and subcutaneous tissue. It is classified into five main types: dystrophic, met ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Calcitonin Salmon calcitonin (after this referred to as “calcitonin”) is an analog of human calcitonin used in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, Page ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Receptor CGRP receptor antagonists and monoclonal antibodies against CGRP and its receptor are medications used in the management and treatment of migraine, wh ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Calcitriol Calcitriol is a hormonally-active, synthetic, vitamin D analog prescribed for the treatment of hypocalcemia, osteoporosis, and prevention of corticost ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Calcium Calcium homeostasis is critical and is controlled by three hormones: the parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, and calcitriol. Dysregulation of calcium lev ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Calcium Carbonate Calcium carbonate is an inorganic salt primarily used in the management and treatment of low calcium conditions, GERD, CKD, and a variety of other ind ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Calcium Channel Blockers Calcium channel antagonists, also known as calcium channel blockers (CCBs), have been widely used for many indications. These agents are often classif ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Calcium Gluconate Calcium gluconate is a medication used in the management of hypocalcemia, cardiac arrest and cardiotoxicity due to hyperkalemia or hypermagnesemia. It ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition Disease Calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (CPPD) is a crystal deposition arthropathy involving the synovial and periarticular tissues. Its clinical pre ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Caloric Testing Caloric testing is a useful clinical tool that can assess and quantify the functional status of the individual vestibular systems. The test utilizes t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Campylobacter Campylobacter is a bacterial species that represent one of the most common causes of diarrheal illness worldwide. This infection is associated with th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Canalicular Laceration Canalicular lacerations occur in people of all age groups, with causes ranging from fistfights to dog bites. In order to avoid the high morbidity asso ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Canaliculitis Canaliculitis is inflammation of the lacrimal canaliculus. It is an uncommon condition which ophthalmologists frequently misdiagnose. The condition is ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cancer Breast Screening In women, breast cancer is number one in incidence and mortality when compared to all cancers. It is the most common non-skin cancer and second deadli ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cancer Chemotherapy Chemotherapy in cancer has merged the disease course from a terminal and catastrophic result in merely all cases to a treatable and sometimes curable ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cancer Prostate Screening This activity describes the current burden of prostate cancer, various expert recommendations on prostate cancer screening, PSA, and other pre-biopsy ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cancer Screening Cancer screening is pivotal in reducing the mortality and morbidity from cancer. Some of the screening methods, like a pap smear, has been successful ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cancer-associated Thrombosis Cancer-associated thrombosis is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality for cancer patients. It commonly occurs in patients with clinical ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Candesartan Candesartan is an oral angiotensin II receptor blocker. It is available as a pro-drug, candesartan cilexetil, which undergoes hydrolysis in the gastro ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Candida Auris Candida auris is an emerging fungal pathogen that is associated with nosocomial infections and is considered a serious global health threat. It has nu ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Candidiasis Candidiasis is an opportunistic infection due to Candida, which can affect the oral cavity, vagina, penis, or other parts of the body. Untreated Candi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cannabidiol (CBD) CBD is a medication used in the management and treatment of the seizure disorders Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome. This activity describes ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) is a condition in which a patient experiences cyclical nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain after using cannabi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cannabinoid Toxicity Cannabinoids are a collective group of compounds that act on cannabinoid receptors. They include plant-derived phytocannabinoids, synthetic cannabinoi ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cannabinoids Cannabinoids are biologically active compounds used in the management and treatment of appetite/weight loss from HIV/AIDS and chemotherapy in addition ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cannabis Use Disorder Cannabis use can cause intoxication, withdrawal, and biopsychosocial issues. This activity describes the evaluation and management of cannabis use dis ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cannaboinoid Antiemetic Therapy There are currently three cannabinoids available on the pharmaceutical market. Dronabinol and nabilone are both synthetic tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Capillary Infantile Hemangiomas Capillary hemangiomas (infantile hemangiomas, juvenile hemangiomas, hemangioblastomas or strawberry nevi of infancy), are common benign orbital neopla ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Caplan Syndrome Caplan syndrome was first described in 1953 by Dr. Anthony Caplan, a physician on the Cardiff Pneumoconiosis Panel, as