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Pediatric

Pediatric

Stay up to date on the latest medical knowledge with this Pediatric activity. In this online self-assessment activity, you'll read our reference articles and test your knowledge with 2264 activities in Pediatric for 2064 total CME hours.


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1 Year Unlimited Physician MD/DO/PA CME

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Access to all the Physician MD/DO/PA CME activities in all specialties.

Featured Article Activities

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Waterhouse-Friderichsen Syndrome

Waterhouse Friderichsen syndrome is a rare but life-threatening disorder associated with bilateral adrenal hemorrhage. I ...
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Hours: 0.75

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Lyme Disease

Lyme disease is an infectious disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, which is spread by ticks. Lyme disease is divided ...
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Hours: 1.5

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Amebic Liver Abscess

Amebic liver abscess is the most common extra-intestinal manifestation of the protozoan, Entamoeba histolytica. The life ...
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Rating: 4.33
Hours: 1

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Somatic Syndrome Disorders

According to the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V), somatic symptom dis ...
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Hours: 1

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Glottic Stenosis

Glottic stenosis describes a narrowing of the portion of the larynx containing the vocal cords and glottic opening, othe ...
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Hours: 0.75

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Severe Combined Immunodeficiency

Severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID) is an inherited primary immunodeficiency disorder that presents by six m ...
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Hours: 0.75

