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Surgery-Cardiothoracic

Surgery-Cardiothoracic

Stay up to date on the latest medical knowledge with this Surgery-Cardiothoracic activity. In this online self-assessment activity, you'll read our reference articles and test your knowledge with 535 activities in Surgery-Cardiothoracic for 491.5 total CME hours.


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Featured Article Activities

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Velocardiofacial Syndrome

Velocardiofacial syndrome, also known as Di George syndrome or chromosome 22q11.2 syndrome, is the most common microdele ...
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Hours: 0.75

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Amiloride

Amiloride is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension and heart failure. It is in the diuretic ...
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Hours: 1

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Hyperlipidemia

Hyperlipidemia is a term that encompasses various genetic and acquired disorders that describe elevated lipid levels wit ...
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Hours: 1

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Takayasu Arteritis

Takayasu arteritis (pulseless disease) is a systemic inflammatory condition characterized by damage to the large and med ...
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Hours: 1

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Commotio Cordis

Commotio cordis is ventricular fibrillation precipitated by blunt trauma to the heart. Although it is infrequent, it is ...
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Hours: 0.75

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Cardiac Catheterization Risks and Complications

Cardiac catheterization is one of the most widely performed cardiac procedures. In the United States, more than 1,000,00 ...
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Surgery-Cardiothoracic Activities