radiologic evidence of intrapul ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Capnography And Pulse Oximetry Pulse oximetry is a noninvasive measure of oxygen saturation. Capnography is a method of monitoring the concentration or partial pressure of carbon di ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Capsaicin Capsaicin is a chili pepper extract, genus Capsicum, with analgesic properties. Since its discovery, it is used as a homeopathic remedy to treat burni ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Capsule Endoscopy Capsule endoscopy, also known as wireless capsule endoscopy or video capsule endoscopy, is a gastrointestinal study that uses a pill camera to take im ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Captopril Captopril is an FDA-approved medication used in the management of hypertension, left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction, and diabetic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carbamazepine Carbamazepine is used in the management and treatment for epilepsy, trigeminal neuralgia, and acute manic and mixed episodes in bipolar I disorder. In ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carbamazepine Toxicity Carbamazepine is a commonly prescribed agent for focal epilepsy and other nonepileptic conditions such as neuropathic pain, schizophrenia, and bipolar ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carbapenem Resistant Enterobacteriacea Gram-negative bacterial resistance to antibiotics has decreased the physician’s ability to combat infection. Carbapenems are the most potent beta-lact ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carbidopa Carbidopa is a medication used in the management and treatment of Parkinson disease (PD). It is in the decarboxylase inhibitor class of drugs. This ac ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carbon Dioxide Embolism Laparoscopic surgery has gained increasing popularity in clinical practice. As part of laparoscopic surgeries, gas insufflation is usually adopted to ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carbon Dioxide Narcosis Carbon dioxide (CO2) narcosis is a condition that develops when excessive CO2 is present in the bloodstream, leading to a depressed level of conscious ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carbon Monoxide Toxicity Carbon monoxide toxicity occurs after breathing in excessive levels of carbon monoxide. This is a tasteless, odorless, and colorless gas and victims a ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carbon Tetrachloride Toxicity Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is an important agent for multiple purposes, such as cleaning purposes, industrial agents, etc. But it can cause several a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors is a medication used in the management and treatment of glaucoma, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, altitude sicknes ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carboxyhemoglobin Toxicity Carbon monoxide is a tasteless, odorless, colorless, and non-irritating gas formed with the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons (fossil fuels). It i ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carbuncle A carbuncle is an infection of the hair follicle(s) that extends into the surrounding skin and deep underlying subcutaneous tissue. They typically pre ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carcinoid Syndrome Carcinoid syndrome refers to a number of symptoms caused by the release of humoral factors such as polypeptides, prostaglandins, and biogenic amines. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carcinoid Tumors Carcinoid tumors are slow-growing tumors arising from neuroendocrine cells and capable of secreting a variety of peptides and neuroamines. The common ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Abscess A cardiac abscess is a suppurative infection of the myocardium, endocardium, native or prosthetic valve tissue. Similar to other abscesses, it develop ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Arrest As defined by the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology, "(sudden) cardiac arrest is the sudden cessation of cardiac activ ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Calcifications Cardiac calcifications carry different diagnostic and prognostic significance depending on their location. They can involve the coronary arteries, car ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Cancer Cardiac tumors are uncommon and can be primary or metastatic. Primary cardiac tumors are rare, and the incidence is from 0.001 to 0.3% by autopsy. The ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Catheterization Risks and Complications Cardiac catheterization is one of the most widely performed cardiac procedures. In the United States, more than 1,000,000 cardiac catheterization proc ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Chromaffin Cell Pheochromocytoma Cardiac pheochromocytoma is a rare type of primary cardiac tumor. It is a catecholamine-secreting tumor that can cause serious morbidity and mortality ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Cirrhosis Cardiac cirrhosis is a term used to include the spectrum of hepatic disorders that occur secondary to hepatic congestion due to cardiac dysfunction, e ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Disease In Pregnancy Many cardiac diseases during pregnancy are under investigation, and many others which are still not understood require further inquiry. Some of these ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Imaging As innovative technology has progressed throughout the field of medicine, so too has the ability to visualize the heart and its vasculature noninvasiv ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Manifestations Of Coronavirus Coronaviruses are a large family of single positive-stranded, enveloped RNA viruses that can infect many animal species and humans. Human coronaviruse ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Rehabilitation Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and the leading cause of death in the United States. Cardiac rehabilitati ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Rhabdomyoma Cardiac rhabdomyoma is a rare tumor. It arises from the striated muscles. It is a type of hamartoma seen in the pediatric age group. Although mostly a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Risk Assessment This activity reviews the presurgical cardiac risk assessment and highlights the role of the interprofessional team in optimizing presurgical fitness ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Risk Stratification Cardiac Risk Stratification is an essential evaluation among health professionals. In today's world, cardiovascular disease is the number one cause o ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Syncope Syncope, a sudden, transient loss of consciousness and postural tone, is a phenomenon estimated to affect 30% to 40% of the population, and those numb ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Tamponade Cardiac tamponade is a medical emergency that takes place when abnormal amounts of fluid accumulate in the pericardial sac compressing the heart and l ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardioactive Steroid Toxicity Cardioactive steroids (CAS) are medically important compounds historically used for conditions like edema and "dropsy." They are available in several ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardioembolic Stroke An estimated 26 million people suffer a stroke each year, making it a significant source of mortality and long-term disability. Up to two-thirds of st ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema Pulmonary edema refers to the accumulation of excessive fluid in the alveolar walls and alveolar spaces of the lungs. It can be a life-threatening con ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiogenic Shock Cardiogenic shock is a primary cardiac disorder characterized by a low cardiac output state of circulatory failure that results in end-organ hypoperfu ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiomegaly Cardiomegaly is an umbrella designation for a variety of conditions leading to enlargement of the heart which usually remains undiagnosed until the sy ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiopulmonary Arrest In Adults Cardiopulmonary arrest is the cessation of adequate heart function and respiration and results in death without reversal. Often this condition is foun ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiopulmonary Arrest In Children Unlike in adults, cardiopulmonary arrest in rare in children and less likely to be a primary cardiac event. Early onset of effective, high-quality CPR ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is a diagnostic modality used to evaluate a patient's functional capacity. The test can provide a wealth of kn ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiopulmonary Fitness Cardiopulmonary fitness testing is a durable and versatile tool that provides valuable diagnostic and prognostic information regarding patients with c ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) comprises a group of interventions performed to provide oxygenation and circulation to the body during cardiac arr ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiorenal Syndrome The cardiorenal syndrome includes multiple subtypes based on underlying pathology and chronicity. Each subtype involves unique pathophysiology, and th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiovascular Disease The cardiovascular system consists of the heart and its blood vessels. A wide array of problems can arise within the cardiovascular system, a few of w ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Care Of A Chest Tube There are variable practice patterns used to manage chest tubes. Care and management of the chest tube are subject to the direction of the responsible ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carisoprodol Carisoprodol is an FDA-approved drug indicated for the relief of discomfort associated with acute, painful musculoskeletal conditions. Although market ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carney Complex Carney complex (CNC) is a rare genetic disorder associated with one of the multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes. Carney complex affects multip ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carnitine Deficiency Carnitine deficiency is a condition characterized by low carnitine levels in the body. Carnitine deficiency could be primary (due to defect in carniti ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Caroli Disease Caroli disease is a rare inherited disorder involving segmental dilatation of large, intrahepatic bile ducts which appear as cysts on imaging and hist ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotenemia First described in 1919 by Hess and Meyers, carotenemia is the medical terminology describing yellow-orange skin pigmentation due to high levels of ca ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotid Artery Dissection Carotid artery dissection is a condition whereby the layers of the carotid artery are spontaneously separated. This potentially compromises blood flow ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotid Artery Stenosis The distinction between hemodynamic and embolic stroke in the setting of chronic internal carotid artery occlusion is important. Embolic symptoms are ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotid Bruit A carotid bruit is a vascular sound usually heard with a stethoscope over the carotid artery because of turbulent, non-laminar blood flow through a st ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotid Sinus Hypersensitivity Carotid sinus hypersensitivity is an exaggerated response to pressure applied to the carotid sinus located in the carotid bifurcation, resulting in br ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotidynia Carotidynia, also known as Fay syndrome or TIPIC Syndrome, is a rare vascular disorder that presents with atypical pain in the face and neck area. The ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is an entrapment neuropathy caused by compression of the median nerve as it travels through the wrist's carpal tunnel. It ... Read the Article 1.25 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cartilage Graft Cartilage graft transplantation is frequently used in the treatment of chondral and osteochondral lesions, most commonly in the knee. These procedures ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carvedilol Carvedilol is a non-selective adrenergic blocker indicated for the chronic therapy of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), hypertensi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Caspofungin Caspofungin is a drug in the echinocandins class of medications, used in the management and treatment of several medical conditions. These conditions ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Castor Oil Castor oil is a vegetable oil made from Ricinus communis, a plant common in the Eastern areas of the world. Castor oil is most well known for its laxa ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cat Scratch Disease Cat scratch disease is an illness caused by an intracellular gram-negative rod known as Bartonella henselae. It affects the lymph nodes draining the a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cataplexy Cataplexy, a physical feature of narcolepsy, is characterized by transient episodes of voluntary muscle weakness precipitated by intense emotion. Subj ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cataract A cataract is a disease of the eye in which the normally clear lens has opacified which obscures the passage of light. It is a gradually progressive d ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cataract Surgery Cataracts are the world’s leading cause of remediable blindness. While some cataracts, may be congenital, secondary to trauma, or drug-induced, most c ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Catatonia Catatonia, a neuropsychiatric syndrome characterized by abnormal movements, behaviors, and withdrawal, is a condition that is most often seen in mood ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Caterpillar and Moth Bites “Lepidopterism” refers to various skin & systemic reactions secondary to contact with moth and butterfly larvae or caterpillars (order Lepidoptera). I ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Catheter Directed Thrombolysis Of Pulmonary Embolism Pulmonary embolism (PE) is the third most common cause of cardiovascular death in the United States of America. It is one of the most common causes of ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Catheter Management Of Aortic Valve Disorders Aortic valve disease is one of the most common valvular disorders in the United States and worldwide. Transcatheter management is emerging as a releva ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Catheter Management Of Mitral Regurgitation Mitral regurgitation (MR) is one of the most common valvular abnormalities. Medical management along with regular surveillance is the typical recommen ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Catheter Management Of Patent Foramen Ovale Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a common abnormality that describes the presence of a small opening between the top two chambers of the heart. Several l ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cauda Equina And Conus Medullaris Syndromes Cauda equina and conus medullaris syndromes have overlap in anatomy and clinical presentation. The cauda equina is a group of nerves and nerve roots s ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cauliflower Ear Cauliflower ear, also known as wrestler's ear or perichondrial hematoma, is a deformity caused by blunt trauma to the auricle. It occurs as blood accu ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Caustic Ingestions Caustic ingestion is the term given to describe the ingestion of an extremely toxic substance such as lye. Caustic ingestions are serious medical emer ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cavernous Sinus Aneurysm Cavernous sinus aneurysms are most common in the elderly population and often present with an indolent ophthalmoplegia. The morbidity of these aneurys ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis Cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) is a rare, life-threatening disorder that can complicate facial infection, sinusitis, orbital cellulitis, pharyngitis ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cavernous Venous Malformation Cerebral cavernous malformations, also known as cavernomas or cavernous hemangiomas, are clusters of abnormal and hyalinized capillaries without inter ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cavum Septum Pellucidum The septum pellucidum (meaning translucent wall in Latin - SP), also known as the ventricle of Sylvius, is a thin, triangular double membrane separati ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cefepime Cefepime is a cephalosporin in the beta-lactam class of antibiotics used in the management and treatment of gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cefotaxime Cefotaxime(CTX) is a medication used in the management and treatment of cervicitis/urethritis and pneumonia. Cefotaxime (CTX) is a beta-lactam antibio ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Celecoxib The FDA recommends celecoxib and other NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), along with acetaminophen, as first-line analgesics for patients ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Celiac Disease Celiac disease, also known as gluten-sensitive enteropathy, is an autoimmune disease of the small intestine. Celiac disease is a condition in which th ... Read the Article 1.5 24 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cellulitis Cellulitis is a common bacterial skin infection, with over 14 million cases occurring in the United States annually. This activity educates the learne ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Centipede Envenomation Centipede bites are uncommon but can be clinically significant in regards to patient discomfort, morbidity, and mortality. Prompt diagnosis and treat ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central and Peripheral Cyanosis Peripheral cyanosis is the bluish discoloration