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Pediatric Activities

Title Description Hours Questions
21 Hydroxylase Deficiency 21-hydroxylase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency in one of the enzymes required for the synthesis of cortisol in th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
3,4-Methylenedioxy-Methamphetamine This activity reviews the class 1 drug 3,4 - methylenedioxymethamphetamine, also known as MDMA, Ecstacy or Molly. The drug is known to promote a sens ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
5 Alpha Reductase Deficiency This activity reviews 5-alpha-reductase deficiency, an important cause of ambiguous genitalia in children. Initially, the phenotype of children with 5 ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abciximab Abciximab is widely used in interventional cardiology for the treatment of unstable angina and as an adjunct therapy following percutaneous coronary i ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominal Abscess Abdominal abscesses contain cellular debris, enzymes, and liquid and can be from an infectious or non-infectious source. They are a common and serious ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abducens Nerve Palsy The abducens nerve, also known as cranial nerve VI, is responsible for ipsilateral eye abduction. Visualizing the anatomy of the nerve allows for bett ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abetalipoproteinemia Abetalipoproteinemia is a rare autosomal recessive disorder marked by low or absent levels of plasma cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins and very-lo ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abnormal Neonatal EEG Electroencephalogram of a newborn shows unique features compared to older children and adults. The principles employed in the identification of abnorm ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abnormal Respirations There are multiple types of normal and abnormal respiration. They include apnea, eupnea, orthopnea, dyspnea, hyperpnea, hyperventilation, hypoventilat ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abortion Complications Roughly one million abortions are performed each year in the United States alone. The total abortion-related complication rate is estimated to be abou ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abrasion Abrasion is the superficial denudation of the epithelium due to scraping, impact or pressure. While the management of abrasions is relatively simple, ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Absence Seizure Absence seizures are brief seizures during which the patient is unresponsive. They are generally seen in children between 4 and 12 years of age. It ha ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abuse and Neglect Abuse and neglect refer to the actions or inactions of an individual's caregiver or parent inflicting physical, sexual, or emotional harm on the indiv ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acetaminophen Toxicity Acetaminophen toxicity is the second most common cause of liver transplantation worldwide and the most common cause of liver transplantation in the US ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors Toxicity Nerve agents are some of the most deadly and easily employed chemical warfare agents. Given the global threat of terrorism, it is prudent to have a ba ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Achilles Tendon Rupture Achilles tendon rupture is the most common tendon rupture in the lower extremity. The injury most commonly occurs in adults in their third to fifth d ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Achilles Tendonitis The Achilles tendon ranks as the strongest tendon in the human body connecting the plantaris, gastrocnemius, and soleus to the calcaneus bone. This ac ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Achlorhydria Achlorhydria is a condition in which the stomach does not produce hydrochloric acid, one of the components of gastric acid. Hydrochloric acid plays an ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Achondroplasia Achondroplasia is the most common skeletal dysplasia found in humans, accounting for 90% of cases of disproportionate short stature. It is caused by a ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ackee Fruit Toxicity Ingestion of unripe Ackee fruit may result in the metabolic syndrome known as "Jamaican vomiting sickness." Clinical manifestations may include profus ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acne Conglobata Acne conglobata is a rare but severe form of acne. It usually presents with deep burrowing abscesses that interconnect with each other. Scar formation ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acne Fulminans Acne fulminans or acne maligna is a rare skin disorder presenting as an acute, painful, ulcerating, and hemorrhagic clinical form of acne. It may or m ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acne Keloidalis Nuchae Acne keloidalis nuchae is a disease characterized by persistent folliculitis at the nape of the neck that forms keloid like scars and ultimately cicat ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acne Vulgaris Acne vulgaris is an inflammatory disorder of pilosebaceous unit, which runs a chronic course and it is self-limiting. Acne vulgaris is triggered by pr ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acneiform Eruptions Acneiform eruptions are a group of disorders characterized by papules and pustules resembling acne vulgaris. Acneiform eruptions demonstrate an acute ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acoustic Neuroma Acoustic neuromas are tumors that develop from the sheath of Schwann cells. They tend to occupy the cerebellopontine angle and are usually found adjac ... Read the Article 1.25 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acquired Angioedema Angioedema is characterized by one or more areas of well-demarcated, non-pitting edema of deep subcutaneous tissues. It is primarily known to involve ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acquired Hemophilia Acquired hemophilia is an uncommon but severe bleeding disorder. It is caused by the development of autoantibodies directed against one of the antihem ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acrodermatitis Enteropathica Acrodermatitis enteropathica is a rare skin disorder associated with zinc deficiency that is most often seen in infants. Zinc is a very important micr ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acrodermatitis Papular Papular acrodermatitis of childhood (Gianotti-Crosti syndrome) is a benign rash that occurs in childhood associated with multiple viral illnesses and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acrodynia Acrodynia is a rare disorder caused due to chronic mercury poisoning or idiosyncrasy to mercury. It is a Greek term that means 'painful extremities.' ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acromioclavicular Joint Injury Acromioclavicular joint injuries account for more than forty percent of all shoulder injuries. Mild injuries are not associated with any significant ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Actinic Prurigo Actinic prurigo, also known as prurigo or hydroa aestivale or Hutchinson summer, is a photodermatosis that is characterized by intensely pruritic papu ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Actinomycosis Actinomyces are gram-positive filamentous non-acid fast anaerobic to microaerophilic bacteria that typically colonize the human mouth, urogenital trac ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Activated Charcoal An oral suspension of activated charcoal should be considered in poisonings when gastrointestinal decontamination of an ingested toxin is indicated. A ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Abdomen An acute abdomen is a condition that demands urgent attention and treatment. The acute abdomen may be caused by an infection, inflammation, vascular o ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute and Chronic Thermal Burn Evaluation and Management Thermal burns are a significant cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality. They can lead to debilitating, lifelong injuries and have serious psycholo ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Ankle Sprain Acute ankle sprains are commonly seen in both primary care practices and emergency departments and can result in significant short-term morbidity, rec ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Bronchitis Acute bronchitis is the inflammation of the lining of the bronchi. It is a common presentation in emergency departments, urgent care centers, and in p ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Chest Syndrome Acute chest syndrome occurs due to vaso-occlusion within the pulmonary vasculature of patients with sickle cell disease. This results in deoxygenation ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Compartment Syndrome Acute compartment syndrome is a condition in which there is increased pressure within a closed osteofascial compartment, resulting in impaired local c ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Cystitis Urinary tract infections are the most common bacterial infection in women, and result in roughly eight million emergency department or clinic visits a ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis also referred to as post-infectious encephalomyelitis, is an acute, rapidly progressive autoimmune process that i ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Hepatitis Acute hepatitis is a term used to describe a wide variety of conditions characterized by acute inflammation of the hepatic parenchyma or injury to hep ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Intermittent Porphyria Acute intermittent porphyria is a rare autosomal dominant disease, characterized by a deficiency of hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS). It presents w ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Kidney Injury Acute kidney injury, previously known as acute renal failure, denotes a sudden and often reversible reduction in the kidney function, as measured by ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Laryngitis Laryngitis refers to inflammation of the larynx. This is often due to an acute viral infection, which is typically a mild and self-limiting condition ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Liver Failure Acute liver failure is defined as severe acute liver injury for fewer than twenty six weeks duration with encephalopathy and impaired synthetic functi ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is a malignancy of B or T lymphoblasts characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of abnormal, immature lymphocytes ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Myeloid Leukemia Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common leukemia among the adult population and accounts for about 80% of all cases. It is characterized by cl ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Myocarditis Acute myocarditis is inflammation of the myocardium. It is typically seen in infants and teenagers but can occur at any age. It most commonly results ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Nerve Injury Peripheral nerve injuries (PNIs) can present in approximately 3% of trauma patients. They vary in severity and complexity, necessitating different app ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute On Chronic Liver Failure Acute on chronic liver failure is a clinical syndrome of sudden hepatic decompensation observed in patients with pre-existing chronic liver disease. A ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Otitis Media Acute otitis media (AOM) is defined as an infection of the middle ear and is the second most common pediatric diagnosis in the emergency department fo ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Pancreatitis Acute pancreatitis is the leading cause of gastrointestinal-related hospitalization in the United States, and its frequency continues to rise in the ... Read the Article 2 35 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Porphyria Acute porphyrias are a group of rare disorders characterized by an enzymatic defect in the heme biosynthetic pathway. Patients present with acute, deb ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Pyelonephritis Acute pyelonephritis is a bacterial infection causing inflammation of the kidneys. Pyelonephritis occurs as a complication of an ascending urinary tra ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening that is characterized by poor oxygenation and non-compliant or "stiff" lungs. The dis ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Scrotum Pain Acute scrotum pain is an umbrella term that includes a wide variety of unique disease processes. Patients may describe the rapid onset of symptoms wit ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Sinusitis Rhinosinusitis is among the most common conditions encountered in the primary care clinic. It can result from viral, bacterial, or fungal infections, ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Subarachnoid hemorrhages are true emergencies that demand prompt treatment. Subarachnoid hemorrhages result from a medical aneurysmal rupture or traum ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acyclovir Acyclovir is a medication used in the management and treatment of infections caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). It is FDA approved to treat gen ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adapalene Adapalene is a topical retinoid with FDA-approval for the treatment of acne vulgaris. Clinicians use retinoids are used to treat a wide variety of ski ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Addiction Relapse Prevention Individuals recovering from various forms of addiction frequently encounter relapses that have gained acceptance as an almost inevitable part of the r ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Addison Disease Though Addison disease is a relatively rare condition, it can have devastating consequences if not diagnosed and managed appropriately. Often the insi ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adductor Strain An adductor strain or injury to the adductor muscle group of the thigh is a common cause of medial leg and groin pain, especially among athletes. This ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adenoid Hypertrophy Adenoid hypertrophy is an obstructive condition due to enlarged adenoids. This can occur with or without an acute or chronic infection of the adenoids ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adenoidectomy Adenoidectomy is a common surgical procedure primarily performed in children for infectious or obstructive reasons. This activity details the indicati ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adenoiditis Adenoiditis occurs when there is inflammation of the adenoid tissue resulting from infection, allergies, or irritation from stomach acid. Adenoiditis ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adenopathy Lymphadenopathy is a common abnormal finding during the course of the physical exam in general medical practice. Adenopathy can be caused by neoplasm, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adenosine Adenosine has uses as both a diagnostic or therapeutic agent. As a diagnostic agent, adenosine can be utilized in myocardial perfusion stress imaging ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adenoviruses The adenoviruses are DNA viruses common in animals and humans, occurring frequently in both adults and children. There are more than 100 serologically ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adie Syndrome Adie syndrome, also known as the Holmes-Adie syndrome, is a neurological disorder of unknown etiology comprising unilateral or bilateral tonically dil ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adolescent and Idiopathic Scoliosis Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the most common form of pediatric scoliosis occurring in individuals between the ages of 10 to 18. By definit ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adrenal Crisis Adrenal crisis is an acute life-threatening condition precipitated by an internal or external process in the setting of known or unknown adrenal insuf ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adrenal Hypoplasia Adrenal hypoplasia is a condition in which there is underdevelopment or hypotrophy of the adrenal cortex due to several clinical conditions. It falls ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adrenal Insufficiency Adrenal glands produce hormones which are necessary for normal body functioning, deficiency of these hormones is called adrenal insufficiency. Adrenal ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adrenoleukodystrophy Adrenoleukodystrophy is a peroxisomal disorder resulting from abnormal metabolism of the very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA). It is classified into di ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adverse Events Adverse events (AE) occur frequently in our medical system and at least one in ten patients are affected. An AE is a harmful and negative outcome that ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aerospace Decompression Illness Decompression sickness in aviation is most commonly seen following flights in nonpressurized aircraft, in flights with cabin pressure fluctuations, or ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aflatoxin Toxicity Aflatoxins are metabolites produced by toxigenic strains of molds, mainly Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus which grow in soil, hay, decaying vege ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Agammaglobulinemia Agammaglobulinemia or hypogammaglobulinemia is a rare inherited immunodeficiency disorder, characterized by low or absent B cells with absent immunogl ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aggression In Hypothalamic Hamartoma Psychiatric symptoms are a common comorbid feature of hypothalamic hamartoma with epilepsy. They are most disabling and are a significant challenge fo ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Agitation Agitation is a nonspecific constellation of relatively unrelated behaviors that can be seen in various clinical situations, usually presenting with a ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Air Leak An air leak is the leakage of air from an air-containing cavity into spaces that under normal circumstances do not contain air. The term air leak synd ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Airway Foreign Bodies Foreign body aspiration is the fourth leading cause of death in preschool and younger age children and accounts for a significant number of emergency ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Airway Management Interprofessional team members must be familiar with the important anatomical, physiological, and pathological features related to the airway and have ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Airway Monitoring Airway monitoring involves assessing both a patient’s ventilatory function and their ability to perform adequate gas exchange. Determining a patient’s ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Airway Obstruction Airway obstruction secondary to a foreign body is often easily treated, as the foreign body can be removed, and the patency of the airway restored. Ho ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Airway Suctioning Airway suctioning is a procedure routinely performed in the inpatient and outpatient settings. It is important to maintain patency of the natural or a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Akinesia Akinesia or "absent movement" is a clinical sign that could be indicative of a number of disorders, depending on the age group of the patient. The var ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ala Dehydratase Deficiency Porphyria ALA dehydratase porphyria is an extremely rare type of acute porphyria that follows a chronic course punctuated by acute attacks. To avoid multiple re ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alagille Syndrome Alagille syndrome (ALGS) is a multisystem autosomal dominant disorder with a wide variety of clinical manifestations. It is also known as arteriohepat ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Albendazole Albendazole has FDA approval for the treatment of cystic hydatid disease of the liver, lung, and peritoneum resulting from the larval form of the dog ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Albinism Albinism is a group of heritable conditions associated with decreased or absent melanin in ectoderm-derived tissues (most notably the skin, hair, and ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Albright Hereditary Osteodystrophy Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) is a hereditary condition due to inactivating GNAS1 gene mutation. AHO is characterized by a round face, shor ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Albumin Colloid Albumin is the most abundant protein in the blood and accounts for about 50 percent of all plasma proteins. It gets synthesized by the liver and secre ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Albuterol Albuterol is used for the treatment and prevention of bronchospasm (acute or severe) in patients with reversible obstructive airway disease. It also h ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alexander Disease Alexander disease is a relatively rare leukodystrophy that generally presents in the infantile period, although other variants are occasionally seen. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alkali Toxicity Alkali toxicity, though rare, can lead to serious medical problems. Adult caustic ingestions are usually intentional, involving more substantial amou ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alkalosis Alkalosis is an abnormal pathophysiological condition characterized by the buildup of excess base or alkali in the body. It results in an abnormally h ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alkaptonuria Alkaptonuria is a rare genetic inborn error of protein metabolism. It is the result of the deficiency of an enzyme (homogentisate 1,2 dioxygenase - HG ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Allergic And Environmental Induced Asthma Asthma is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Numerous studies have shown that early institution of inhaled corticosteroids ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a common fungal infection in uncontrolled asthmatics, cystic fibrosis patients, and immunocompromise ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Allergic Conjunctivitis Allergic conjunctivitis is encountered in up to 40 percent of the population, but only a small proportion of affected individuals seek medical help. I ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Allergic Rhinitis Allergic rhinitis (AR) is an atopic disease presenting with symptoms of sneezing, nasal congestion, clear rhinorrhea, and nasal pruritis. It is an IgE ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Allergy Allergy is described as an exaggerated response from the body’s immune system to otherwise inert substances present in the environment. The usual symp ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Allergy Desensitization Allergy desensitization also termed allergen immunotherapy (AIT) or hyposensitization was first introduced by Leonard Noon in 1911, who proposed that ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Allgrove Syndrome Allgrove syndrome (AS) or 3A syndrome (AAA) is characterized by a triad of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) resistant adrenal insufficiency, alacri ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Allodynia Allodynia is defined as "pain due to a stimulus that does not normally provoke pain." An example would be a light feather touch (that should only prod ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Almotriptan Almotriptan is a medication used in the management and treatment of acute migraines. It is in the triptan 5-HT class of drugs. This activity reviews t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alopecia Areata Alopecia areata (AA) is a form of alopecia that impacts hair follicles, nails, and rarely, the retinal pigment epithelium. It typically presents with ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alosetron Alosetron is a medication used in the management and treatment of severe diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D). It is in the class of ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alpers-Huttenlocher Syndrome Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome (AHS) is a rare disease that is important to consider in children presenting with neurologic and hepatic symptoms. This a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alpha 1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is a clinically under-recognized genetic disorder that causes the defective production of alpha-1 antitrypsin pro ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alpha Adrenergic Receptors The indication for the use of an alpha-receptor modifying medication depends on which receptor is the target: the alpha-1 receptor or the alpha-2 rece ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alpha Thalassemia Hemoglobin H disease (alpha-thalassemia) can be found in patients that live in areas with a high incidence of malaria. Symptoms at presentation, such ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alport Syndrome Alport syndrome is a genetic condition characterized by kidney disease, loss of hearing, and eye abnormalities. It takes place due to an abnormality o ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alprazolam Alprazolam, known by various trade names, is the most commonly prescribed psychotropic medication in the United States. Alprazolam is frequently presc ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alprostadil Alprostadil is a medication used in the management and treatment of erectile dysfunction in males and for temporary patency of ductus arteriosus in ne ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aluminum Hydroxide Aluminum hydroxide is a medication used in the management and treatment of acid indigestion. It is in the antacid class of drugs. This activity outlin ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amatoxin Mushroom Toxicity Amatoxin containing mushrooms are a rare but significant cause of acute fulminant liver failure. However, not all Amanita species have this toxin, and ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ambiguous Genitalia And Disorders of Sexual Differentiation Infants born with a disorder of sex development (DSD) prompt multiple medical, surgical, ethical, psychosocial, and physical issues for patients and t ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amblyopia Amblyopia (lazy eye) is a disorder of the sight due to the eye and brain not working together resulting in decreased vision in an eye that typically a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amebiasis Amebiasis or amoebic dysentery is a parasitic intestinal infection caused by any of the amoebas of the Entamoeba group. It may be asymptomatic or pres ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amebic Colitis Amebic colitis is the result of invasive infection of the colonic mucosa by Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica). Losch first reported disease due t ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amebic Liver Abscess Amebic liver abscess is the most common extra-intestinal manifestation of the protozoan, Entamoeba histolytica. The life cycle involves consumption of ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amebic Meningoencephalitis Amebic encephalitis is a rare but lethal central nervous system infection caused by free-living amoebae found in freshwater, lakes, and rivers. There ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amenorrhea Amenorrhea is defined as the absence of menstruation during the reproductive years of a woman's life. Physiological states of amenorrhea are seen, mos ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amiloride Amiloride is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension and heart failure. It is in the diuretic class of drugs. This activity ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aminoglycosides While aminoglycosides are an older class of medication, they continue to be clinically valuable. Aminoglycosides have a broad spectrum of activity cov ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amitriptyline Amitriptyline is FDA approved medication to treat depression in adults. The Non-FDA approved indications are anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ammonia Toxicity Ammonia toxicity occurs when susceptible individuals suffer exposure to external sources of ammonia via ingestion, inhalation, direct contact with ski ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amniotic Band Syndrome Amniotic band syndrome (ABS) comprises a variety of congenital anomalies which includes disruption, deformation, and malformations of organs which wer ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amoxicillin Amoxicillin is one of the most commonly used antibiotics in the primary care setting. It is an amino-penicillin, created by adding an extra amino grou ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amoxicillin Clavulanate Amoxicillin-clavulanate is a mainstay antibiotic in emergency departments and primary care offices throughout the country. It is a combination of two ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amphetamine Amphetamine is a medication used in the management and treatment of ADHD and narcolepsy. It is classified as a central nervous system stimulant. This ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amphetamine Related Psychiatric Disorders Amphetamines belong to a class of compounds called phenethylamines which induce catecholaminergic effects in the CNS and peripheral circulation. Recre ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amphetamine Toxicity Amphetamine abuse is widespread, and overdose is associated with significant and negative impacts on the cardiovascular and neurological