Title Description Hours Questions
Abciximab Abciximab is widely used in interventional cardiology for the treatment of unstable angina and as an adjunct therapy following percutaneous coronary i ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominal Aorta Repair Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair is performed because the mortality rates are as high as 78% following rupture. Open and endovascular surgery are the ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm An abdominal aortic aneurysm is a life-threatening condition which requires monitoring or treatment depending upon the size of the aneurysm and/or sym ... Read the Article 1.5 23 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Rupture Abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture represents a catastrophic emergency and if not recognized and appropriately treated, carries significant morbidity a ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abnormal Respirations There are multiple types of normal and abnormal respiration. They include apnea, eupnea, orthopnea, dyspnea, hyperpnea, hyperventilation, hypoventilat ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Cardiac Tamponade Cardiac tamponade occurs when excessive fluid accumulates in the pericardium, in turn compressing the heart and restricting the filling of the cardia ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Coronary Syndrome Catheter Interventions Since the late 1970s, when catheter-based therapy for ischemic heart disease was first introduced, catheters have continued to evolve. Initially, card ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Mesenteric Ischemia Acute mesenteric ischemia is caused by a sudden decline in blood flow through the mesenteric vessels. Diagnosis can be difficult because symptoms are ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Myocardial Infarction Acute myocardial infarctions are one of the leading causes of death in the developed world, with prevalence approaching three million people worldwide ... Read the Article 1.75 25 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Pulmonary Embolism Acute pulmonary embolism is a common clinical condition with a variable clinical presentation, making its diagnosis challenging. This activity outline ... Read the Article 2 30 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Stroke Acute strokes, also known as cerebrovascular accidents, are broadly classified as either ischemic or hemorrhagic. Acute strokes result in loss of bloo ... Read the Article 1.75 26 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Transplantation Rejection Acute transplant rejection occurs days to months after a transplant when the immune system identifies a grafted organ as foreign and attacks it. Acute ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adenosine Adenosine has uses as both a diagnostic or therapeutic agent. As a diagnostic agent, adenosine can be utilized in myocardial perfusion stress imaging ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adverse Events Adverse events (AE) occur frequently in our medical system and at least one in ten patients are affected. An AE is a harmful and negative outcome that ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alagille Syndrome Alagille syndrome (ALGS) is a multisystem autosomal dominant disorder with a wide variety of clinical manifestations. It is also known as arteriohepat ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Allen Test The Allen test (AT) is used to assess collateral blood flow to the hands. The radial artery is easily palpable. The need for this test arises from the ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alprostadil Alprostadil is a medication used in the management and treatment of erectile dysfunction in males and for temporary patency of ductus arteriosus in ne ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amiloride Amiloride is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension and heart failure. It is in the diuretic class of drugs. This activity ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angiography Angiography is performed to image the anatomical and structural details of the vascular system, including the cardiac chambers. Initially used for str ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angioplasty Angioplasty with or without stenting is a nonsurgical procedure used to open clogged or narrow coronary arteries due to underlying atherosclerosis. Th ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEI) ACE inhibitors are medications used in the treatment and management of hypertension, which is a significant risk factor for coronary disease heart fai ... Read the Article 1.5 24 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angiotensin II Angiotensin is a peptide endocrine hormone and an important part of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, an inter-related endocrine system import ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anoxic Encephalopathy Anoxic encephalopathy, or hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, is a process that begins with the cessation of cerebral blood flow to brain tissue, which mos ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anteroseptal Myocardial Infarction Anteroseptal myocardial infarctions are commonly caused by rupture of an unstable atherosclerotic plaque in the left anterior descending artery. Delay ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antiarrhythmic Medications The antiarrhythmic medications have typically been categorized according to the Vaughan-Williams (VW) classification system. The system classifies the ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anticoagulation This activity reviews the general principles in anticoagulation therapy, with highlights on the different types, indications, and perioperative impact ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antilipemic Agent Bile Acid Sequestrants Bile acid sequestrants are FDA approved to manage hypercholesterolemia. They can be used in combination with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) or ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antiphospholipid Syndrome Antiphospholipid antibodies are autoantibodies that are directed against phospholipid-binding proteins. Antiphospholipid syndrome (APLS) is characteri ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Arch Aneurysm An isolated aortic arch aneurysm represents the less frequent cause of thoracic aortic aneurysms but poses a significant surgical challenge as it invo ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Dissection While uncommon, acute aortic dissection is an infrequent but catastrophic disorder. Patients present with tearing chest pain that radiates to the back ... Read the Article 1.75 27 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Insufficiency A normal aortic valve is comprised of three semilunar cusps that attach to the aortic wall. Aortic regurgitation (AR), also known as aortic insufficie ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Regurgitation Aortic regurgitation is the inadequate closure of the aortic valve during diastole that results in reverse blood flow through the aortic valve. This c ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Rupture Aortic rupture can occur from multiple causes, which include blunt aortic injury resulting from rapid deceleration, penetrating trauma, and spontaneou ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Stenosis Aortic stenosis is a common valvular disorder, especially in the elderly population, causing left ventricular outflow obstruction. Etiologies include ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Transection Aortic transection is an injury encountered with blunt thoracic trauma with substantial morbidity and mortality. Many patients with aortic transection ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Trauma Aortic injury is one of the most time-sensitive, life-threatening conditions. It is second only to head injury as a global leading cause of death. Mos ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Valve Disease Aortic valve disease consists of both regurgitations comprising retrograde flow throw the aortic valve and stenosis or narrowing of the orifice limiti ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Valve Endocarditis Infective endocarditis occurs globally and is defined by the infection of the endocardial surface of the native valve, prosthetic heart valve, or an i ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Valve Endocarditis Surgical Treatment Infective endocarditis is an infectious disease involving the endocardial surface of the heart and can include the valves and/or the mural endocardium ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Valve Repair Aortic valve repair is performed to treat aortic valve insufficiency with outcomes comparable to the valve replacement. When performed in a high volum ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Valve