of the distal extremities (Hands, fingertips, toes), and can sometimes involve circumoral and periorbi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central Cord Syndrome The central cord syndrome is the most common type of incomplete cord injury and almost always occurs as a consequence of a traumatic injury. It result ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central Line Central venous catheterization (CVC) is a procedure frequently required in acute or critical care resuscitation. Indications include patients with mul ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central Line Associated Blood Stream Infections A central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) is defined as a laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection not related to an infection at ano ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central Line Management Central venous access is required for many hospitalized patient. Placement of central line catheters is done for many reasons, including inadequate pe ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central Line Placement A central line is a large-bore central venous catheter that is typically placed using a sterile technique unless a patient is unstable, in which case ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central Nervous System Lymphoma Lymphoma of the central nervous system, both primary and secondary, represents a rare subset of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. According to the World Health Or ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central Pontine Myelinolysis Central pontine myelinolysis is a rare neurologic condition most frequently caused by the rapid correction of hyponatremia. This activity reviews the ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central Venous Access of The Subclavian Vein In the United States, more than 5 million central venous catheters are inserted every year in both hospitalized and surgical patients. Once an indicat ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central Venous Catheter Central venous catheter insertion is a common and often, necessary procedure for the care of critically ill patients. Central venous access may be att ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central Vertigo Central vertigo is a clinical condition in which an individual experiences the sensation of motion despite remaining still. It results from a dysfunct ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cephalexin Cephalexin is an FDA approved antibiotic. Cephalexin is a first-generation cephalosporin utilized in the treatment of urinary tract infections, respir ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cephalohematoma A cephalohematoma is an accumulation of blood under the scalp. During the birth process, small blood vessels on the head of the fetus are broken as a ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cephalosporins Cephalosporins are beta-lactam antimicrobials used to manage a wide range of infections from gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The five genera ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebellar Dysfunction The cerebellum maintains our coordination and balance. Cerebellar dysfunction causes difficulty with coordination, imbalance, and gait disorders. Poss ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebellar Hematoma Cerebellar hemorrhage or hematoma is a type of intracranial hemorrhage in which the bleeding is located in the posterior fossa or cerebellum. This con ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebellar Infarct A cerebellar infarct (or cerebellar stroke) is a type of cerebrovascular event involving the posterior cranial fossa, specifically the cerebellum. Imp ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebellopontine Angle Cancer The cerebellopontine angle (CPA) is an important landmark anatomically and clinically. The most common lesions at the CPA are vestibular schwannoma, m ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebral Aneurysm Cerebral aneurysms are defined as dilations that occur at weak points along the arterial circulation within the brain. The majority of cerebral aneury ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebral Edema The most basic definition of cerebral edema is swelling of the brain. It is a relatively common phenomenon with numerous etiologies. Cerebral edema c ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebral Ischemia Cerebral ischemia is a common mechanism of acute brain injury that results from impaired blood flow to the brain. Cerebral ischemia represents a medic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebral Palsy Cerebral palsy is a group of permanent disorders affecting the development of movement and causing a limitation of activity. Non-progressive disturban ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebral Salt Wasting Syndrome Cerebral salt wasting (CSW) is a potential cause of hyponatremia in the setting of disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Cerebral salt wasting ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebral Venous Thrombosis Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), which includes thrombosis of the cerebral veins and the dural sinuses, is a rare disorder that can lead to significa ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear protein- and glucose-rich liquid in the subarachnoid space of the central nervous system. It is found in the vent ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebrovascular Disease A stroke, or cerebrovascular accident, is an emergency medical condition characterized by an acute compromise of the cerebral perfusion or vasculature ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerumen Impaction Production of cerumen (earwax) is a normal and naturally occurring process. It protects the ear from infection and provides a barrier to insects and w ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Cerclage Cervical cerclage is performed as an attempt to prolong pregnancy in certain women who are at higher risk of preterm delivery. Cerclage placement may ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Clear