systems. Pati ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amphotericin B Amphotericin B deoxycholate belongs to the polyene class of antifungals. It is also known by the name conventional amphotericin B and has been used fo ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ampicillin Ampicillin is a medication used in the management and treatment of certain bacterial infections. It is in the penicillin class of medications. This ac ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ampicillin/Sulbactam Ampicillin/sulbactam combination shows synergy to cover strains of bacteria resistant to ampicillin, thus providing broader coverage. This combo adds ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anabolic Steroid Toxicity Anabolic steroids such as testosterone are produced naturally and enhance protein synthesis at the cellular level. There are also synthetic analogs av ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anabolic Steroid Use Disorder Androgen use has become a major public health concern due to the transition of use of androgens from strictly sports to a much a wider spectrum of th ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anabolic Steroids Anabolic steroids (also known as androgenic steroids) are synthetic derivatives of testosterone. Legal, as well as the illegal use of anabolic steroid ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anaerobic Infections Anaerobic bacteria are part of the normal flora of human skin and mucosal membranes. The site of anaerobic infection is commonly the site of normal co ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anal Fissures An anal fissure is a superficial tear in the skin distal to the dentate line. Anal fissures are common in those with a history of constipation or hard ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anaphylaxis Anaphylaxis is an acute, life-threatening hypersensitivity disorder, defined as a generalized, rapidly-evolving, multi-systemic allergic reaction. Ana ... Read the Article 1.5 23 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anaplasma Phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a gram-negative intracellular bacteria that causes an acute febrile illness known as anaplasmosis or human granulocytic a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ancylostoma Ancylostoma duodenale, the human hookworm, is the most common parasitic infection in countries with poor access to adequate water, sanitation, and hyg ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is a common etiology of sexual developmental disorders and results in varying phenotypes. These disorders of and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aneurysmal Bone Cysts Aneurysmal bone cysts are non-malignant, tumor-like, vascular lesions that can grow aggressively, be locally destructive, and weaken bones to the poin ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angelman Syndrome Angelman syndrome is a rare disorder caused by loss of function of the maternal UBE3A. It presents in childhood with psychomotor delay, absent speech, ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angioedema Angioedema is non-pitting edema that involves subcutaneous and/or submucosal layers of tissue that affects the face, lips, neck, and extremities, oral ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angioid Streaks Angioid streaks occur due to breaks in a degenerated and mineralized Bruch's membrane, that typically radiate outward from the optic disc. Angioid st ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angiokeratoma Circumscriptum Angiokeratomas are a group of capillary malformations characterized by vascular ectasias of the papillary dermis associated with hyperkeratosis, papil ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angioma Serpiginosum Angioma serpiginosum is a benign vascular condition. It is characterized by pinpoint violaceous to coppery-red punctate maculopapular eruptions that c ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEI) ACE inhibitors are medications used in the treatment and management of hypertension, which is a significant risk factor for coronary disease heart fai ... Read the Article 1.5 24 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angiotensin II Angiotensin is a peptide endocrine hormone and an important part of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, an inter-related endocrine system import ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anhidrosis Anhidrosis is the inability to sweat. It is important to recognize anhidrosis as it can be potentially life-threatening due to heat-related illnesses. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Animal Bites Animal bites account for approximately one percent of all emergency visits in the U.S. yearly and can range from superficial injuries to disfiguring a ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aniridia Aniridia is defined as a partial or complete absence of the iris. It may be associated with various systemic disorders and multiple ocular morbidities ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anisocoria Anisocoria is a condition characterized by unequal pupil size. The etiology of anisocoria is complex, ranging from benign to potentially life-threaten ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ankle Dislocation An ankle dislocation occurs when there is an abnormal separation between the talo-tibial joint. This most often occurs concomitantly with an ankle fra ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ankle Fractures Acute ankle fractures can affect many different structures. Classification systems can help delineate the mechanism of injury and the structures damag ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ankyloglossia Ankyloglossia, also known as tongue-tie, is a short lingual frenum that interferes with normal tongue movement. It is an uncommon congenital oral anom ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ankylosing Spondylitis Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic, inflammatory disease of the axial spine. Chronic back pain and progressive spinal stiffness are the most common f ... Read the Article 2 34 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Annular Pancreas Annular pancreas (AP) is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by encasement of the duodenum by a band of pancreatic tissue. AP is not commonly enco ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anorectal Malformations The management of anorectal malformations is challenging and exceptionally complex. To achieve appropriate outcomes in children with this diagnosis, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anorexia Nervosa Anorexia nervosa is defined by a restriction of energy intake relative to requirements, which leads to significantly low body weight. Patients with th ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anosmia Anosmia is the inability to perceive smell/odor. It can be temporary or permanent and acquired or congenital. There are many causes. Neurological caus ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anovulatory Bleeding Abnormal uterine bleeding due to ovulatory dysfunction causes irregular and often heavy menses. This condition, if left untreated, can have a signific ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anoxic Encephalopathy Anoxic encephalopathy, or hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, is a process that begins with the cessation of cerebral blood flow to brain tissue, which mos ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antalgic Gait In Children Antalgic gait is common in pediatric patients. The differential diagnosis is broad and includes both benign and more serious etiologies. A careful his ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antepartum Infections This activity reviews the evaluation and management of antepartum infections and highlights the role of the interprofessional team in improving matern ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anterior Cruciate Ligament Knee Injuries The anterior cruciate ligament is one of the two cruciate ligaments which aids in stabilization of the knee joint. It is the most commonly injured li ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anterior Elbow Dislocation The elbow is one of the most common large joints to be dislocated. Anterior elbow dislocations are a rare injury due to the high force and position ne ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anterior Epistaxis Nasal Pack Among the nasal emergencies, epistaxis is one of the most common chief complaints in patients presenting to the emergency department. Typically, anter ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anterior Glenohumeral Joint Dislocation Anterior glenohumeral joint dislocations are the most commonly encountered joint dislocations. They can be the result of low or high energy trauma. Th ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anterior Interosseous Syndrome Anterior interosseus syndrome is an isolated palsy of flexor pollicus longus, the index and long fingers of the flexor digitorum profundus, and the pr ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anthrax Anthrax is an infectious disease caused by an encapsulated, spore-forming, gram-variable bacteria called Bacillus anthracis. This commonly presents wi ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antiarrhythmic Medications The antiarrhythmic medications have typically been categorized according to the Vaughan-Williams (VW) classification system. The system classifies the ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antibody Deficiency Disorder Antibody deficiency disorders may present soon after birth with recurrent infections. Normal individuals have 5 classes of immunoglobulins and several ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anticholinergic Toxicity Anticholinergic toxicity is commonly seen in the emergency department but is rarely fatal. According to the 2015 annual American Association of Poison ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anticonvulsants Toxicity Anticonvulsants, or antiepileptics, are an ever-growing class of medications that act through multiple different mechanisms to control seizures. Antie ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antiepileptic Drug Monitoring Antiepileptic drug-level monitoring has been a common clinical practice since the advent of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). The practice of maintaining AE ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antifungal Antibiotics Fungi are unicellular or multi-cellular eukaryotic organisms that exist in all environments worldwide. While most fungi do not play a significant role ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antihistamine Toxicity In 1943, as the planet was engulfed in WWII and the United States was officially announcing the end of The Great Depression, the most common modern an ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antihistamines Antihistamines are a pharmaceutical class of drugs that act to treat histamine-mediated conditions. There are two main classes of histamine receptors: ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antilipemic Agent Bile Acid Sequestrants Bile acid sequestrants are FDA approved to manage hypercholesterolemia. They can be used in combination with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) or ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antimalarial Medications When treating patients suspected of having malaria, it is essential that treatment does not initiate until the diagnosis of malaria has been establish ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis Anti NMDAR encephalitis is a relatively common autoimmune encephalitis characterized by complex neuropsychiatric features and the presence of Immunogl ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis In Children Anti NMDA receptor encephalitis is commonly confused with schizophrenia. Most of the available data on this illness is through published case reports. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antiparasitic Drugs Antiparasitic drugs are a group of medications used in the management and treatment of infections by parasites, including protozoa, helminths, and ect ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antiplatelet Medications Over time, numerous antiplatelet agents have been developed with a multitude of indications. Antiplatelet medications divide into oral and parenteral ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antisocial Personality Disorder This activity reviews the evaluation and treatment of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). ASPD is a deeply ingrained and dysfunctional thought pro ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Dissection While uncommon, acute aortic dissection is an infrequent but catastrophic disorder. Patients present with tearing chest pain that radiates to the back ... Read the Article 1.75 27 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Insufficiency A normal aortic valve is comprised of three semilunar cusps that attach to the aortic wall. Aortic regurgitation (AR), also known as aortic insufficie ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Regurgitation Aortic regurgitation is the inadequate closure of the aortic valve during diastole that results in reverse blood flow through the aortic valve. This c ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Valvular Atresia Aortic valvular atresia is a congenital condition in which the aortic valvular cusps are fused at birth. It frequently forms as a spectrum of malforma ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortopulmonary Septal Defect An aortopulmonary or septal defect/aortopulmonary window is one of the rarest congenital heart defects. This defect develops embryologically when ther ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortopulmonary Window Aortopulmonary Window is a rare congenital cardiac malformation that can lead to congestive cardiac failure if left untreated. To avoid the high morbi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Apert Syndrome Apert syndrome is an autosomal dominant inherited craniosynostosis syndrome. Males and females are equally affected. The incidence of the disease sign ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aphthous Stomatitis Aphthous stomatitis is a common ailment, idiopathic in nature, with recurrent painful aphthous ulcers (commonly termed “canker sores”) on the non-kera ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aplasia Cutis Congenita Aplasia cutis congenita (ACC) is a rare congenital skin defect characterized by a focal or extensive absence of the epidermis, dermis, and occasionall ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aplastic Anemia Aplastic anemia refers to the syndrome of chronic primary hematopoietic failure from injury leading to diminished or absent hematopoietic precursors i ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Apley Grind Test The Apley grind test, also known as the Apley compression test or the Apley test, is a maneuver performed to evaluate for meniscus injury. Clinicians ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Apnea In Children Apnea can be defined as the cessation of respiratory effort lasting more than 20 seconds, or lasting a shorter duration but accompanied by bradycardia ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Appendicitis Appendicitis is the inflammation of the vermiform appendix. It typically presents acutely, within 24 hours of onset, but can also present as a more ch ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Appendix Testes Torsion Torsion of testicular appendages is considered one of, if not the most common cause of acute scrotal pain in the prepubertal children and should be in ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arachnoid Cysts Arachnoid cysts are common incidental findings on cross-sectional neuroimaging of the brain. When they are present in the appropriate location and of ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arcanobacterium Haemolyticum Arcanobacterium haemolyticum is a rare infectious pathogen that principally causes pharyngitis in adolescents and soft-tissue infections in immunocomp ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arginase Deficiency Argininemia is an autosomal recessive disorder causing hyperammonemia secondary to arginine accumulation. It is a disorder first noticed in children w ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arnold Chiari Malformation Arnold-Chiari or Chiari malformations describe a group of deformities of the posterior fossa and hindbrain, which includes the cerebellum, pons, and m ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aromatic Toxicity Hydrocarbons are organic compounds consisting of carbon and hydrogen atoms. Toluene and benzene can be found in products such as gasoline, nail polis ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arrhythmias Arrhythmia entails a broad spectrum of disorders of heart rate and rhythm abnormalities. Arrhythmia is broadly categorized into bradyarrhythmias and t ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arterial Gas Embolism Arterial gas embolism is a rare, life-threatening entity, which requires prompt recognition and early intervention. Failure to diagnose, and initiate ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arterial Lines Arterial catheterization is a procedure that is common to the intensive care and the operating room settings. It involves placement of a catheter into ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arteriovenous Fistula Arteriovenous fistulas are abnormal connections between arteries and veins. AVFs can be surgically created, can occur as a result of a congenital or g ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arteriovenous Malformations Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are abnormal fistulas between arteries and veins without an intervening capillary bed. High arterial flow directly ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Artery Cannulation Arterial cannulation is a procedure frequently performed in acute and critical care settings. It serves as an invasive means to more accurately measur ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arthritis Arthritis is defined as an acute or chronic joint inflammation in the joint. Arthritis may attribute to a wide variety of symptoms that include pain, ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arthrocentesis Arthrocentesis is a procedure that is performed to obtain synovial fluid from within a joint capsule, both for diagnostic and for therapeutic purposes ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ascariasis Ascaris lumbricoides, the causative agent of ascariasis, is the most common parasitic worm in humans. Ascariasis can be asymptomatic causing only maln ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aseptic Meningitis Aseptic meningitis is an umbrella term for all of the causes of inflammation of the brain meninges that have negative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) bacter ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aspart Insulin Insulin aspart is a rapid-acting, human insulin analog that is FDA approved for the treatment of type-1 and type-2 diabetes mellitus to improve glycem ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Asperger Syndrome Do not edit. Saved in progress JH Asperger syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder within the large family of autism spectrum disorder. It is charac ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aspiration Pneumonia The infectious pulmonary process that occurs after abnormal entry of fluids into the lower respiratory tract is termed aspiration pneumonia. The aspir ... Read the Article 1.25 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Asplenia Asplenia means the absence of a spleen. Asplenia can occur in a variety of clinical settings, and it can refer to an anatomic absence of the spleen or ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Astereognosis Astereognosis is the inability to identify objects by feel only, in the absence of input from the visual system. It may also be defined as the impairm ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Asthma Asthma is a chronic disease of the air passages characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways. Symptoms of asthma include shortness of br ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Asthma Anesthesia Asthma is characterized by variable and often reversible airway obstruction with bronchial hyperreactivity. An estimated 8.4% of people in the US have ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Asthma Medication in Children Asthma typically presents with a history of respiratory symptoms such as wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness and cough, and is characterize ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Asthma Medications Asthma is a wide-reaching, chronic, inflammatory illness that impacts millions of people daily. It is frequently responsible for unscheduled healthcar ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Asymmetric Periflexural Exanthem In Childhood Asymmetric Periflexural Exanthem (APEC) is a distinctive and a self-limited exanthem which classically affects children and less frequently adults. Th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ataxia Ataxia is a neurological sign that manifests in a lack of coordination in the movement of different muscles in the body. It is a clinical finding and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ataxia Telangiectasia Ataxia telangiectasia (Louis-Bar Syndrome) is a rare autosomal recessive condition characterized by cutaneous telangiectasias, cerebellar atrophy with ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atelectasis The word "atelectasis" is Greek in origin; It is a combination of the Greek words atelez (Ateles) and ektasiz (ektasis) meaning "imperfect" and "expan ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Athetoid Cerebral Palsy Athetoid cerebral palsy, also known as dyskinetic cerebral palsy, is the second most common subtype of cerebral palsy. It is a non-progressive, perman ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atlantoaxial Instability The atlantoaxial segment consists of the atlas (C1) and axis (C2) and forms a complex transitional structure bridging the occiput and cervical spine. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atomoxetine Atomoxetine is indicated for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children over the age of 6. Although atomo ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atopic Dermatitis Atopic dermatitis (AD), which is a specific form of eczema, is the most common chronic inflammatory skin disease. Atopic dermatitis has a complex etio ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atopy Atopy is a predisposition to an immune response against diverse antigens and allergens leading to CD4+ Th2 differentiation and overproduction of immun ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrial Myxoma Myxomas are the most common primary cardiac tumor. It is estimated that more than 75% of myxomas originate in the left atrium either at the mitral ann ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrial Septal Defect Atrial septal defect (ASD) is one of the most common types of congenital heart defects, occurring in about 25% of children. An atrial septal defect oc ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrioventricular Block Atrioventricular (AV) conduction is evaluated by assessing the relationship between the P waves and QRS complexes. Normally, there is a P wave that pr ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrioventricular Canal Defects Atrioventricular canal defects comprise a spectrum of defects such as exclusive ventricular or atrial defects, septal defects, atrioventricular anomal ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrioventricular Nodal Reentry Tachycardia Atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) is a type of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia that results due to the presence of a re-ent ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrioventricular Septal Defect The atrioventricular septal defect is a congenital cardiac malformation that is characterized by a variable degree of the atrial and ventricular septa ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atropine Atropine or atropine sulfate carries FDA indications for anti-sialagogue/anti-vagal effect, organophosphate/muscarinic poisoning, and bradycardia. Atr ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder The diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been surrounded by controversy over the last century. Over the past 30 years, how ... Read the Article 1.5 22 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atypical Bacterial Pneumonia Pneumonia is a lower respiratory tract infection, specifically involving the pulmonary parenchyma. Viruses, fungi and bacteria can cause pneumonia. Th ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atypical Mycobacterial Disease Atypical mycobacteria or nontuberculous mycobacteria are organisms that cause a variety of diseases such as skin and soft tissue infection, lymphadeni ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Auditory Hallucinations Auditory hallucinations are the sensory perceptions of hearing voices without an external stimulus. This symptom is particularly associated with schiz ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Auricular Hematoma An auricular hematoma is a collection of blood underneath the perichondrium of the ear and typically occurs secondary to trauma. Auricular deformity, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Autism Spectrum Disorder Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of rapidly growing disabilities. They are characterized by repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or ... Read the Article 1.75 26 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Auto-brewery Syndrome Auto-brewery syndrome or gut fermentation syndrome is a condition in which ethanol is produced through endogenous fermentation by fungi or bacteria in ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Autoimmune And Chronic Neutropenia Neutropenia is a decreased number of neutrophils less than 1500/microliter and can be idiopathic, congenital, autoimmune, and cyclic types. Those last ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Autonomic Dysreflexia Autonomic dysreflexia is a condition that emerges after a spinal cord injury, usually when the injury has occurred above the T6 level. The higher the ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Avascular Necrosis Osteonecrosis is a degenerative bone condition characterized by death of cellular components of bone secondary to an interruption of the subchondral b ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Avian Influenza Avian influenza is a deadly disease caused by infection from an influenza virus native to birds. While often not fatal in birds, it can carry a high m ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Avulsed Tooth Dentoalveolar trauma are injuries caused by an external impact on the teeth, palate, mandible, maxilla, and gums. These injuries can result in anythin ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Avulsion Fractures Avulsion fractures can happen anywhere in the body where soft tissue attaches to the bone. The failure of bone most commonly results from an acute eve ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Axenfeld-Rieger Syndrome Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome (ARS) was previously known as Axenfeld anomaly; the latter term was used to describe one of three subvariants of this spectru ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Azithromycin Azithromycin is an antibiotic medication used in the treatment and management of bacterial infections, including community-acquired pneumonia and sexu ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Babesiosis Babesiosis is an infection caused by the parasitic protozoa Babesia. This parasite is carried and transferred by ticks and primarily infects erythrocy ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Babinski Reflex The Babinski reflex was described by the neurologist Joseph Babinski in 1899. Since that time, it has been incorporated into the standard neurological ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Baby Bottle Syndrome Baby bottle syndrome, now known as early childhood caries (ECC), is defined as the presence of 1 or more decayed teeth or missing teeth (resulting fro ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacillus Calmette Guerin Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is the live attenuated vaccine form of Mycobacterium bovis used to prevent tuberculosis and other mycobacterial infecti ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacitracin Topical Bacitracin is a topical antibiotic ointment widely used by both medical professionals and the general public to treat minor skin injuries including cu ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Back Pain Back pain is one of the most common causes for patients to seek emergency care. It has a broad range of potential etiologies for both adult and pediat ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacterial Conjunctivitis Conjunctivitis, also informally known as "pink eye," makes up the majority of ophthalmologic disorders seen at primary care clinics. Patients present ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacterial Diarrhea Diarrhea consists of the passage of watery and loose stools multiple times a day (usually more than 3), though specific definitions may vary when appl ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacterial Endophthalmitis The word "endophthalmitis" can be broken down in greek to "interior-eye-inflammation" and is used to describe an infection of the vitreous or the aque ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacterial Gastroenteritis Gastroenteritis is a diarrheal disease characterized by an increase in bowel movement frequency with or without fever, vomiting, and abdominal pain. T ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacterial Meningitis Bacterial meningitis is an infection of the meninges that results in inflammation. It is a serious and life-threatening condition that requires prompt ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacterial Pharyngitis Pharyngitis, more commonly described as sore throat, represents inflammation or irritation of the posterior oropharynx. While the majority of cases ar ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacterial Pneumonia The word "pneumonia" originates from the ancient Greek word "pneumon," which means "lung," so the word "pneumonia" becomes "lung disease." Medically i ... Read the Article 1.75 26 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacterial Sepsis Bacterial sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to an infection injures its tissues and organs. Sepsis is caused ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacterial Tracheitis Bacterial tracheitis, also known as bacterial croup, acute laryngotracheobronchitis, or membranous croup, is a potentially lethal infection of the sub ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacterial Vaginosis Bacterial vaginosis is a condition caused by an overgrowth of normal vaginal flora. Most commonly, this presents clinically with increased vaginal dis ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bag Mask Ventilation Bag valve mask ventilation is a difficult skill to master. This activity explains how to improve this skill. This activity describes the technique of ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Balanoposthitis Balanoposthitis is a common disease process involving the glans penis and prepuce. It affects up to 12% to 20% of pediatric and adult males. This acti ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Balloon Valvuloplasty Balloon valvuloplasty is a cardiac intervention to open up a stenotic or stiffed heart valves (e.g., aortic or mitral) using a catheter with a balloon ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bancroftian Filariasis Bancroftian filariasis is a leading cause of disability worldwide and a significant public health problem. The chronic sequelae of the disease are cri ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Barbiturate Toxicity Barbiturates are a class of sedative-hypnotic drugs. They are commonly used as antiepileptics (phenobarbital) and for the induction of general anesthe ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Barotrauma And Mechanical Ventilation Pulmonary barotrauma is a potentially life-threatening complication in patients on mechanical ventilation. It is important to recognize and quickly ac ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bartonellosis Bartonellosis is the term used to describe any infectious disease produced by the bacteria Bartonella. These include trench fever, Oroya fever, Carrio ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bartter Syndrome Bartter syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder of salt reabsorption resulting in extracellular fluid volume depletion with low/normal blood press ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Basilar Migraine A migraine with predominant brainstem aura symptoms is known as a basilar migraine. Bickerstaff first described it in 1961. Other names for it are bas ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Basilar Skull Fractures Basilar skull fractures, usually caused by substantial blunt force trauma, involve at least one of the bones that compose the base of the skull. Basil ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Battle Sign Battle Sign is bruising over the mastoid process that is typically the result of head trauma. Battle sign typically requires significant head trauma a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Becker Melanosis Becker melanosis (Becker's Nevus) (BM) is a form of acquired hyperpigmentation. This condition was described by S. William Becker as "concurrent melan ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Becker Muscular Dystrophy Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) is an X-linked recessive disorder due to mutation in the Dystrophin gene that results in progressive muscle degenerati ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Beckwith Wiedemann Syndrome Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome is the most common overgrowth syndrome. It is a genetic imprinting disorder, and it can present as a wide and varied clini ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bedbug Bites There are as many as 90 species of "bugs" (bed bugs are true bugs with specialized elongated mouthparts) within the family Cimicidae; however, few bit ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Behavior Modification Behavior modification is a psychotherapeutic intervention primarily used to eliminate or reduce maladaptive behavior in children or adults. While some ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Behcet Disease Behcet disease, also known as an oculo-orogenital syndrome, is a chronic remitting and relapsing inflammatory disorder characterized by recurrent oral ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bell Palsy Bell palsy is the most common peripheral paralysis of the seventh cranial nerve with an onset that is rapid and unilateral. This is an idiopathic cond ... Read the Article 1.25 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Benazepril Benazepril is a drug used in the management of hypertension. It is in the ACE inhibitor class of medications. This activity outlines the indications, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Benign Occipital Seizure Benign occipital seizures are classified as an occipital onset epilepsy syndrome, which occurs in children with normal developmental milestones, norma ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Benzodiazepine Toxicity Since the 1960s, with the development of chlordiazepoxide (Librium) and shortly thereafter diazepam (Valium), benzodiazepines quickly became mainstrea ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Benzoyl Peroxide Benzoyl peroxide is an over-the-counter topical medication and is also an FDA-approved prescription medication for the treatment of acne vulgaris. It ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Berger Disease Berger disease is a common cause of primary glomerulonephritis and it involves the deposition of IgA in the glomerular mesangium. It is a cause of pro ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bernard Soulier Syndrome Bernard-Soulier syndrome is a rare inherited blood clotting disorder that is characterized by unusually giant platelet cells, thrombocytopenia, and pr ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Beta 2 Agonists Beta-2 adrenergic receptor agonists are a class of medications used in the frontline management and treatment of bronchial asthma and COPD. This activ ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Beta Lactamase Inhibitors Beta-lactamase inhibitors are drugs that are co-administered with beta-lactam antibiotics to prevent antibiotic resistance by inhibiting serine beta-l ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Beta Thalassemia Thalassemias are a common cause of microcytic anemia and are due to impaired synthesis of the globin protein component of hemoglobin. Beta-thalassemia ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Beta-Blocker Toxicity Beta-blockers antagonize beta-adrenergic receptors and are used mainly in the treatment of hypertension, heart failure, tachydysrhythmias, and angina ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biceps Tendon Rupture The biceps tendon consists of 2 heads originating from the coracoid process (short head) and supraglenoid tubercle of the scapula (long head). The ten ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biceps Tendon Rupture of the Lower Limb Rupture of the biceps femoris tendon can be treated conservatively or surgically, depending on the severity of the tendon retraction. Most of the pati ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bicuspid Aortic Valve A bicuspid aortic valve is a common congenital heart defect in which the bicuspid aortic valve contains two cusps instead of the usual three. This lea ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bilateral Vocal Cord Paralysis Vocal cord paralysis refers to the immobility of a vocal cord, which can be due to pathology of the vocal ford (also known as the vocal fold) itself, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biliary Atresia Biliary atresia is a disease of the intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts with an unknown etiology. It presents in neonates with jaundice, clay colo ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bilirubinuria Bilirubinuria is the presence of bilirubin in the urine, usually detected while performing a routine urine dipstick test. Its presence is abnormal and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biologic Warfare Agent Toxicity Biological warfare agents include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and biological toxins. Some agents are frequently lethal while others are intended to caus ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biotin Biotin is an alternative medication used in the management and treatment of pathological hair conditions. It is in the vitamin class of drugs. This ac ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biotin Deficiency Biotin is a B-complex vitamin that serves as an essential coenzyme for five carboxylases: pyruvate carboxylase, 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase, prop ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biotinidase Deficiency Biotin acts as a coenzyme for four carboxylation enzymes in the body: 3-methylcrontonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCC), pyruvate carboxylase (PC), acetyl-CoA c ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Birth Asphyxia Perinatal asphyxia is a lack of blood flow or gas exchange to or from the fetus in the period immediately before, during, or after the birth process. ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Birth Trauma This activity reviews common birth-related injuries. The mechanism of injury, clinical features, and management of various birth-related traumatic eve ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bisacodyl Bisacodyl is a medication used in the management and treatment of chronic or functional constipation. This activity outlines the indications, action, ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Black Piedra Piedra is a superficial fungal infection of hair shafts, which presents with small nodules stuck-on to the shaft. Black piedra, caused by Piedraia hor ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bladder Exstrophy Bladder exstrophy is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by a spectrum of anomalies involving the ventral body wall, urinary tract, genitalia, bon ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bladder Stones Bladder stones are solid calculi that are primarily found in the urinary bladder. While often calcified, they may also be composed of non-calcific mat ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bleach Toxicity Bleach refers to a large class of compounds used to whiten or color-lighten materials. They are frequently used for cleaning and disinfection; bleache ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bleeding Disorders Hereditary bleeding disorders occur due to the absence or deficiency of specific clotting proteins. The three most common hereditary bleeding disorder ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blepharitis Blepharitis is an ophthalmologic condition where there is inflammation of the eyelid margins. The diagnosis is clinical and based on irritation of the ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blepharochalasis Syndrome Blepharochalasis syndrome is a rare disease of unknown etiology. It is characterized by an active stage of recurrent episodes of upper lid swelling, f ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blistering Distal Dactylitis Blistering distal dactylitis (BDD) is a bacterial infection of the fingers presenting as multiple fluid-filled lesions. This condition is common in ch ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bloom Syndrome Bloom syndrome, also called Bloom-Torre-Machacek syndrome or congenital telangiectatic erythema, is a rare autosomal recessive inherited disorder char ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blount Disease Blount disease is a pediatric genu varum deformity. Infantile and adolescent forms are two types because of their variable presentation. Surgical trea ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blue Nevus Blue nevi are melanotic dermal lesions that commonly presents as a blue nodule on the scalp, extremities, sacrococcygeal region, or buttocks. Its char ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus Syndrome Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome is also known as Bean syndrome. It is a rare syndrome of venous malformations that arise in the skin and gastrointesti ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blunt Abdominal Trauma Abdominal trauma caused by blunt force is a common presentation in the emergency room seen in adults and children. The chief cause of blunt abdominal ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blunt Eye Trauma Blunt injury to the eye can lead to various intrinsic eye injuries. Globe rupture and retrobulbar hematoma are two emergent entities that are of impor ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blunt Force Trauma Trauma is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients under 35-years of age and the sixth leading cause of death worldwide. The majority ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blunt Head Trauma Traumatic Brain Injury is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States, with an annual occurrence of more than 1.5 million. Fal ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bochdalek Hernia Bochdalek hernia is a developmental defect in the posterolateral diaphragm, allowing herniation of abdominal contents into the thorax causing mechanic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Body Dysmorphic Disorder Body dysmorphic disorder, or BDD, formally known as dysmorphophobia, is a psychiatric condition defined in the DSM 5 as a preoccupation with a perceiv ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Body Image Distortion Body image is a complex construct. Body image distortion and body dissatisfaction are common in both clinical and nonclinical populations. Distortions ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Body Piercing Infections Body piercings have become increasingly popular and are a socially acceptable form of body modification. Common site of piercings are the ears, mouth, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bone Age Bone age assessment can be of utmost importance in various complicated situations involving medical, surgical, forensic, and legal issues. Apart from ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bone Cyst A simple bone cyst is a solitary, benign, fluid-filled, cyst that may be a single chamber or septated. The most common sites are the proximal humerus ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bone Marrow Aspiration And Biopsy Bone marrow aspiration and biopsies are often performed both in the inpatient and outpatient settings for the diagnosis of a multitude of hematologic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bone Marrow Failure Bone marrow failure (BMF) refers to the decreased production of one or more major hematopoietic lineages which leads to diminished or absent hematopoi ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bone Marrow Transplantation In Sickle Cell Disease Since the Sickle Cell Anemia Act, there has been progress in the screening and treatment of sickle cell disease. For instance, in most parts of the Un ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Borrelia Burgdorferi Borrelia burgdorferi is a pathogenic spirochete responsible for Lyme disease via a tick vector. This spirochete causes a characteristic annular rash, ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Botfly Bot fly is a term referring to any member of the Oestridae family of flies. To reproduce, these flies rely on myiasis, the infestation of host skin fo ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Botulism Botulism is a rare, potentially fatal syndrome of diffuse, flaccid paralysis caused by botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) which is elaborated by the bacteriu ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Botulism Antitoxin Botulinum antitoxin, also known as botulism antitoxin, is comprised of antibodies or antibody antigen-binding fragments that block the neurotoxin prod ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bowel Adhesions Bowel adhesions are irregular bands of scar tissue that form between bowel loops, which are normally not bound together. The bands of tissue can devel ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bowel Obstruction A bowel obstruction can either be a mechanical or functional obstruction of the small or large intestines. Obstruction frequently causes abdominal pai ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bowel Perforation Bowel perforation results from insult or injury to the mucosa of the bowel wall caused due to a violation of the closed system. Bowel perforation can ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brain Abscess Brain abscess is a localized zone of necrosis with a surrounding membrane within the brain parenchyma, usually resulting from an infectious or traumat ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brain Cavernous Angiomas Cavernous angiomas, also referred to as cavernous malformations (CMs), cavernous hemangiomas, or cavernomas are benign intracranial vascular malformat ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brain Death Brain death is both a legal and clinical term. The term has been present in medical literature and texts for many years as part of the National Confer ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brain Herniation Brain herniation, also called brain code, requires early diagnosis and prompt management in order to prevent irreversible pathological cascades that e ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brain Trauma Brain trauma or traumatic brain injury (TBI) results from a blow, bump, jolt, or penetrating injury to the head that disrupts the normal function of t ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Branchial Cleft Cyst Branchial cleft cysts, also known as branchial cleft anomalies, are congenital anomalies arising from the first through fourth pharyngeal pouches. The ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Branchial Cleft Cysts Branchial cleft cysts are congenital epithelial cysts that comprise approximately one-third of congenital neck masses. They are benign lesions and can ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Milk Jaundice Breast milk jaundice is a type of jaundice that occurs in neonates due to breastfeeding. It happens within the first week of life due to the abnormal ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breath Holding Spells Breath holding spells might be a frightening experience for children and consequently for their parents. Breath holding spells may occur in children w ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brief Psychotic Disorder Brief psychotic disorder (BPD) according to DSM-5 is the sudden onset of psychotic behavior that lasts less than 1 month followed by complete remissio ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brief Resolved Unexplained Event In 2016, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommended replacing the term apparent life-threatening event (ALTE) with brief resolved unexplained even ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bronchial Atresia Congenital bronchial atresia is a rare condition characterized by focal obliteration of a proximal segment of a bronchus. The apicoposterior segmental ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bronchiolitis Bronchiolitis is a common lung infection in young individuals. The viral infection involves the lower respiratory tract and can present with signs of ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bronchogenic Cyst Bronchogenic cysts are foregut-derived cystic malformations of the respiratory tract. They are usually located within the mediastinum at an early stag ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. Despite significant advances in preterm inf ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brucellosis Brucellosis is an infectious disease caused by Brucella species. It is known by many other names, including remitting fever, undulant fever, Mediterra ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brugada Syndrome Brugada syndrome is a rare but potentially life-threatening inherited disease that predisposes patients to fatal cardiac arrhythmias. The syndrome is ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bruton Agammaglobulinemia Bruton agammaglobulinemia, also known as X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) or Bruton's agammaglobulinemia, is an inherited immunodeficiency disorder. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Budesonide Budesonide is a medication used in the management and treatment of the inflammatory diseases, mainly affecting the airways and gastrointestinal tract. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bulimia Nervosa Bulimia nervosa is a disorder that is characterized by binge eating and inappropriate compensatory behavior to control weight with potentially dangero ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bullosis Diabeticorum Bullosis diabeticorum (BD), also known as diabetic bullae or bullous eruption of diabetes mellitus, is a specific type of skin lesion occurring in pat ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bullous Myringitis Bullous myringitis (BM) is a relatively common infectious condition characterized by bullae or vesicles on the tympanic membrane without affecting the ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bullous Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Bullous systemic lupus erythematosus (BSLE) is a rare manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus. It has clinical and histological features that ma ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bullying Bullying is common in our society and has become a public health emergency. It is a form of repeated peer aggression which is intentional and involves ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Burkitt Lymphoma Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is an aggressive non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma. The disease is associated with Epstein Barr virus (EBV), human immunodeficiency vi ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Burn Evaluation And Management Burns are injuries of the skin involving the two layers: the thin, outer epidermis and the thicker, deeper dermis. 86% of burns are caused by thermal ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Burn Fluid Management In the United States, approximately 500,000 people seek care for burn injuries each year. For civilians, these injuries are typically sustained in hou ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Burn Resuscitation And Management Severe burns cause not only significant injury at the local burn site but also a systemic response throughout the body. Inflammatory and vasoactive m ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
C 17 Hydroxylase Deficiency Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) covers a group of autosomal recessive disorders caused by a deficiency of one of the enzymes required for the ste ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
C1 Esterase Inhibitor Deficiency C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency, also known as hereditary angioedema, results in the unchecked production of the vasodilator bradykinin. This increas ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
C1 Fractures The craniocervical junction is comprised of C1 (atlas) and C2 (axis). The occipito-atlantal and atlantoaxial articulations provide 50% of the flexion ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cadmium Toxicity Cadmium is a heavy metal that causes direct harm to humans in several forms. It is regularly found with other heavy metals such as zinc, copper, and ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cafe Au Lait Macules Cafe-au-lait macules (CALMs) are common pigmented lesions found in the general population. They can be described as well-circumscribed, pigmented macu ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Caffeine Toxicity Caffeine is a stimulant that has been utilized globally for centuries secondary to its ability to improve mental alertness. As many as 85% of American ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Caffeine Withdrawal Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class and is one of the most widely used drugs in the world. Unlike other p ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Calcifying Epithelioma of Malherbe A pilomatrixoma, or calcifying epithelioma of Malherbe, is a benign tumor of the hair follicle matrix that exclusively occurs in heat-bearing areas. T ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Calcineurin Inhibitors Calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) are composed of three drugs (cyclosporine, tacrolimus, and pimecrolimus). They are primarily used as immunosuppressive dr ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Campylobacter Campylobacter is a bacterial species that represent one of the most common causes of diarrheal illness worldwide. This infection is associated with th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Canalicular Laceration Canalicular lacerations occur in people of all age groups, with causes ranging from fistfights to dog bites. In order to avoid the high morbidity asso ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Canavan Disease Canavan disease, also called Canavan-Van Bogaert-Bertrand disease, is a rare, progressive, and fatal neurological hereditary disorder that begins in i ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cancer Chemotherapy Chemotherapy in cancer has merged the disease course from a terminal and catastrophic result in merely all cases to a treatable and sometimes curable ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Candida Auris Candida auris is an emerging fungal pathogen that is associated with nosocomial infections and is considered a serious global health threat. It has nu ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Candidiasis Candidiasis is an opportunistic infection due to Candida, which can affect the oral cavity, vagina, penis, or other parts of the body. Untreated Candi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cannabidiol (CBD) CBD is a medication used in the management and treatment of the seizure disorders Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome. This activity describes ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cannabinoid Toxicity Cannabinoids are a collective group of compounds that act on cannabinoid receptors. They include plant-derived phytocannabinoids, synthetic cannabinoi ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cannabis Use Disorder Cannabis use can cause intoxication, withdrawal, and biopsychosocial issues. This activity describes the evaluation and management of cannabis use dis ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cannaboinoid Antiemetic Therapy There are currently three cannabinoids available on the pharmaceutical market. Dronabinol and nabilone are both synthetic tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Capillary Infantile Hemangiomas Capillary hemangiomas (infantile hemangiomas, juvenile hemangiomas, hemangioblastomas or strawberry nevi of infancy), are common benign orbital neopla ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carbamazepine Toxicity Carbamazepine is a commonly prescribed agent for focal epilepsy and other nonepileptic conditions such as neuropathic pain, schizophrenia, and bipolar ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carbapenem Resistant Enterobacteriacea Gram-negative bacterial resistance to antibiotics has decreased the physician’s ability to combat infection. Carbapenems are the most potent beta-lact ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carbon Monoxide Toxicity Carbon monoxide toxicity occurs after breathing in excessive levels of carbon monoxide. This is a tasteless, odorless, and colorless gas and victims a ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carbon Tetrachloride Toxicity Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is an important agent for multiple purposes, such as cleaning purposes, industrial agents, etc. But it can cause several a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carboxyhemoglobin Toxicity Carbon monoxide is a tasteless, odorless, colorless, and non-irritating gas formed with the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons (fossil fuels). It i ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Arrest As defined by the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology, "(sudden) cardiac arrest is the sudden cessation of cardiac activ ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Fibroma Cardiac fibromas are the second most common primary cardiac tumor after rhabdomyoma in children. They are primarily composed of connective tissue and ... Read the Article 0.75 2 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Rhabdomyoma Cardiac rhabdomyoma is a rare tumor. It arises from the striated muscles. It is a type of hamartoma seen in the pediatric age group. Although mostly a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Tamponade Cardiac tamponade is a medical emergency that takes place when abnormal amounts of fluid accumulate in the pericardial sac compressing the heart and l ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardioactive Steroid Toxicity Cardioactive steroids (CAS) are medically important compounds historically used for conditions like edema and "dropsy." They are available in several ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiomegaly Cardiomegaly is an umbrella designation for a variety of conditions leading to enlargement of the heart which usually remains undiagnosed until the sy ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiopulmonary Arrest In Children Unlike in adults, cardiopulmonary arrest in rare in children and less likely to be a primary cardiac event. Early onset of effective, high-quality CPR ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiopulmonary Fitness Cardiopulmonary fitness testing is a durable and versatile tool that provides valuable diagnostic and prognostic information regarding patients with c ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) comprises a group of interventions performed to provide oxygenation and circulation to the body during cardiac arr ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carnitine Deficiency Carnitine deficiency is a condition characterized by low carnitine levels in the body. Carnitine deficiency could be primary (due to defect in carniti ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotenemia First described in 1919 by Hess and Meyers, carotenemia is the medical terminology describing yellow-orange skin pigmentation due to high levels of ca ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotid Artery Dissection Carotid artery dissection is a condition whereby the layers of the carotid artery are spontaneously separated. This potentially compromises blood flow ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotid Bruit A carotid bruit is a vascular sound usually heard with a stethoscope over the carotid artery because of turbulent, non-laminar blood flow through a st ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotid Cavernous Fistula Carotid cavernous fistula (CCF) is an abnormal shunt from the carotid artery to the cavernous sinus. The symptomatology of CCFs is mainly a result of ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cat Scratch Disease Cat scratch disease is an illness caused by an intracellular gram-negative rod known as Bartonella henselae. It affects the lymph nodes draining the a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cataplexy Cataplexy, a physical feature of narcolepsy, is characterized by transient episodes of voluntary muscle weakness precipitated by intense emotion. Subj ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cataract A cataract is a disease of the eye in which the normally clear lens has opacified which obscures the passage of light. It is a gradually progressive d ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cataract Surgery Cataracts are the world’s leading cause of remediable blindness. While some cataracts, may be congenital, secondary to trauma, or drug-induced, most c ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Catatonia Catatonia, a neuropsychiatric syndrome characterized by abnormal movements, behaviors, and withdrawal, is a condition that is most often seen in mood ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Catatonic Schizophrenia Catatonic schizophrenia is one of the classical clinical subtypes of schizophrenia. The concept of catatonic symptoms in schizophrenia has changed thr ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Caterpillar and Moth Bites “Lepidopterism” refers to various skin & systemic reactions secondary to contact with moth and butterfly larvae or caterpillars (order Lepidoptera). I ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Catheter Management Of Ventricular Septal Defect Traditionally, ventricular septal defects (VSDs) have been closed with an open approach, but since then, a percutaneous transcatheter closure has been ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Caudal Anesthesia A caudal block is a type of central neuraxial block, most commonly used in pediatrics to provide analgesia for surgeries up to the umbilicus, and in a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cauliflower Ear Cauliflower ear, also known as wrestler's ear or perichondrial hematoma, is a deformity caused by blunt trauma to the auricle. It occurs as blood accu ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Caustic Ingestions Caustic ingestion is the term given to describe the ingestion of an extremely toxic substance such as lye. Caustic ingestions are serious medical emer ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cavernous Hepatic Hemangiomas Hepatic hemangiomas are benign, hypervascular, venous malformations that occur in the liver. They are the most common benign mesenchymal tumors of the ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis Cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) is a rare, life-threatening disorder that can complicate facial infection, sinusitis, orbital cellulitis, pharyngitis ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cavernous Venous Malformation Cerebral cavernous malformations, also known as cavernomas or cavernous hemangiomas, are clusters of abnormal and hyalinized capillaries without inter ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cavum Septum Pellucidum The septum pellucidum (meaning translucent wall in Latin - SP), also known as the ventricle of Sylvius, is a thin, triangular double membrane separati ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cavum Veli Interpositi The velum interpositum (VI) is a membrane resulting from the superposition of two layers of the tela choroidea of the third ventricle demarcating a po ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Celiac Disease Celiac disease, also known as gluten-sensitive enteropathy, is an autoimmune disease of the small intestine. Celiac disease is a condition in which th ... Read the Article 1.5 24 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cellulitis Cellulitis is a common bacterial skin infection, with over 14 million cases occurring in the United States annually. This activity educates the learne ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Centipede Envenomation Centipede bites are uncommon but can be clinically significant in regards to patient discomfort, morbidity, and mortality. Prompt diagnosis and treat ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central and Peripheral Cyanosis Peripheral cyanosis is the bluish discoloration of the distal extremities (Hands, fingertips, toes), and can sometimes involve circumoral and periorbi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cephalohematoma A cephalohematoma is an accumulation of blood under the scalp. During the birth process, small blood vessels on the head of the fetus are broken as a ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cephalosporins Cephalosporins are beta-lactam antimicrobials used to manage a wide range of infections from gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The five genera ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebellar Dysfunction The cerebellum maintains our coordination and balance. Cerebellar dysfunction causes difficulty with coordination, imbalance, and gait disorders. Poss ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebral Edema The most basic definition of cerebral edema is swelling of the brain. It is a relatively common phenomenon with numerous etiologies. Cerebral edema c ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebral Palsy Cerebral palsy is a group of permanent disorders affecting the development of movement and causing a limitation of activity. Non-progressive disturban ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebral Salt Wasting Syndrome Cerebral salt wasting (CSW) is a potential cause of hyponatremia in the setting of disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Cerebral salt wasting ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebral Venous Thrombosis Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), which includes thrombosis of the cerebral veins and the dural sinuses, is a rare disorder that can lead to significa ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Disc Herniation Cervical disc herniation is a common cause of neck pain in adults. The severity of the disease can range from mild to severe, and even life-threatenin ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Disc Injuries The spinal cord is a nervous tissue bundle from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region, and the vertebral column protects it. The ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Ectropion Cervical ectropion is a benign gynecological condition and is regarded as a normal variant that frequently occurs in women of the reproductive age gro ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Cervical cancer incidence and mortality have decreased due primarily to screening programs using the pap smear. As more outcome data has become availa ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Subluxation Subluxation is an essential entity of traumatic subaxial cervical spinal injuries. There is a varying degree of slippage of the body of one vertebra r ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cetirizine Cetirizine is a medication used in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and urticaria. It is a second-generation antihistamine. This activity reviews th ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chagas Disease Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) is a zoonotic disease caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. This is a vector-borne illness spread by the ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chancroid Chancroid is an exceedingly rare sexually transmitted infection, both in the United States and globally. Knowledge regarding its true prevalence is ma ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Charcot Marie Tooth Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is the commonest inherited neuromuscular disorder. It affects the peripheral nerves and leads to progressive weaknes ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
CHARGE Syndrome CHARGE syndrome is an inherited disorder caused by a mutation in the DNA-binding protein-7 CHD7 gene. CHARGE syndrome is an acronym for coloboma, hear ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chediak Higashi Syndrome Chediak Higashi syndrome (CHS) is an autosomal recessive disorder that is characterized by easy bruising, oculocutaneous albinism and recurrent pyogen ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cheilitis Cheilitis is an inflammation of the lips. It may be acute or chronic, involving the vermilion and/or surrounding skin of one or both lips. It is a fre ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cheilitis Granulomatosa Cheilitis granulomatosa (CG) is a rare granulomatous disorder characterized by a recurrent firm swelling of one or both lips. This is called the cheil ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chemical Burns Healthcare professionals should be knowledgeable about chemical burns from exposure to acids (pH less than 7), alkalis (pH greater than 7), and irrita ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cherry Red Spot A cherry-red spot refers to a red-tinted region at the center of macula surrounded by retinal opacification. Cherry-red spots may be present in a vari ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chest Wall Deformities Chest wall deformities are a set of congenital diseases; these can manifest as; an isolated feature, with other congenital anomalies, or as part of a ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chiari I Malformation Arnold-Chiari 1 malformation, otherwise known as the Chiari 1 malformation, is the more common variant of the Chiari malformations, defined as a spect ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chiari II Malformation Chiari II malformation is a relatively common congenital malformation of the posterior fossa and the spine characterized by beaked midbrain, downward ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chigger Bites Chigger is the common name for species of the Trombiculid family of mites. Bites from the larva of these mites can cause local pruritus and irritation ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Child Abuse and Neglect The World Health Organization (WHO) defines child maltreatment as “all forms of physical and emotional ill-treatment, sexual abuse, neglect, and explo ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Child Intussusception Intussusception is a condition in which part of the intestine folds into the section next to it. Intussusception usually involves the small bowel and ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Child Physical Abuse And Neglect Approximately one in four children experience child abuse or neglect in their lifetime. Of maltreated children, 18 percent are abused physically, 78 p ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Child Sexual Abuse And Neglect Sexual abuse of children is the involvement of children or adolescents in sexual activities that he or she does not fully comprehend and can include e ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Child Syndrome Congenital hemidysplasia with ichthyosiform erythroderma and limb defects syndrome, also known as CHILD syndrome, is a rare condition that affects dif ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Childhood Brain Tumors Pediatric brain tumors are the most common type of solid childhood cancer and only second to leukemia as a cause of pediatric malignancies. They are c ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chlamydia Chlamydia trachomatis is responsible for the greatest number of sexually transmitted infections and the majority of infection-related of blindness wor ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chlamydia Pneumonia Three species of Chlamydia namely, C. pneumoniae, C. psittaci, and C. trachomatis are known to cause respiratory infections in humans. They are one of ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chloramphenicol Chloramphenicol is a medication used in the management and treatment of superficial eye infections such as bacterial conjunctivitis, and otitis extern ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chloroquine Chloroquine is a medication used in the management and treatment of malaria and inflammatory diseases. It is in the sulfonamides class of drugs. This ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chloroquine And Hydroxychloroquine Toxicity Chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine, a less toxic metabolite of chloroquine, can cause pathologic ocular damage unless strict prescribing and screening ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Choanal Atresia The nasal choanae are paired openings that connect the nasal cavity with the nasopharynx. Choanal atresia is a congenital condition in which these ope ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Choking Choking or foreign body airway obstruction occurs when an object partially or completely obstructs the passage of air exchange between the upper airwa ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Choledochal Cyst A choledochal cyst (CC) or biliary cyst is a congenital or acquired anomaly affecting the biliary tree. It involves the dilation of the biliary tree t ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cholera Cholera is an acute secretory diarrheal illness caused by the bacteria Vibrio cholerae. It is estimated to cause upwards of four million cases per yea ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cholestatic Jaundice Cholestasis is defined as stagnation, or at least a marked reduction, in bile secretion and flow. Cholestasis can be due to a functional impairment of ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cholinergic Crisis A cholinergic crisis develops as a result of overstimulation of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors at the neuromuscular junctions. This is usually sec ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chondroblastoma Chondroblastoma is a benign, chondroid-producing neoplasm composed of chondroblasts. It accounts for less than 1% of all bone tumors and usually arise ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chordoma A chordoma is a low-grade, slow-growing but locally invasive and locally aggressive tumor that is a type of sarcoma. Chordomas arise from remnants of ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chorioamnionitis Chorioamnionitis is an infection that can occur before labor, during labor, or after delivery. It can be acute, subacute, or chronic. Chorioamnionitis ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chorioretinitis Chorioretinitis is a type of uveitis affecting the posterior segment of the eye. It is a vision-threatening condition that is associated with many sys ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Choroid Plexus Papilloma Choroid plexus papillomas (CPPs) are rare central nervous system tumors. They may be seen at any age, but are more common in infants. Their site of oc ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chromhidrosis Chromhidrosis is a rare condition with a characteristic presentation of the secretion of colored sweat. This condition can further subdivide into apoc ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chromosome Instability Syndromes Chromosomal instability syndromes are a group of inherited disorders associated with chromosomal instability and breakage either spontaneously or in r ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Aspiration Chronic aspiration is a common condition that occurs in the elderly population, pediatric patients with certain neurological conditions, and chronical ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Cough Cough is a natural defense mechanism that allows clearance of bronchial tree secretions and the elimination of inhaled foreign particles. It is a comm ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Granulomatous Disease Chronic granulomatous diseases (CGD) are a group of recurrent life-threatening infections due to a hereditary defect in forming reactive oxygen specie ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Insomnia Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder in the United States affecting about one-third of the general population. According to the third edition of ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), BCR-ABL1-positive, is classified as a myeloproliferative neoplasm predominantly composed of proliferating granulocytes ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Sinusitis Chronic sinusitis is an inflammation of the sinus or nasal passages occurring for more than 12 weeks at a time. It may present as chronic sinusitis wi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Suppurative Otitis Chronic suppurative otitis media continues to be an important disease in the pediatric population and a significant cause of hearing problems leading ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Urticaria Chronic spontaneous urticaria is defined as the occurrence of wheals and/or angioedema for a total duration of six weeks or more. Synonymous with "chr ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chylous Ascites Chylous ascites (CA) is defined as a milky appearing, triglyceride-rich peritoneal fluid in the abdominal cavity. It is characterized by the accumulat ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ciguatera Toxicity Ciguatera toxicity is a food-borne illness caused by eating fish contaminated with Ciguatoxin. This toxin is a potent neurotoxin, and it is produced b ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ciliary Dysfunction The majority of newborns with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), formerly known as immotile cilia syndrome, develop neonatal respiratory distress with ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cinacalcet Cinacalcet is a medication used in the management and treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (on dialysis population), primary hyperparathyroidism ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cinchonism Cinchonism is a collection of symptoms described as hearing loss, tinnitus, dizziness, flushing, and blurry vision stemming from the ingestion of quin ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Circumcision Male circumcision is the surgical removal of the prepuce, or foreskin, that covers the glans of the penis. Over the past decades, cultural changes and ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cisatracurium Cisatracurium besylate is an intermediate-acting, non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking drug (NMBD). Cisatracurium has a benzylisoquinolinium struct ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cisplatin Cisplatin is a medication used in the management and treatment of solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. It is in the alkylating agent class of cy ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Claustrophobia Claustrophobia is the fear of enclosed spaces. There are about 12.5% of the population that have this fear, with the majority of them being females. T ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clavicle Fractures Fractures of the clavicle are quite common, accounting for up to 10% of all fractures. It is the most common fracture of childhood. A fall onto the la ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cleft Hand Cleft hand, otherwise referred to as ectrodactyly or colloquially as "split hand," is defined as a central longitudinal deficiency expressed as suppre ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cleft Lip Cleft lip deformity is one of the most common congenital deformities, and management requires an interprofessional approach to address the physical cl ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cleft Palate Cleft palate is a developmental defect in the hard palate that results in a communication between the oral and nasal cavities resulting in nasal reflu ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clinodactyly Clinodactyly is defined as a congenital curvature of a digit distal to the metacarpal phalangeal joint in the coronal plane. Curvatures with an angula ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cloacal Malformations Cloacal malformations are rare congenital anomalies characterized by a confluence of the gastrointestinal, genital, and urologic systems which exits t ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clobazam Clobazam was synthesized in the 1960s with a primary goal of providing greater efficacy with fewer benzodiazepine-related side effects. FDA indication ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clomipramine The only FDA approved use for clomipramine is for the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in ages 10 and older. For the treatment of OCD, ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clonazepam Clonazepam is a benzodiazepine drug used for the acute management of panic disorder, epilepsy, and non-convulsive status epilepticus. It also has many ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clonidine Toxicity Clonidine is a commonly prescribed biochemical derivative of imidazoline with a variety of clinical uses. It was originally developed as a nasal decon ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clonorchis Sinensis Clonorchis sinensis is also known as the Chinese liver fluke. These are most commonly found in Eastern Asia but are also commonly found in Russia. The ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clonus Clonus is a rhythmic oscillating stretch reflex that is related to upper motor neuron lesions. Therefore, clonus is generally accompanied by hyperrefl ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Closed Head Trauma Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an injury to the brain from an external mechanical force. TBI can generally be classified as either closed or penetrat ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clozapine Clozapine is an FDA-approved atypical antipsychotic medication for treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Clozapine is not the first-line drug of choice d ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clubfoot Clubfoot is a congenital deformity of the foot, otherwise known as congenital talipes equinovarus. It is one of the most common congenital malformatio ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coarctation of the Aorta Coarctation of the aorta is a narrowing of the aorta, most commonly occurring just beyond the left subclavian artery. However, it can occur in various ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cocaine Cocaine hydrochloride topical solution contains 4% cocaine. It is not FDA-approved but allowed for only the following indications: topical anesthesia ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coccidioidomycosis The dimorphic fungus coccidioides causes coccidioidomycosis, also known as San Joaquin Valley fever, which is endemic to the arid regions of the Weste ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cochlear Implants A Cochlear Implant (CI) is a medical device that uses electricity to stimulate the spiral ganglion cells of the auditory nerve to restore sensorineura ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cockayne Syndrome Cockayne syndrome, first described in 1936 by Dr. Cockayne, is a rare genetic disorder, mainly characterized by growth disorders, intellectual deficit ... Read the Article 0.75 2 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coenzyme Q10 CoQ10 is not FDA-approved to treat any medical condition although it is widely available over-the-counter as a dietary supplement and recommended by p ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cognitive Behavior Therapy In the 1960s, Aaron Beck developed cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) or cognitive therapy. Since then, it has been extensively researched and found to ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Colchicine Colchicine has FDA approval for gout prophylaxis and treatment of acute gouty flares. It also has approval for the treatment of familial Mediterranean ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Colic Infant colic is estimated to affect 20% of all infants. Despite its prevalence, a clear cause for infantile colic remains elusive. There have been man ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Colitis Colitis is an increasingly common condition in which the mucosal lining of the colon becomes acutely or chronically inflamed. Patients with colitis ma ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Colles' Fracture This activity outlines the evaluation, treatment, and management of Colles fractures. Colles fractures are forearm injuries that require medical manag ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Common Variable Hypogammaglobulinemia Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common primary immunodeficiency which can present in a variety of clinical manifestations. It req ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Common Variable Immunodeficiency Common variable immunodeficiency is a disorder characterized by defective B cell function leading to impaired immunoglobulin production. It can presen ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Commotio Cordis Commotio cordis is ventricular fibrillation precipitated by blunt trauma to the heart. Although it is infrequent, it is an important cause of sudden ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Community-Acquired Pneumonia Community-acquired pneumonia is a leading cause of hospitalization, mortality, and incurs significant health care costs. As disease presentation varie ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Complement Deficiency The immune system is the body’s defense mechanism against infections and is made of two pathways - the innate and adaptive pathway. The innate pathway ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Complex Partial Seizure Complex partial seizures, also known as focal impaired awareness seizures or focal onset impaired awareness seizures, refers to focal seizures that st ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Concussion A concussion is a "traumatically induced transient disturbance of brain function." Concussions are a subset of the neurologic injuries known as trauma ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Conductive Hearing Loss Conductive hearing loss encompasses a wide range of pathologies that affect patients of all ages. It can be the result of a defect anywhere from the e ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an autosomal recessive disease emerging from mutations of genes for enzymes that lead to the production of glu ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection Primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in pregnancy is associated with the highest risk of trans-placental transmission. Universal screening for pre ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a condition resulting from the herniation of abdominal contents into the thoracic cavity resulting in lung hypoplas ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Hereditary Endothelial Dystrophy Congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy (CHED) presents as bilateral corneal opacification present at birth or in the immediate newborn period and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Herpes Simplex Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in newborn infants can show up as the following: Disseminated disease involving multiple organs, most prominentl ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Hypothyroidism Congenital hypothyroidism is one of the most common preventable causes of intellectual disability. This activity reviews the evaluation and treatment ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Lobar Emphysema Congenital lobar emphysema is a rare developmental anomaly of lungs that occurs mostly due to defective bronchial cartilages. It is diagnosed with a c ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Melanocytic Nevi Congenital melanocytic nevi are benign skin lesions that usually present at birth and vary from small to large in size. Larger lesions are rarer and h ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Muscular Dystrophy Congenital muscular dystrophy is one of the variants of muscle weakness disorders presenting early in life during infancy and soon after birth. The di ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Myotonic Dystrophy Congenital myotonic dystrophy (CMD) is an autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorder with multisystem involvement. It is a subtype of myotonic dystroph ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Nevus Congenital melanocytic nevi are pigmented lesions that are usually present a birth. They are generally benign, but a small percentage (especially the ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Pulmonary Airway Malformation Congenital pulmonary airway malformation is a congenital lung disease that can present from the prenatal period to childhood. Though rare overall, it ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Rubella Rubella, also known as German Measles, is a viral illness characterized by maculopapular rash, lymphadenopathy, and fever. It is a highly contagious b ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Smooth Muscle Hamartoma Congenital smooth muscle hamartoma is a benign proliferation of smooth muscle cells, organized in haphazardly-oriented bundles among the reticular der ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Syphilis Congenital syphilis (CS) is caused by transmission of the spirochete Treponema pallidum from mother to fetus, resulting in diverse clinical presentati ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Torticollis Torticollis, also known as a twisted neck, is the contraction or contracture of the muscles of the neck that causes the head to tilt to one side. It i ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic infection in humans and animals. Infection in healthy immunocompetent adults is asymptomatic in about 50% of the cases al ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Unilateral Lower Lip Palsy Congenital unilateral lower lip palsy is a congenital anomaly that is caused by agenesis or hypoplasia of depressor anguli oris muscle. Unilateral dep ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Conjoined Twins Conjoined twins refers to twins that are physically fused in utero and consequently at birth. This type of pregnancy is a complicated phenomenon that ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Conjugated Hyperbilirubinemia Conjugated hyperbilirubinemia is usually secondary to hepatocellular disease or cholestasis (intrahepatic and extra-hepatic ). Early workup and diagno ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Constipation Functional constipation is a prevalent condition in childhood, about 29.6% worldwide. In the United States, represents 3% to 5% of pediatric visits an ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Constitutional Growth Delay Short stature is defined as height at least two standard deviations below the age and sex-matched mean. Ideally, this should be matched to people of t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Constrictive Pericarditis The pericardium is the fibroelastic sac that covers the heart. Besides acting as a protective barrier, it also affects cardiac hemodynamics. Constrict ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a type of positive airway pressure that is used to deliver a set pressure to the airways that is maintai ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Conversion Disorder Conversion disorder is a psychiatric disorder characterized by signs and symptoms affecting sensory or motor function that are inconsistent with patte ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cooley Anemia Thalassemia major or Cooley anemia is one of the common monogenic hereditary hemoglobin disorders. It results from the absence of a beta-globin chain ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cooling Techniques For Hyperthermia Hyperthermia is defined as a body temperature greater than 40 C. Several conditions can cause hyperthermia. In sepsis, the immunologic reaction to the ... Read the Article 0.75 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Copper Toxicity Copper metabolism plays an important role in physiologic homeostasis. Copper toxicity, however, induces several pathologic processes that are detrimen ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coprolalia Coprolalia comes from the greek "kopros," which means "dung, feces" and "lalein," which means "to babble." It's a tic-like occurrence that involves no ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cor Triatriatum Cor triatriatum is a rare congenital heart defect in which a thin, fibromuscular membrane causes division of either the right or left atrium, resultin ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cornea Foreign Body Removal A corneal foreign body can be the cause of agonizing eye pain and loss of vision. This activity reviews the safe removal of a corneal foreign body and ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Corneal Abrasion A corneal abrasion (also called scratched eye or scratched cornea) is an eye injury that causes significant discomfort, photophobia, and erythema. Thi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cornelia de Lange Syndrome Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) was initially described in 1933. CdLS is a genetic disorder that affects many organs, leading to various clinical pr ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Arteriovenous Fistula Coronary arteriovenous fistula should be suspected in patients who present with unexplained heart failure, have continuous murmur on auscultation, and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Artery Anomalies With the increasing application of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) as the standard of care for patients with acute chest pain, health ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Artery Fistula Coronary artery fistulas are aberrant connections between coronary arteries and other structures, such as other branches of arteries or heart chambers ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Cameral Fistula Coronary cameral fistula is an abnormal communication existing between a coronary artery and any cardiac chamber. It appears in less than 1% of the po ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Corticosteroid Adverse Effects Corticosteroids are hormone mediators produced by the cortex of adrenal glands that further categorize into glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Corynebacterium Diphtheriae Pharyngitis is defined as the inflammation of pharyngeal tissue. Based on etiology, it can be divided into infectious and non-infectious sources. Vira ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cough Cough is one of the most common medical complaints accounting for as many as 30 million clinical visits per year. Up to 40% of these complaints result ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cow Milk Allergy Cow's milk allergy is an allergic reaction to the protein found in cow’s milk. Diagnosis can be difficult as it is primarily based on history and phys ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coxiella Burnetii Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q fever, which is a zoonotic disease. Q fever can present as a febrile illness, pneumonia, or hepatitis. I ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cradle Cap Cradle cap, or pityriasis capitis, is a subset of infantile seborrheic dermatitis (ISD). It is a very common, mostly self-limiting, chronic non-inflam ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Craniofacial Distraction Osteogenesis Craniofacial distraction osteogenesis is a technique to elongate the bones of the mandible, midface, and cranial vault. It is successful in treating a ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Craniosynostosis Craniosynostosis results from the premature closure of one or more sutures of the skull. Depending on the number of sutures involved, and the range of ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cri Du Chat Syndrome Cri du chat syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by a deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5. The name of the syndrome means the cry of the cat an ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Crigler Najjar Syndrome Crigler-Najjar syndrome is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder that leads to congenital non-hemolytic jaundice. Crigler-Najjar syndrome is cause ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Crigler Technique For Congenital Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction Congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction leading to epiphora is a common condition that may be seen in up to 20% of infants. The management ranges fro ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Crocodile Tears Syndrome The term “crocodile tears” is derived from the ancient belief that crocodiles weep after killing their victims. “crocodile tears syndrome,” also known ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Crohn Disease Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are two conditions commonly referred to as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). They are immunologically m ... Read the Article 2 34 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cromolyn Sodium Cromolyn sodium is a medication used in the management of bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, and certain allergic eye conditions such as vernal conj ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Crotalidae Envenomation Crotalid envenomations cause a spectrum of disease, with both localized and systemic toxicity, which can result in both prolonged morbidity and rarely ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Croup Croup is a common respiratory illness of the trachea, larynx, and bronchi that can lead to inspiratory stridor and barking cough. It is a self-limited ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Crouzon Syndrome Crouzon syndrome is a genetically inherited syndrome characterized by craniosynostosis (premature fusion of coronal sutures) resulting in the skull an ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cryptococcal Meningitis Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic infection that causes more than 100,000 HIV-related deaths each year. Although the infection is usually HIV-related ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cryptorchidism Cryptorchidism is the absence of at least one testicle from the scrotum. It is the most common birth defect involving the male genitalia. About 3% of ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cryptosporidiosis Cryptosporidium is the second major cause of moderate to severe diarrhea in children younger than two and an important cause of mortality worldwide. I ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Crystalloid Fluids Crystalloid fluids are a subset of intravenous solutions that find frequent use in the clinical setting. Crystalloid fluids are the first-line choice ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cubital Tunnel Syndrome Cubital tunnel syndrome is neuropathy of the ulnar nerve causing symptoms of numbness and shooting pain along the medial aspect of the forearm, also i ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cubitus Varus Malunion of supracondylar fractures often leads to cubitus varus, or "gunstock deformity." This condition is a triplanar malalignment of the elbow, ch ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cultural Competence in the Care of Muslim Patients and Their Families Delivering high-quality care to patients of the Muslim faith requires knowledge of the differences in cultural and spiritual values. Important differe ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cushing Disease Cushing disease is an endocrine disorder characterized by excessive production of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) by the anterior pituitary leading ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cushing Syndrome Cushing syndrome is caused by prolonged exposure to high circulating levels of cortisol. The most common cause of cushingoid features is iatrogenic co ... Read the Article 1.75 25 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cutaneous Angiofibroma Cutaneous angiofibroma is a term used to define a group of lesions with different clinical presentations but with the same histologic findings. Both ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cutaneous Larva Migrans Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM), also having been termed for the clinical sign of creeping eruption, is an infectious syndrome caused by multiple types ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cutis Laxa Cutis laxa (CL) is a group of rare diseases of connective tissue characterized by redundant skin with loss of elasticity and premature aging. Heritabl ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cutis Marmorata Telangiectatica Congenita Cutis marmorata telangiectatica (CMTC) is a rare, sporadic, congenital cutaneous vascular disorder of unknown etiology. CMTC usually presents at birth ... Read the Article 0.75 2 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cyanide Toxicity Cyanide is a rapidly acting substance that is traditionally known as a poison. Hydrogen cyanide was first isolated from Prussian blue dye in 1786 and ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cyanosis Cyanosis is characterized by a blueish discoloration of the skin or mucous membranes. Cyanosis is frequently encountered in clinical practice, and the ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cyanotic Heart Disease Congenital heart disease (CHD) are structural abnormalities of the heart or intrathoracic great vessels occurring during fetal development. CHD is the ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cyclic Neutropenia Cyclic neutropenia is a very rare hematological condition characterized by regular fluctuations in blood neutrophil counts, leading to periodic neutro ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome Cyclic vomiting syndrome is characterized by recurrent episodes of nausea and vomiting lasting from hours to days in the absence of identifiable patho ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cyclophosphamide Cyclophosphamide is a medication primarily used in the management and treatment of neoplasms, including multiple myeloma, sarcoma, and breast cancer. ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cyclosporine Cyclosporine is an immunosuppressive agent used to treat organ rejection post-transplant. It also has use in certain other autoimmune diseases, treatm ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cystic Fibrosis Until relatively modern times, cystic fibrosis was poorly understood. In 1949, Lowe et al. postulated that cystic fibrosis must be caused by a geneti ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cystic Fibrosis And Liver Disease Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive (AR) disorder that commonly affects the White population with an annual incidence of approximately 1 in ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cystic Fibrosis Related Diabetes Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes is an extrapulmonary complication of cystic fibrosis. Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes is the result of abnormal gluc ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cystic Hygroma Cystic hygromas are the most common subtype of lymphangiomas, presenting at birth and in early infancy. Enlargement of cystic hygromas is common, and ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cystic Kidney Disease Cystic kidney diseases are multisystemic disorders that can develop due to genetic or non-genetic causes in children and adults. These can be a seriou ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cystinuria Cystine stones are due to an inherited defect in the transport of the amino acid cystine leading to excessive excretion in the kidney causing cystinur ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cystitis Cystitis refers to infection of the lower urinary tract, or more specifically the urinary bladder. It may be broadly categorized as either uncomplicat ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cytomegalovirus Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a wide-spread virus, with manifestations ranging from asymptomatic to severe end-organ dysfunction in immunocompromised patie ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dacryoadenitis Dacryoadenitis refers to acute or chronic inflammation of the lacrimal gland and can be due to infectious, inflammatory, or idiopathic causes. Acute d ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dacryocystitis Dacryocystitis is characterized as an inflammatory state of the nasolacrimal sac. It is typically caused by an obstruction within the nasolacrimal duc ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dacryostenosis Dacryostenosis is an acquired or congenital condition that can cause epiphora but can progress to dacryocystitis in children and in adults. This activ ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dakin Solution Dakin solution, also called Dakin fluid or Carrel-Dakin fluid, is a dilute sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) solution that is commonly known as bleach. The ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dandy Walker Malformation Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM) or syndrome is a posterior fossa anomaly characterized by agenesis or hypoplasia of the vermis and cystic enlargement ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Danon Disease Danon disease is a rare X-linked dominant genetic disorder that manifests with the clinical triad of cardiomyopathy, skeletal myopathy, and intellectu ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dapsone Dapsone is indicated for a variety of conditions, both dermatologic and non-dermatologic. The FDA-approved indications are leprosy and dermatitis herp ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dawn Phenomenon The "dawn phenomenon" refers to periodic episodes of hyperglycemia experienced by patients with diabetes in the early morning hours before, and to som ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
De Quervain Thyroiditis In general, thyroiditis is defined as an inflammation of the thyroid gland. There are several kinds of thyroiditis, and they can be associated with ei ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Deadly Single Dose Agents Although the basics of evaluating and treating most unknown ingestants are well known, many overdoses require very specific treatment if the patient i ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Death and Dying Death is a part of natural life; however, society is notorious for being uncomfortable with death and dying as a topic on the whole. Many caregivers e ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Deep Neck Infections Deep neck infections are a serious but treatable group of infections affecting the deep cervical space and characterized by rapid progression and life ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Defense Mechanisms Anna Freud defined defense mechanisms as "unconscious resources used by the ego" to ultimately decrease internal stress. Patients often devise these u ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Deferoxamine Deferoxamine is a medication used in Iron and aluminum toxicity. It is in the chelator class of drugs. This activity reviews the indications, mechanis ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Delayed Hypersensitivity Reactions Coombs and Gel classified type IV hypersensitivity reaction (HR) as a delayed hypersensitivity reaction (DHR), which takes more than 12 hours to devel ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Delayed Puberty Delayed puberty not infrequently occurs in the pediatric population and a common reason for referral to a pediatric endocrinologist. While it is usual ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Delusions Of Parasitosis This activity reviews delusions of parasitosis, a rare psychiatric disorder. Communicating and evaluating patients with this condition can be complex ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dengue Fever Dengue is a mosquito-transmitted virus and the leading cause of arthropod-borne viral disease in the world. It is also known as breakbone fever due to ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dental Caries Dental caries is a common chronic infectious, transmissible disease resulting from tooth-adherent specific bacteria, primarily Streptococci Mutans th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dentatorubral Pallidoluysian Atrophy Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) is a progressive, autosomal dominant disorder with symptoms and severity that vary with the age of onset. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Depression Depression is a mood disorder that causes a persistent feeling of sadness and loss of interest. The American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic Stat ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Depression In Children Depressive disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM–5) include diagnoses of different disorders, for example, major ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dermal Melanocytosis This activity outlines the evaluation & management of congenital dermal melanocytosis (Mongolian spot). It explains the role of the interprofessional ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dermatitis Artefacta Dermatitis artefacta or factitious dermatitis is a psychocutaneous disorder in which the patients consciously create lesions in skin, hair, nail, or m ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dermatitis Herpetiformis Dermatitis herpetiformis is a chronic, autoimmune, blistering disease that causes an extremely pruritic rash that predominantly affects the extensor s ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dermatofibroma Dermatofibromas are referred to as benign fibrous histiocytomas of the skin, or superficial/cutaneous benign fibrous histiocytomas, or common fibrous ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dermatographism Dermatographism, also known as Dermographism urticaria, or urticaria factitia, is an urticarial eruption upon pressure or trauma to the skin. The lite ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Desmopressin Desmopressin is a drug which acts on the vasopressin receptors of the body. It has many relevant clinical uses, ranging from nocturnal enuresis to hem ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Development Milestones Developmental milestones are markers of a child’s development from infancy on into childhood. They are used to help determine if a child is undergoing ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Developmental Delay Delay in development occurs when the child fails to attain developmental milestones as compared to peers from the same population. It is caused by imp ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Developmental Dysplasia Of The Hip DDH (developmental dysplasia of the hip ) is a disorder that is due to abnormal development of acetabulum with or without hip dislocation. Early diagn ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Developmental Stages of Social Emotional Development In Children To apply knowledge regarding human growth and development, healthcare professionals need to be aware of 2 areas: (1) milestone competencies, for examp ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dextroamphetamine-Amphetamine Dextroamphetamine/amphetamine belongs to a class of drugs known as central nervous system stimulants. The Drug Enforcement Administration/Food and Dru ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dextrocardia Dextrocardia is a congenital condition in which the heart is located in the right side of the thorax. This activity reviews the evaluation and managem ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dextromethorphan Dextromethorphan received FDA approval in 1958 for its use as a cough suppressant. It is one of the most common compounds found in the majority of the ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetes Insipidus Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a disease process that results in either decreased release of or response to antidiuretic hormone (ADH, also known as vasop ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease of inadequate control of blood levels of glucose. It has many subclassifications, including type 1, type 2, maturi ... Read the Article 1.75 28 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease that leads to the destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. Insulin is an essen ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 In Children Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition that leads to the destruction of pancreatic beta cells which in turn causes insufficient insulin production ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetic Embryopathy Maternal diabetes has several adverse effects on embryogenesis and fetal development and causes multiple congenital anomalies, and secondary medical c ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diamond Blackfan Anemia Diamond Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a congenital type of anemia with pure red cell aplasia causing congenital bone abnormalities and most commonly presen ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diaper Dermatitis Diaper dermatitis is an inflammatory reaction of the skin of the perineal and perianal areas (diaper area). It is the most common skin disorder seen i ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diaphragm Eventration Diaphragm eventration is the permanent elevation of a hemidiaphragm and can be due to congenital or acquired causes. Diaphragm eventration can become ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diaphragmatic Hernia A diaphragmatic hernia (DH) is a protrusion of abdominal contents into the thoracic cavity as a result of a defect within the diaphragm. It is most co ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diarrhea Diarrhea is a common condition that varies in severity and etiology. The evaluation of diarrhea varies depending on duration, severity, and presence o ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diazepam Diazepam is a benzodiazepine medication that is FDA approved for the management of anxiety disorders, short-term relief of anxiety symptoms, spasticit ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diclofenac Diclofenac is a medication used in the management and treatment of inflammatory conditions and pain. It is in the class of non-steroidal anti-inflamma ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diet and Nutrition To Prevent Dental Problems Dental caries is a dynamic process that involves susceptible tooth surfaces, cariogenic bacteria like Streptococcus mutans or Lactobacillus and a ferm ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is an aggressive type of childhood cancer that forms in the brainstem. They are very rare and almost always oc ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