Cell Carcinoma The management of clear cell carcinoma of the cervix is complex, and new approaches have been recently introduced. To achieve optimal outcomes, the ba ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Degenerative Disc Disease Degenerative disc disease of the cervical spine typically develops in the aging population equally in terms of sexes. Patients are most commonly prese ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Disc Herniation Cervical disc herniation is a common cause of neck pain in adults. The severity of the disease can range from mild to severe, and even life-threatenin ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Disc Injuries The spinal cord is a nervous tissue bundle from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region, and the vertebral column protects it. The ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Discogenic Syndrome Cervical discogenic pain syndrome is a common source of neck pain. The presentation can vary and may be caused by degenerative changes in the interver ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Dysplasia The Pap smear is responsible for decreasing the incidence of and mortality rates from cervical cancer. The Papanicolaou (Pap) smear is a collection of ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Ectropion Cervical ectropion is a benign gynecological condition and is regarded as a normal variant that frequently occurs in women of the reproductive age gro ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Epidural Injection Cervical epidural corticosteroids can provide significant benefits in patients experiencing chronic neck pain secondary to cervical radiculopathy. Thi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Injury Cervical spine injuries, although uncommon, can result in significant and long-term disability. The cervical spine encompasses seven vertebrae and ser ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Cervical cancer incidence and mortality have decreased due primarily to screening programs using the pap smear. As more outcome data has become availa ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Intraepithelial Squamous Cell Lesion This article reviews the anatomy, natural history, epidemiology, etiology, clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, evaluation, treatment, compl ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Myelopathy Cervical myelopathy is a condition describing a compression at the cervical level of the spinal column resulting in spasticity (sustained muscle contr ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Myofascial Pain Cervical myofascial pain is a musculoskeletal disorder that causes pain in the area of a muscle in the body and its surrounding connective tissue. Pro ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Plexus Block Superficial cervical plexus block is an easy block that can be performed either using a landmark-based technique or using the ultrasound-based techniq ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Polyps Cervical polyps are abnormal growths that appear in the cervix. Although cervical polyps are commonly benign, malignant polyps can be seen in 0.2 to 1 ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Radiculopathy Neck pain is widespread and causes significant pain and disability. Workers with a history of neck pain account for up to 40% of work absenteeism. In ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Spondylosis Cervical spondylosis is a natural age-related disease process that is associated with degenerative changes within the intervertebral disc. It most com ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Sprain The term "whiplash" injury was first coined by Harold Crowe in 1928 to define acceleration-deceleration injuries occurring to the cervical spine or ne ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervicitis Cervicitis is the inflammation of the ectocervix, which can be infectious or non-infectious. Due to the association of serious complications like infe ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervicogenic Headache A cervicogenic headache (CGH) presents as unilateral pain that starts in the neck. It is a common chronic and recurrent headache that usually starts a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cesarean Section This activity reviews the cesarean section, and it highlights ways in which an interprofessional care team can impact the health of women and their ne ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cetirizine Cetirizine is a medication used in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and urticaria. It is a second-generation antihistamine. This activity reviews th ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cetuximab Cetuximab is an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor with the following FDA-approved indications: colorectal cancer, metastatic, KRAS wil ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chaddock Reflex The Babinski reflex is part of the routine neurological examination to evaluate the integrity of the corticospinal tract. However, in settings where p ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chagas Disease Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) is a zoonotic disease caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. This is a vector-borne illness spread by the ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chalazion Chalazia (plural of chalazion), are the most common inflammatory lesions of the eyelid. They are typically slowly enlarging, non-tender eyelid nodules ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chance Fractures A Chance fracture is an unstable spine fracture that typically occurs at the thoracolumbar junction. It is a horizontal fracture extending from poster ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chancroid Chancroid is an exceedingly rare sexually transmitted infection, both in the United States and globally. Knowledge regarding its true prevalence is ma ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Change In Mental Status Altered mental status is a common presentation. It is important to recognize the early signs of altered mental status, identify the underlying cause, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Charcot Bouchard Aneurysm The rupture of Charcot Bouchard aneurysms causes intracerebral bleeds in the deep structures of the brain especially in patients predisposed to this c ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Charcot Marie Tooth Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is the commonest inherited neuromuscular disorder. It affects the peripheral nerves and leads to progressive weaknes ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Charcot Neuropathic Osteoarthropathy Charcot neuropathic osteoarthropathy is a destructive joint disorder initiated by trauma to a neuropathic extremity. It can lead to dislocations and f ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
CHARGE Syndrome CHARGE syndrome is an inherited disorder caused by a mutation in the DNA-binding protein-7 CHD7 gene. CHARGE syndrome is an acronym for coloboma, hear ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chediak Higashi Syndrome Chediak Higashi syndrome (CHS) is an autosomal recessive disorder that is characterized by easy bruising, oculocutaneous albinism and recurrent pyogen ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cheilitis Granulomatosa Cheilitis granulomatosa (CG) is a rare granulomatous disorder characterized by a recurrent firm swelling of one or both lips. This is called the cheil ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cheiralgia Paresthetica Cheiralgia paresthetica is a compression neuropathy of the superficial radial nerve. It manifests as sensory disturbances, such as paresthesias, to th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chemical Burns Healthcare professionals should be knowledgeable about chemical burns from exposure to acids (pH less than 7), alkalis (pH greater than 7), and irrita ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cherry Hemangioma Cherry hemangiomas are the most common type of acquired vascular proliferation of the skin. They present as a dome-shaped, bright, ruby-colored papule ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cherry Red Spot A cherry-red spot refers to a red-tinted region at the center of macula surrounded by retinal opacification. Cherry-red spots may be present in a vari ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chest Pain Chest pain is a common complaint and encompasses a broad differential diagnosis that includes several life-threatening causes. A workup must focus on ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chest Trauma Chest trauma has quickly risen the second most common traumatic injury in non-intentional trauma. Trauma to the chest comes with the highest mortality ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chest Tube A chest tube, also known as a thoracostomy tube, is a flexible tube that can be inserted through the chest wall and into the pleural space. This activ ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chest Wall Deformities Chest wall deformities are a set of congenital diseases; these can manifest as; an isolated feature, with other congenital anomalies, or as part of a ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chest Wall Tumors The chest wall refers to the structures surrounding and protecting the lungs, enclosed by the spine, and separated from the abdomen by the diaphragm. ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cheyne Stokes Respirations Cheyne-Stokes respiration is a type of breathing disorder characterized by cyclical episodes of apnea and hyperventilation. Although described in the ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chiari I Malformation Arnold-Chiari 1 malformation, otherwise known as the Chiari 1 malformation, is the more common variant of the Chiari malformations, defined as a spect ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chigger Bites Chigger is the common name for species of the Trombiculid family of mites. Bites from the larva of these mites can cause local pruritus and irritation ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chikungunya Fever Chikungunya virus is an alphavirus that is arthropod-borne and transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. This virus causes a rash, an acute febrile illness, an ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chilaiditi Syndrome Chilaiditi syndrome is a generally benign condition in which a segment of intestine is interposed between the liver and diaphragm, which can be confus ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Child Abuse and Neglect The World Health Organization (WHO) defines child maltreatment as “all forms of physical and emotional ill-treatment, sexual abuse, neglect, and explo ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Child Intussusception Intussusception is a condition in which part of the intestine folds into the section next to it. Intussusception usually involves the small bowel and ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Child Physical Abuse And Neglect Approximately one in four children experience child abuse or neglect in their lifetime. Of maltreated children, 18 percent are abused physically, 78 p ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Child Sexual Abuse And Neglect Sexual abuse of children is the involvement of children or adolescents in sexual activities that he or she does not fully comprehend and can include e ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Childhood Brain Tumors Pediatric brain tumors are the most common type of solid childhood cancer and only second to leukemia as a cause of pediatric malignancies. They are c ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chlamydia Chlamydia trachomatis is responsible for the greatest number of sexually transmitted infections and the majority of infection-related of blindness wor ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chlamydia Pneumonia Three species of Chlamydia namely, C. pneumoniae, C. psittaci, and C. trachomatis are known to cause respiratory infections in humans. They are one of ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chloramphenicol