DiGeorge Syndrome DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is a congenital disorder with a broad phenotypic presentation, which results predominantly from the microdeletion of chromosom ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Digit Replantation The focus of replantation of any part of the upper extremity is maximizing functional outcome rather than simple survival of the amputated part. Funct ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Digital Nerve Block Digital nerve block is a simple procedure that can be performed to provide immediate anesthesia for a multitude of injuries and procedures, such as fr ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Digoxin Toxicity Digoxin is a cardiac glycoside derived from the foxglove plant (digitalis species). It has inotropic effects and is utilized in the management of syst ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dilated Cardiomyopathy Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a disease of the heart muscle characterized by enlargement and dilation of one or both of the ventricles along with im ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diphenhydramine Diphenhydramine, which is available as an over-the-counter medication, is a first-generation antihistamine that is used in a variety of conditions to ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diphenhydramine Toxicity Diphenhydramine is most often used for the treatment of nausea, vomiting, allergic rhinitis, mild to severe allergic reactions (e.g., anaphylaxis), an ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diphenoxylate and Atropine Diphenoxylate/atropine combination is a medication used in the management and treatment of diarrhea. It is in the antimotility class of drugs. This ac ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diphtheria Diphtheria is a toxin-mediated infection caused by Corynebacterium species, primarily Corynebacterium diphtheria. It causes skin and mucosal infection ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diphtheria Tetanus Pertussis (DTaP) Vaccine The DTaP vaccine is administered to children at the ages of 6 weeks to 6 years of age to provide immunization against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertuss ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diphyllobothrium Latum Diphyllobothriasis is a zoonotic infection that suffers from a lack of awareness in the medical field but has seen a recent resurgence in cases global ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Direct Laryngoscopy Direct laryngoscopy allows visualization of the larynx. It is used during general anesthesia, for surgical procedures of the larynx, and during resusc ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Disease Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs (DMARD) Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) are a class of drugs indicated for the treatment of several inflammatory arthritides including rheumato ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Disk Battery Ingestion Disk batteries (or button batteries) are found in many consumer electronics. The last few decades have seen an increase in demand for compact electron ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diskitis Discitis is a serious but uncommon medical diagnosis. It is an infection of the intervertebral disc space. The role of the intervertebral discs is to ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Disseminated intravascular coagulation can be defined is a widespread hypercoagulable state that can lead to both microvascular and macrovascular clot ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Distal Radius Fractures Emergency Department and primary care clinics are frequently called on to evaluate orthopedic complaints. It is essential for most providers to feel c ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Docusate Docusate is a medication used in the management and treatment of constipation. It is in the stool softener class of drugs. This activity reviews the i ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dornase Alfa Dornase alfa is a medication used in the management and treatment of cystic fibrosis. It is in the category B class of drugs. This activity outlines t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dorsal Penile Nerve Block The dorsal penile nerve block is an effective technique for gaining regional anesthesia of the penis with small volumes of a local anesthetic. The tec ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Double Aortic Arch Double aortic arch is the commonest form of a group of defects that affect the development of the aorta. This defect causes an abnormal circular forma ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Double Defibrillation Refractory ventricular fibrillation (RVF) is an unexpected complication of cardiac arrest that complicates the management of the patient and increases ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Double Orifice Mitral Valve Double orifice mitral valve (DOMV) is a rare, congenital, or acquired anomaly that is typically asymptomatic. With time, however, it may lead to mitra ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Down Syndrome Down syndrome (trisomy 21) is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or a portion of a third chromosome 21. Patients typically present with ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Doxepin Doxepin is a medication used in the treatment of major depressive disorder, anxiety, insomnia as well as in the management of skin pruritus. It is in ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Doxycycline Hyclate Doxycycline hyclate is a medication used in the management and treatment of a variety of infections. It is in the tetracyclines class of drugs. This a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Doxylamine Doxylamine is a medication used in the management and treatment of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP), allergic rhinitis, and insomnia. It is in t ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dracunculiasis Dracunculiasis, also known as Guinea-worm disease is a parasitic disease caused by the nematode Dracunculus medinensis. The infection is transmitted t ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dronabinol Dronabinol is synthetic tetrahydrocannabinol ('THC'), which obtained FDA approval in 1985 for the treatment of HIV/AIDs-induced anorexia and chemother ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Drowning Drowning is defined as a process of experiencing respiratory impairment from submersion/immersion in a liquid medium. To delineate the incident's outc ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Drug Induced Esophagitis Drugs can be damaging to the esophageal wall by having a direct toxic effect on the esophageal mucosa. They may produce a caustic effect by creating a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Drug Induced Hepatotoxicity Drug-induced hepatotoxicity is an acute or chronic liver injury secondary to drugs or herbal compounds. It is difficult to diagnose because the presen ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Drug Metabolism Most drugs undergo chemical alteration by various bodily systems as a way to create compounds that are more easily excreted from the body. These chemi ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Drug Testing Broadly defined, drug testing is the process of using a biological sample to detect the presence or absence of a drug or its metabolites. This process ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dubin Johnson Syndrome In 1954, Dubin and Johnson described a new clinicopathological entity consisting of chronic idiopathic jaundice with unidentified pigment in the liver ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Unfortunately, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is not only one of the most severe forms of inherited muscular dystrophies but also the most common h ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Duodenal Atresia And Stenosis Duodenal atresia is a congenital intestinal obstruction that can cause bilious or nonbilious vomiting within the first 24 to 38 hours of neonatal life ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Duodenal Biopsy A duodenal biopsy is performed during endoscopy in either a directed or random manner. The biopsy results further characterize visualized areas on en ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Dural arteriovenous fistulas, sometimes referred to as dural arteriovenous malformations, are vascular abnormalities in which arteries arising from br ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dust Mite Allergy Dust mite allergy is an IgE mediated Type 1 hypersensitivity reaction to dust mite allergens, commonly found in household dust. The prevalence of atop ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dwarfism Dwarfism is the medical terminology for short-stature. It is defined as height-vertex below two standard deviations (-2SD) or in the third percentile ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dyskeratosis Congenita Dyskeratosis congenita, also known as Zinsser-Engman-Cole syndrome, is an uncommon genodermatosis classically associated with the triad of oral leukop ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dyslexia Reading is a skill unique to humans and is crucial for living in the world today. Learning to read is one of the first teaching points of elementary s ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dysmenorrhea Dysmenorrhea can be classified as primary and secondary dysmenorrhea. Primary dysmenorrhea is a lower abdominal pain happening during the menstrual cy ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dystonia Dystonia is defined by involuntary maintained contraction of agonist and antagonist muscles yielding abnormal posturing, twisting and repetitive movem ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dystonic Reactions An acute dystonic reaction is characterized by involuntary contractions of muscles of the extremities, face, neck, abdomen, pelvis, or larynx in eithe ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dystrophinopathies This activity covers a group of X-linked muscle disorders, with their most recognized pathology being Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), followed by B ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ear Foreign Body Removal The management of foreign bodies located in the external auditory canal can be nuanced, and for some medical professionals may be intimidating if not ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ear Irrigation The American Academy of Otolaryngology defines cerumen impaction as "an accumulation of cerumen that is associated with symptoms, prevents the necessa ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ear Microtia Microtia is a congenital ear deformity in which the external ear is malformed and underdeveloped. In more severe cases, it is usually associated with ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Eastern Equine Encephalitis Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) is one of the most severe arboviral encephalitis affecting America. Currently considered an emerging disease showing ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ebstein Anomaly And Malformation Ebstein anomaly of the tricuspid valve is a congenital malformation, in which there is downward displacement of insertion of septal and posterior leaf ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Echinococcus Granulosus Echinococcosis (Echinococcus granulosis) is a zoonotic larval infection that infects humans globally. Patients with this condition may be asymptomatic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ectodermal Dysplasia Ectodermal dysplasias form a diverse group of inherited disorders characterized by a congenital defect in two or more ectodermal structures, one of wh ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ectopic Pregnancy An ectopic pregnancy occurs when fetal tissue implants outside of the uterus or attaches to an abnormal or scarred portion of the uterus. Ectopic preg ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ectopic Thyroid The thyroid gland is the first endocrine gland that develops during fetal embryology, which starts between the third and fourth gestational weeks. The ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ectropion Ectropion is an outward turning of the eyelid margin. This typically occurs on the lower eyelids. When the globe is not protected properly, the eye ca ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Eczema Eczema, also known as atopic dermatitis, is a common chronic skin condition that can lead to recurrent infections and poor quality of life if left unt ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Eczema Herpeticum Eczema herpeticum (EH) is a disseminated cutaneous infection with herpes simplex virus that develops in a patient with atopic dermatitis. EH typically ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
EEG Abnormal Waveforms Abnormal waveforms seen on an electroencephalogram (EEG) recording include epileptiform and non-epileptiform abnormalities. In order to identify abnor ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
EEG Localization Related Epilepsies An electroencephalogram (EEG) is essential to define an epileptic syndrome, especially a focal epileptic seizure. It also aids in both localizing and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
EEG Normal Sleep Sleep is the natural periodic suspension of consciousness characterized by lessened consciousness and slowed metabolism. The sleep-wake cycle is one o ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
EEG Normal Waveforms EEG activity reflects the temporal summation of the synchronous activity of millions of cortical neurons that are spatially aligned. Analyzing and int ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Egg Allergy Egg allergy is IgE-mediated and healthy individuals are capable of generating antigen-specific IgE upon exposure to egg allergens. It is believed tha ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ehlers Danlos Syndrome Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a genetic disorder affecting collagen formation and function. It affects virtually every organ system, which can resul ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ehrlichiosis The genus Ehrlichia consists of several species of obligate intracellular gram-negative bacteria that infect humans and a variety of other mammals via ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Elbow Dislocation Elbow dislocations are a common large joint dislocation experienced in children and adults. They can occur with associated fractures or damage to surr ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Elbow Fractures Overview The most common type of fracture in the pediatric population is elbow fractures. Most commonly, individuals fall on their outstretched hand. Prompt a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Elbow Trauma Elbow trauma is a common occurrence in children and athletes and can cause a broad array of injury patterns ranging from mild soft tissue injuries and ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Electrical Burns Electrical injuries are when high-energy current travels through the body due to contact with an electrical source. Injuries occur due to either the f ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Electrical Injuries Electrical injuries are a complex form of trauma that is often associated with high morbidity and mortality. The severity of the injuries depends upon ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Electrical Status Epilepticus In Sleep Electrical status epilepticus in sleep (ESES), a childhood-onset epileptic encephalopathy, is characterized by epilepsy, cognitive regression, and mar ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Electroencephalogram An electroencephalogram (EEG) is an essential tool that studies the brain's electrical activity. Despite the development of more advanced imaging tech ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Electronic Vaping Delivery Of Cannabis And Nicotine This activity outlines the current scientific literature and knowledge of the risks and benefits of inhaling nicotine through proprietary devices. It ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Elevated Hemidiaphragm Elevated hemidiaphragm occurs most commonly from direct or indirect injury to the phrenic nerve. It is often found as an incidental finding on diagnos ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Emergency Room Thoracotomy An emergency room thoracotomy is performed in selected cases of direct thoracic injury concurrently with ACLS/ATLS resuscitation. Survival rates are l ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Emicizumab Emicizumab is a medication used in the management and treatment of hemophilia A. It belongs to the bispecific monoclonal antibody class of medications ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Empyema Empyema is defined as a collection of pus in the pleural cavity, gram-positive, or culture from the pleural fluid. Empyema is usually associated with ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
EMS Portable Ventilator Management Patients intubated in the field will need some form of artificial ventilation started. BVM ventilation is unreliable and inconsistent and requires a d ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Encopresis Encopresis or fecal incontinence is defined as the involuntary passing of stool into inappropriate places such as the underwear in children older than ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Endocardial Fibroelastosis Endocardial fibroelastosis (EFE) is primarily a disease of infants and children, but can rarely present in adulthood as well. In 1943, Endocardial fib ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Endocarditis Infective endocarditis is a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality in children and adolescents despite new advantages in management and prophyla ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Endotracheal Tube In its simplest form, the endotracheal tube is a tube constructed of polyvinyl chloride that is placed between the vocal cords through the trachea. It ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Endovascular Papillary Angioendothelioma Endovascular papillary angioendothelioma (EPA), also known as Dabska tumor (DT) and papillary intralymphatic angioendothelioma (PILA), represents a bo ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Enflurane Enflurane is a medication used in the induction and maintenance of general anesthetics. It is in the inhaled anesthetics class of drugs. This activit ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Entamoeba Histolytica Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan that causes intestinal amebiasis as well as extra-intestinal manifestations. Although 90 percent of E. histolytic ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Enterobius Vermicularis Enterobius vermicularis, also called pinworm, is one of the most common helminth infections in the world, with most cases occurring in children. This ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia Coli Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is a bacterial infection resulting in bloody dysentery and an increased risk of hemolytic uremic syndrome (H ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Enterovesical Fistula An enterovesical fistula is a pathologic connection between the bowel and the bladder. This activity reviews the evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Enterovirus Enteroviruses are a class of viruses comprising over 300 serotypes. These ubiquitous viruses cause a wide spectrum of diseases with heterogeneous pres ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Enuresis Enuresis is a common childhood disorder seen in outpatient settings. Enuresis can be promptly treated if cases are identified early. In this activity, ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Eosinophilic Esophagitis The esophagus physiologically lacks eosinophils, and when present, the condition is considered to be pathologic. Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) was on ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis Eosinophilic gastroenteritis belongs to the group of eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders, which comprise of eosinophilic esophagitis and eosinophi ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Eosinophilic Granuloma Eosinophilic granuloma (EG) is a rare and mildest form of Langerhans cell histiocytosis. The presentation of EG can be monostotic, polyostotic, or can ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ependymoma Ependymomas are glial cell tumors that commonly arise in the lining cells of the ventricular system, and less commonly outside the central nervous sys ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidermal Inclusion Cyst Epidermal inclusion cysts are the most common cutaneous cysts and can occur anywhere on the body. These cysts typically present as fluctuant nodules u ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidermal Nevus Syndromes Epidermal nevus syndrome is an umbrella term used to describe epidermal nevi in association with syndromic features. The first well-described syndrome ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidermoid Cyst Epidermoid cysts, also known as a sebaceous cysts, are encapsulated subepidermal nodules filled with keratin. Although most commonly located on the fa ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epididymitis Epididymitis is an inflammation of the epididymis, a tubular structure on the testis where sperm mature. Epididymitis is a relatively common condition ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidural Hematoma An epidural hematoma (EDH) is an extra-axial collection of blood within the potential space between the outer layer of the dura mater and the inner ta ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epiglottitis Epiglottitis is an inflammatory condition of the epiglottis and/or nearby structures including the arytenoids, aryepiglottic folds, and vallecula. Epi ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epinastine Epinastine is a medication used in the treatment and management of allergic conjunctivitis. This activity reviews the indications, contraindications, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epinephrine Epinephrine is one of the most commonly used agents in a variety of settings as it functions as medication and hormone. It is currently FDA-approved f ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epistaxis Epistaxis (nosebleed) is one of the most common ear, nose, and throat (ENT) emergencies that present to the emergency room or primary care. There are ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epstein Barr Virus Epstein Barr virus (EBV) is a herpesvirus in which over 90% of the population worldwide has been infected. EBV infection can range from asymptomatic t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epstein Pearls Epstein pearls are small, benign, self-resolving nodules commonly found in the oral cavities of newborns. This activity describes the evaluation and m ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Erb Palsy Erb's palsy, or Erb-Duchenne paralysis, is one of most common neurological birth injuries. It is caused by injury to the brachial plexus, which is for ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Erysipelas Erysipelas is a skin infection involving the dermis layer of the skin, but it may also extend to the superficial cutaneous lymphatics. It is character ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Erythema Infectiosum Erythema infectiosum, also known as fifth disease, is a common viral exanthem caused by parvovirus B19. It is commonly seen in children between five a ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Erythema Marginatum Erythema marginatum is reactive inflammatory erythema seen most commonly in association with acute rheumatic fever. Although a rare cutaneous manifest ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Erythema Multiforme Erythema multiforme (EM) is a cutaneous and mucosal hypersensitivity reaction with characteristic lesions in target triggered by certain antigenic sti ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Erythema Nodosum Erythema nodosum (EN) is a common acute nodular septal panniculitis, characterized by the sudden onset of erythematous, firm, solid, deep nodules or p ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Erythema Toxicum Erythema toxicum neonatorum is a condition that has been described (rash) as early as the 15th century by a pediatrician named B. Metlinger. It has be ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Erythrasma Erythrasma is a common skin disorder caused by bacteria. It was first described in 1859 by Burchardt. He thought the etiology was fungal. In 1862, Bur ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Erythroblastosis Fetalis Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) is also known as alloimmune HDFN or erythroblastosis fetalis. It is caused by the destruction of neo ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is a common hematology test that measures how quickly red blood cells settle to the bottom of an elongated tu ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Erythrokeratodermia Variabilis Erythrokeratodermia is a group of inherited disorders characterized by well-demarcated erythematous lesions and hyperkeratotic plaques. Erythrokeratod ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Erythromelalgia Erythromelalgia is a rarely occurring disease entity characterized by a triad of erythema, warmth, and recurrent burning pain, most notably affecting ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Erythromycin Erythromycin has traditionally; it has been used for various respiratory infections (i.e., community-acquired pneumonia, Legionnaires disease), prophy ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Erythropoietic Protoporphyria Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) is an inherited porphyria resulting in the accumulation of protoporphyrins in red blood cells that causes acute, p ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Erythropoietin Erythropoietin (EPO) is a glycoprotein hormone, naturally produced by the peritubular cells of the kidney, that stimulates red blood cell production. ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Escherichia Coli Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a gram-negative bacillus that is a causative organism of many diarrheal illnesses, including traveler’s diarrhea and dys ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Escherichia Coli (E Coli 0157 H7) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157: H7, is an enterohemorrhagic bacterial strain that is an important food and a waterborne pathogen that cau ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Escitalopram Escitalopram is a medication used in the management and treatment of major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. It is in the selectiv ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophageal Atresia The trachea and esophagus arise from a separation of a common foregut tube during early fetal development. Failure of separation or complete developme ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophageal Cyst Esophageal cysts are rare congenital malformations that categorize as being epithelial-lined or duplication in nature. They are usually diagnosed in c ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophageal Trauma Esophageal injury (EI) is a rare but challenging clinical finding in the setting of trauma. Esophageal injuries or perforations are transmural disrupt ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophagial Foreign Body Most patients who present for evaluation of a foreign body in the esophagus do so after accidental ingestion of a known object, and the patient has mi ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophagitis Esophagitis refers to inflammation or injury to the esophageal mucosa. One of the most common causes is gastroesophageal reflux, which can lead to ero ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophagogastroduodenoscopy Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) is a diagnostic endoscopic procedure used to visualize the oropharynx, esophagus, stomach, and proximal duodenum. It ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Essential Hypertension The current definition of hypertension (HTN) is systolic blood pressure (SBP) values of 130mmHg or more and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) more tha ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Etanercept Etanercept is a medication used in the management and treatment of autoimmune conditions such as plaque psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic art ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ethambutol Ethambutol is a medication used in the management and treatment of tuberculosis. It is a bacteriostatic drug that inhibits cell wall synthesis. This a ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ethosuximide Ethosuximide is a medication used in the management and treatment of absence epilepsy. This activity outlines the indications, action, and contraindic ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ethylene Glycol Toxicity Ethylene glycol (C2H6O2) is a toxic alcohol that is found in various household and industrial agents. Ethylene glycol exposure can be extremely danger ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Euglycemic Diabetic Ketoacidosis Euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis (EDKA) is an uncommon diabetic complication associated with several risk factors such as fasting, surgery, pregnancy, ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Eustachian Tube Dysfunction Eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD) is the failure of the Eustachian tube in maintaining pressure equalization or mucociliary transport. This is categor ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ewing Sarcoma Ewing sarcoma is the second most common primary malignant bone tumor, mostly affecting adolescents in the second decade of their life, and it is a hig ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Exchange Transfusion Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is a procedure employed to "cleanse" the blood of various pathologic entities including antibodies, immune complexes ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Exercise Induced Asthma Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) describes a transient and reversible contraction of bronchial smooth muscle after physical exertion that ma ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Exercise Induced Laryngeal Obstruction Inducible laryngeal obstruction (ILO) describes a narrowing or inappropriate obstruction of the true vocal fold and/or the supraglottic structures in ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Exertional Compartment Syndrome Exertional compartment syndrome is a commonly underdiagnosed entity which occurs secondary to elevated intra-compartmental pressures in the absence of ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Exophthalmos Exophthalmos is the protrusion of one or both eyes anteriorly out of the orbit due to an increase in orbital contents within the rigid bony orbit. It ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
External Ear Aural Atresia Aural atresia is the absence of a patent ear canal that may be acquired or congenital. To preserve hearing and allow normal speech and language develo ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
External Pacemaker External pacing is one of the fastest methods for treating multiple types of conduction abnormalities. It can be applied in the hospital setting or by ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Extrapyramidal Symptoms Extrapyramidal side effects (EPS), commonly referred to as drug-induced movement disorders are among the most common adverse drug effects patients exp ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Extubation Extubation is the removal of an endotracheal tube (ETT), which is the last step in liberating a patient from the mechanical ventilator. To discuss the ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Exudative Retinitis Coats disease is an idiopathic ocular condition characterized by retinal telangiectasia and exudation. The incidence is quite low, hence recognizing i ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Eyelid Coloboma Eyelid coloboma is a rare condition that affects congenitally. It’s a very annoying and disturbing condition for the parents also. While treating the ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Eyelid Papilloma The term papilloma refers to a group of various benign epithelial proliferations that can affect the eyelid skin. These lesions are not necessarily as ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fabry Disease Fabry disease is a multi-systemic, X-linked recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by decreased activity of alpha-galactosidase A and results in l ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Facial Burns Burn injuries are a significant health issue and are a leading cause of accidental death or injury in the U.S. Burns to the face can affect many speci ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Factor XIII Deficiency Factor XIII deficiency is a rare bleeding disorder that is challenging to recognize clinically. The lab tests such as the prothrombin time, INR, and a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Failure To Thrive Failure to thrive (FTT) is a common term used to describe lack of adequate weight gain in pediatric patients. Accepted definitions include a weight fo ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Famciclovir Famciclovir is a medication used in the management and treatment of herpes and varicella-zoster infections. It is in the class of nucleoside analog an ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Familial Adenomatous Polyposis Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) or familial polyposis coli (FPC) is an autosomal dominant polyposis syndrome with varying degrees of penetrance. ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Familial Hypercholesterolemia Familial hypercholesterolemia is known as a group of inherited genetic defects that lead to the severe elevation of serum cholesterol concentrations. ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Familial Hyperlipidemia Type 1 Familial hyperlipidemia Type 1, commonly known as familial hyperchylomicronemia syndrome, is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder that is cau ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Familial Hyperlipidemia Type 2a Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant disorder of lipid metabolism presenting at birth. It is characterized by very high low-den ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Familial Hypertriglyceridemia Familial hypertriglyceridemia (type IV familial dyslipidemia) is a disorder characterized by the overproduction of very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Familial Hypocalciuric Hypercalcemia Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) is a rare autosomal dominant condition. It occurs as a result of mutations in the calcium-sensing receptor ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Familial Mediterranean Fever Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autoinflammatory genetic disorder that mainly affects people of Mediterranean origin. FMF is characterized by ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Familial Short Stature Familial short stature (FSS) is the condition characterized by the final adult height below the third percentile of the mean for the patient's age, ge ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fanconi Anemia Fanconi anemia is a rare genetic disorder, involving all three blood cell lines. It is the most common cause of inherited bone marrow failure characte ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fanconi Syndrome Fanconi syndrome, not to be confused with Fanconi anemia, is a defect of the proximal tubule that prevents the absorption of electrolytes and other su ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fat Embolism Fat embolism (FE) and fat embolism syndrome (FES) are a clinical phenomenon that are characterized by systemic dissemination of fat emboli within the ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Favus Favus is a chronic inflammatory dermatophytosis, characterized by the scutula formation. It used to be highly prevalent worldwide. Nowadays, the infec ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Febrile Neutropenia Neutropenic fever is defined as a single oral temperature of greater than or equal to 101 F, or a temperature greater than or equal to 100.4 F for at ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Febrile Seizure Febrile seizures are seizures that are caused by a sudden spike in body temperature with fevers greater than 38C or 100.4F, with no other underlying s ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fecal Impaction Fecal impaction occurs because of hardened fecal matter retained in the large bowel which cannot be evacuated by regular peristaltic activity. If this ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fecal Incontinence Fecal incontinence is a highly prevalent problem resulting in an inability to control the discharge of bowel contents. Its severity can range from the ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Felbamate Felbamate is an anti-epileptic drug that was approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the management of focal seizures and Lennox-Gastaut syn ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Felon A felon is an infection that occurs within the closed-space compartments of the fingertip pulp. The swelling leads to intense throbbing pain. The sur ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Female Athlete Triad Female athletes often complain of low energy availability, which is defined as energy from oral nutrition less energy used for exercise. As such, low ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Femoral Head Avascular Necrosis Avascular necrosis of the femoral head is a type of osteonecrosis due to disruption of blood supply to the proximal femur. There are approximately 100 ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Femoroacetabular Impingement Femoroacetabular impingement is an increasingly recognized source of hip pain, particularly in the young adult population. This condition is a known r ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Fetal alcohol syndrome is one of the five disorders that comprise fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). These fetal alcohol spectrum disorders clas ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fetal Growth Restriction Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is most often defined as an estimated fetal weight less than the 10th percentile for gestational age by prenatal ultras ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fever In A Neonate The World Health Organization categorizes neonatal sepsis as early or late based on the age of onset. Early neonatal sepsis affects infants less than ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fever of Unknown Origin Fever of unknown origin (FUO) was first described by Dr. Petersdorf and Dr. Beesom in 1961. FUO was defined as a temperature of 101 F (38.3 C) or high ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fexofenadine Fexofenadine is a medication used in the management and treatment of allergic rhinitis and chronic urticaria. It is a second-generation antihistamine. ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fibrocystic Breast Disease Fibrocystic breast disease is the most common benign type of breast disease, diagnosed in millions of women worldwide. Certain hormonal factors underp ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fibrous Dysplasia Fibrous dysplasia is a typically benign bone lesion characterized by intramedullary fibro-osseous proliferation secondary to altered osteogenesis. The ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fifth-Toe Deformities Deformities of the fifth toe are often congenital and include deformities such as an overlapping fifth toe or a congenital curly toe. The purpose of t ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Filariasis Lymphatic filariasis is a neglected tropical disease that causes significant morbidity in the developing world. This activity reviews the evaluation, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fine Motor Disability Fine motor disability is an inability or impairment of an individual to perform tasks that require a degree of manual dexterity. Fine motor ability is ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Finger Dislocation Finger joint dislocation is a common hand injury. Finger dislocation can occur at the proximal interphalangeal (PIP), distal interphalangeal (DIP), or ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fingertip Injuries The fingertip is the most distal portion of the finger providing the tactile and sensory functions that are then relayed to the brain. It is anatomica ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
First Degree Burn First-degree burns are superficial burns involving the epidermal layer of skin. The skin is the largest organ of the human body, with its weight compr ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fistula In Ano Fistula-in-ano is a tract connecting the anal canal to the perianal skin. It requires surgical treatment in the majority of cases. Proper management i ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Flail Chest Flail chest is a traumatic condition of the thorax. It may occur when 3 or more ribs are broken in at least 2 places. It is considered a clinical di ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Flea Bites Flea bites are common in North America, especially in outdoor or unkempt conditions. Improving the interprofessional team's skills to educate patients ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Flexible Nasopharyngoscopy Flexible nasopharyngoscopy (also called fiberoptic nasendoscopy/flexible nasolaryngoscopy/flexible fiberoptic nasopharyngolaryngoscopy) is an essentia ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fluid Management Hospitalized patients often have conditions that impair their ability to regulate their hydration status. Improper fluid management leads to significa ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Flumazenil Flumazenil is a benzodiazepine antagonist. The primary FDA-approved clinical uses for flumazenil include reversal agent for benzodiazepine overdose an ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fluorides and Fluorocarbons Toxicity Fluorocarbons are fluorinated carbon chain polymers that are used in an assortment of household and commercial products as waterproofing agents, lubri ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fluoxetine Fluoxetine is FDA-approved for major depressive disorder (age eight and older), obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, bulimia, binge eating d ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fluphenazine Fluphenazine is a typical antipsychotic used for symptomatic management of psychosis in patients with schizophrenia. There is a long-acting fluphenazi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Folliculitis Folliculitis is a common skin condition that usually involves infection of the hair follicle. While this condition is typically benign, prompt recogni ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fontan Completion The Fontan procedure provides a palliative treatment option for children that are diagnosed with functionally univentricular congenital heart disease. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Food Allergies Food allergy is defined as an immune reaction to proteins in the food and can be immunoglobulin (Ig)E-mediated or non-IgE-mediated. IgE-mediated food ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Forceps Delivery The use of forceps in infant delivery has fallen out of favor among obstetricians in the past three decades. Forceps deliveries now make up about only ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Forearm Compartment Syndrome Compartment syndrome is a condition in which increased tissue pressure within a limited space compromises the circulation and function of the contents ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Foreign Body Airway Obstruction According to the National Safety Council’s statistics, foreign-body airway obstruction (FBAO) is the fourth leading cause of unintentional death, resu ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Foreign Body Aspiration Foreign body aspiration remains a significant cause of death in children for anatomic as well as developmental reasons. Choking is typically defined a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fosphenytoin Fosphenytoin is a medication used in the management and prevention of seizures. It is a water-soluble phenytoin prodrug with the capability to be used ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fragile X Syndrome Fragile X syndrome (FXS), also called Martin-Bell syndrome, is a non-Mendelian trinucleotide repeat disorder. FXS is the most prevalent inherited caus ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Frey Syndrome Frey syndrome usually occurs with auriculotemporal nerve injury secondary to surgical intervention or trauma in the parotid region. Prevention of this ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Friedreich Ataxia Friedreich ataxia is an inherited disease affecting the nervous system, which produces progressive ataxia, weakness, and sensory deficits. It is inher ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fructose 1-Phosphate Aldolase Deficiency Fructose 1-phosphate aldolase deficiency or hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by the deficiency in aldol ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Functional Abdominal Pain In Children Functional abdominal pain is a common disorder in children. The diagnostic Rome IV criteria for functional abdominal pain must be fulfilled for at lea ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Functional Asplenism As the largest lymphoid organ in the body, the spleen has a crucial function in the immune system. It is responsible for the production and maturatio ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Functional Voice Disorders Functional voice disorders are caused by insufficient or improper use of vocal mechanisms without any anatomic and neurological abnormalities. The mos ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fungal Endocarditis Endocarditis is the inflammation of the endocardium, the innermost lining of the heart. Endocarditis may be due to infective or non-infective etiologi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fungal Endophthalmitis Fungal endophthalmitis is a rare disease of ocular inflammation caused by fungal infections from either endogenous or exogenous sources. Because the c ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gait Disturbances Gait disturbances are described as any deviations from normal walking or gait. These disturbances stem from numerous etiologies. Due to their differen ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Galactokinase Deficiency Galactokinase deficiency or galactosemia type II is a rare inborn error of galactose metabolism. Galactosemia type II is rarer and more insidious than ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Galactorrhea Galactorrhea is milk production from the breast unrelated to pregnancy or lactation. Milk production one year after cessation of breastfeeding is non- ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Galactose 1 Phosphate Uridyltransferase Deficiency Galactosemia is an inborn error of metabolism due to impaired degradation of galactose. If not recognized and treated promptly, affected infants may d ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Galeazzi Fractures A Galeazzi fracture is a fracture of the middle to distal third of the radius associated with dislocation or subluxation of the distal radioulnar join ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate Toxicity Gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is pharmaceutically manufactured as sodium oxybate for the treatment of narcolepsy. This formulation is considered a Sched ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gangrene Gangrene is tissue damage secondary to infection, ischemia, or both. It is a relatively uncommon condition, and early recognition is essential. Gangre ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gardner Syndrome Gardner syndrome is a phenotypic variant of familial adenomatous polyposis. It is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by numerous adenomatous ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gas Gangrene Gas gangrene is a highly lethal infection of soft tissue, caused by Clostridium species, with Clostridium perfringens being the most common. This is s ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastric Outlet Obstruction Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) is a result of any disease process that causes a mechanical impediment to gastric emptying. It can be caused by mecha ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastric Volvulus Gastric volvulus is a rare, clinical event that occurs in both adults and pediatric patients. In 1886, Berti was the first to describe a gastric volvu ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastrocnemius Rupture Gastrocnemius injuries are common in both recreational and competitive athletes. This activity outlines the evaluation, treatment, and management of g ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition that develops when there is a retrograde flow of stomach contents back into the esophagus. It ca ... Read the Article 2 31 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastrointestinal Bleeding Gastrointestinal bleeding can fall into two broad categories: upper and lower sources of bleeding. The anatomic landmark that separates upper and low ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastrointestinal Foreign Body Foreign body (FB) and food impaction are one of the most common gastrointestinal complaints seen in the emergency department. Foreign bodies tend to p ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastrointestinal Tuberculosis Gastrointestinal (GI) tuberculosis (TB) accounts for 1% to 3 % of all TB cases worldwide. It can occur in the context of active pulmonary disease or a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastroschisis Gastroschisis is a paraumbilical abdominal wall defect associated with protrusion of the bowel through the defect. A membrane does not cover the bowe ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gaucher Disease Gaucher disease is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism due to the toxic accumulation of glucocerebroside lipids in various organs. It re ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gender Dysphoria Gender dysphoria (previously gender identity disorder), according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders are defined as a “marked in ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Generalized Pustular Psoriasis Generalized pustular psoriasis is a rare and extreme form of psoriasis characterized by the presence of sterile pustules. The incidence peaks between ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Genital Warts Genital warts (condyloma acuminatum) are a sexually transmitted infection caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6 and 11. These are spread by ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Genu Valgum Genu valgum (knocked knees) is part of the coronal plane deformities of the lower extremity. The majority of patients are asymptomatic and have no fun ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Geographic Tongue Geographic tongue is a benign chronic relapsing recurring inflammatory condition of the oral cavity of unknown etiology. This activity reviews the eva ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Germ Cell Seminoma Germinoma is an uncommon pediatric brain tumor that is morphologically identical to its gonadal counterpart: testicular seminoma and ovarian dysgermin ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gerstmann Syndrome Gerstmann syndrome is a rare neurological disorder consisting of a tetrad of symptoms which include impairment in performing calculations (acalculia), ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Giardia Lamblia Enteritis Giardia lamblia enteritis is small-intestine gastroenteritis caused by the pathogenic protozoan Giardia lamblia, (Giardia duodenalis or Giardia intest ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gigantism And Acromegaly Acromegaly and gigantism are disorders of the abnormal excess secretion of growth hormone. Gigantism occurs when growth hormone hypersecretion occurs ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gilbert Syndrome Gilbert syndrome is a genetic disorder of bilirubin metabolism in the liver. There is decreased glucuronidation and excretion of bilirubin leading to ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gingivitis Gingivitis is an inflammatory condition of the gingival tissue or the gums most commonly due to a bacterial infection. It is inflammation of the gingi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ginseng There are many described uses for ginseng. Due to its antioxidative and potential neuromodulating effects, it has become a popular supplement in neuro ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gitelman Syndrome Gitelman syndrome is a salt-losing tubulopathy caused by mutation of genes encoding sodium chloride (NCCT) and magnesium transporters in the thiazide- ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glanzmann Thrombasthenia Glanzmann thrombasthenia is a congenital bleeding disorder caused by a deficiency of the platelet integrin alpha IIb beta3. This integrin is the plate ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glargine Insulin Insulin glargine is used in the management and treatment of hyperglycemia in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is a long-acting in ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glasgow Coma Scale The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is used to objectively describe the extent of impaired consciousness in all types of acute medical and trauma patients. T ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glatiramer Glatiramer is an immunomodulator used in the treatment and management of multiple sclerosis. Its mechanism is not clearly understood, but it appears t ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glaucoma Glaucoma is a condition of increased intraocular pressure in the eye that may progress to a loss of vision. This results in a characteristic optic ner ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glenoid Fractures The glenohumeral joint is a complex joint that lacks innate stability; the humeral head relies heavily on the ligaments of the shoulder and the rotato ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gliomas Glioma is the most common form of central nervous system (CNS) neoplasm that originates from glial cells. In the United States, there are six cases of ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glomerulonephritis The term "glomerulonephritis" encompasses a subset of renal diseases characterized by immune-mediated damage to the basement membrane, mesangium, or t ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glomus Cancer Glomangioma or glomuvenous malformation is a rare cutaneous venous malformation that shows glomus cells (undifferentiated smooth muscle cells which ar ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glottic Stenosis Glottic stenosis describes a narrowing of the portion of the larynx containing the vocal cords and glottic opening, otherwise known as the glottis. Gl ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glucose 6 Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase is an enzyme found in the cytoplasm of all cells in the body. It is a housekeeping enzyme that plays a vital role in ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glycogen Storage Disease Glycogen storage diseases (GSDs) are inherited inborn errors of metabolism of carbohydrates. In general, these results from a lack of specific enzymes ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glycogen Storage Disease Type I Glycogen storage disease type I (GSD I), also known as Von Gierke disease, is an inherited disorder caused by deficiencies of specific enzymes in the ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glycogen Storage Disease Type II Glycogen storage disease type II, also known as Pompe disease, is a metabolic disorder creating glycogen deposits inside lysosomes within the muscular ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glycogenic Hepatopathy Glycogenic hepatopathy (GH) is a rare or possibly under-diagnosed complication seen in children and young adults with poorly controlled type 1 diabete ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gonococcal Arthritis Gonococcal arthritis is arthritis that results from the bacteremic spread of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, a sexually transmitted pathogen. It comprises loca ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gonococcal Conjunctivitis Gonococcal conjunctivitis (GC), also known as gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum when it occurs in neonates, is an infection that is transmitted by cont ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gonorrhea Neisseria gonorrhoeae, an obligate human pathogen, is a sexually transmitted disease that causes consequential worldwide morbidity both in resource-ab ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gorlin Syndrome Gorlin syndrome, also called Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS), or nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, is an autosomal dominan ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gout Gout is one of the most common causes of chronic inflammatory arthritis in the United States, which is characterized by monosodium urate (MSU) monohyd ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Graft Versus Host Disease Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) occurs due to the presence of immunocompetent T lymphocytes in the graft attacking the immunodeficient recipient tiss ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gram Positive Bacteria Gram-positive organisms have highly variable growth and resistance patterns. The SCOPE project (Surveillance and Control of Pathogens of Epidemiologic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Granular Cell Tumor Granular cell tumors are rare neoplasms derived from Schwann cells with characteristic pathologic findings. They can exhibit either benign or malignan ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Granular Parakeratosis Granular parakeratosis is a benign condition that is best categorized as a reaction pattern rather than a distinct cutaneous disease. It presents typi ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Granuloma Annulare Granuloma annulare is a cutaneous granulomatous disease that is not caused by an infection. It is the most common non-infectious granulomatous disease ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a rare vasculitis affecting small vessels. Hallmark features include necrotizing granulomas and pauci-immune ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Graves Disease Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. It is a disorder with systemic manifestations that primarily affect heart, skeletal muscl ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gray Baby Syndrome Gray baby syndrome is an adverse reaction to chloramphenicol that is characterized by abdominal distention, hemodynamic collapse, and ashen-gray skin ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Greenstick Fracture A greenstick fracture is a partial thickness fracture where only cortex and periosteum are interrupted on one side of the bone, while they remain unin ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Griseofulvin Griseofulvin is FDA approved for and the drug of choice in tinea capitis. Other indications include onychomycosis as well as superficial fungal infect ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Guillain Barre Syndrome Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is a rare but serious post-infectious immune-mediated neuropathy. It results from the autoimmune destruction of nerves i ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Guttate Psoriasis Psoriasis is a chronic, inflammatory disorder that presents as well-defined, scaly, erythematous plaques, and occasionally, sterile pustules. Guttate ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Guyon Canal Syndrome Guyon canal syndrome is a relatively rare peripheral ulnar neuropathy that involves injury to the distal portion of the ulnar nerve as it travels thro ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gynecomastia Gynecomastia is an increase in male breast volume. This condition most often occurs during times of hormonal change such as at birth, during adolescen ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gyromitra Mushroom Toxicity Gyromitra esculenta, the false morel mushroom, has a unique toxicity. The mushroom derives its name (esculenta) from the Latin for edible. Certain cul ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
H1N1 Influenza H1N1 influenza is a subtype of influenza A virus, a communicable viral illness which causes upper and in some cases lower respiratory tract infections ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Haemophilus Influenza Type B Vaccine The Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine is a vaccine used in the prevention of invasive H. influenzae infections (usually caused by H. influen ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Haemophilus Influenzae Haemophilus influenzae is a bacteria characterized as a small, facultatively anaerobic, pleomorphic, and capnophilic gram-negative coccobacillus of th ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Halitosis Halitosis is a term coined from the merger of the Latin halitus (breath) and Greek osis (pathological process) to describe a condition that meant an u ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Halo Brace The halo vest immobilizer (halo brace) device is the most rigid form of external immobilization of the upper cervical spine to date. Indications for i ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Halobetasol Cream Halobetasol cream is a medication used in the management and treatment of psoriasis. It is in the topical corticosteroid class of drugs. This activity ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Halothane Toxicity Halothane is a medication previ