Replacement The aortic valve lies at the junction of the left ventricle and aorta and is a semilunar valve with three leaflets. It allows unidirectional blood flo ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Valve Ross Operation The Ross procedure, also known as the switch procedure or pulmonary autograft procedure, is a cardiac surgery in which a diseased aortic valve is repl ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Valvular Atresia Aortic valvular atresia is a congenital condition in which the aortic valvular cusps are fused at birth. It frequently forms as a spectrum of malforma ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortopulmonary Septal Defect An aortopulmonary or septal defect/aortopulmonary window is one of the rarest congenital heart defects. This defect develops embryologically when ther ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortopulmonary Window Aortopulmonary Window is a rare congenital cardiac malformation that can lead to congestive cardiac failure if left untreated. To avoid the high morbi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC), a condition also known as arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD), is a genetic diso ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arterial Pressure Monitoring Arterial pressure monitoring is a form of invasive blood pressure monitoring and is done through the cannulation of a peripheral artery. This form of ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arytenoid Subluxation Arytenoid subluxation or dislocation is a rare laryngeal injury that occurs as a result of airway instrumentation or direct trauma to the cricoaryteno ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aspergilloma An aspergilloma is a fungus ball or mycetoma composed of Aspergillus hyphae along with cellular debris and mucus. It is a noninvasive type of chronic ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aspergillosis Aspergillosis is a disease caused by the fungus Aspergillus. It mostly occurs in the form of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA), aspergilloma or al ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Asystole Asystole, colloquially referred to as flatline, represents the cessation of electrical and mechanical activity of the heart. Asystole typically occurs ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrial Fibrillation Atrial fibrillation is the most common type of cardiac arrhythmia. It is the leading cardiac cause of stroke. Risk factors for atrial fibrillation inc ... Read the Article 2 31 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrial Flutter Atrial flutter, a supraventricular arrhythmia, is one of the most common rhythm disturbances of the heart. It is characterized by a fast atrial rate w ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrial Myxoma Myxomas are the most common primary cardiac tumor. It is estimated that more than 75% of myxomas originate in the left atrium either at the mitral ann ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrial Septal Defect Atrial septal defect (ASD) is one of the most common types of congenital heart defects, occurring in about 25% of children. An atrial septal defect oc ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrioventricular Canal Defects Atrioventricular canal defects comprise a spectrum of defects such as exclusive ventricular or atrial defects, septal defects, atrioventricular anomal ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrioventricular Dissociation Atrioventricular dissociation is a cardiac conduction defect where the atria and ventricles beat independently of each other. It can occur due to vari ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrioventricular Septal Defect The atrioventricular septal defect is a congenital cardiac malformation that is characterized by a variable degree of the atrial and ventricular septa ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Austin Flint Murmur American physician Austin Flint first described his namesake murmur in 1862. In his own poetic words: "The murmur is oftener rough than soft. The roug ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Automatic Internal Cardiac Defibrillator The automated internal cardiac defibrillator or shock box is the common name given to the Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD). ICD is a state ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Autotransfusion Autotransfusion has not always been a safe procedure. The first known documented procedure of autotransfusion was performed in 1818 by Dr. James Blund ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Azithromycin Azithromycin is an antibiotic medication used in the treatment and management of bacterial infections, including community-acquired pneumonia and sexu ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacteremia Bacteremia, in the strictest sense, refers to viable bacteria in the blood. Asymptomatic bacteremia can occur in normal daily activities such as condu ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacterial Endocarditis Bacterial endocarditis refers to infection of the endocardial surface of the heart. It usually involves heart valves, but it can occur on the endocard ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Balloon Valvuloplasty Balloon valvuloplasty is a cardiac intervention to open up a stenotic or stiffed heart valves (e.g., aortic or mitral) using a catheter with a balloon ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bicuspid Aortic Valve A bicuspid aortic valve is a common congenital heart defect in which the bicuspid aortic valve contains two cusps instead of the usual three. This lea ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bidirectional Glenn Procedure or Hemi-Fontan The bidirectional Glenn (BDG) and hemi-Fontan are the types of surgical techniques used to create superior cavopulmonary anastomosis, the second stage ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bilateral Vocal Cord Paralysis Vocal cord paralysis refers to the immobility of a vocal cord, which can be due to pathology of the vocal ford (also known as the vocal fold) itself, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bioprosthetic Stented Pericardial Porcine Aortic Valve Replacement Aortic valve repair is performed because severe aortic valvular disease uncorrected mortality rates are dismal. Half of the patients presenting with a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blood Donation Blood donation is a vital part of worldwide healthcare. It allows for blood transfusion as a life-sustaining and life-saving procedure. Over one hundr ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blood Gas Temperature Correction Blood gas temperature correction is an important process to implement when assessing blood gas laboratory values. The laws of physics concerning gas s ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blood Transfusion Blood transfusions are a relatively common medical procedure and while typically safe, there are multiple complications that practitioners need to be ... Read the Article 1.25 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blunt Cardiac Injury A cardiac contusion is a misnomer used to indicate injury to the heart after blunt chest trauma. Because of the term's ambiguity in describing a spect ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bosentan Pulmonary artery hypertension has proven to cause significant mortality and morbidity worldwide. The first-line treatment option for pulmonary artery ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bronchogenic Cyst Bronchogenic cysts are foregut-derived cystic malformations of the respiratory tract. They are usually located within the mediastinum at an early stag ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bronchopleural Fistula Bronchopleural fistula (BPF) is a sinus tract between the main stem, lobar, or segmental bronchus and the pleural space. Treatment for BPF ranges from ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bronchoscopy A bronchoscopy is an essential tool for clinicians and health care providers treating patients with lung diseases. Since its introduction to clinical ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brugada Syndrome Brugada syndrome is a rare but potentially life-threatening inherited disease that predisposes patients to fatal cardiac arrhythmias. The syndrome is ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Calcified Plaque Coronary artery calcification is frequently encountered during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Calcified plaque poses numerous challenges t ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Abscess A cardiac abscess is a suppurative infection of the myocardium, endocardium, native or prosthetic valve tissue. Similar to other abscesses, it develop ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Cancer Cardiac tumors are uncommon and can be primary or metastatic. Primary cardiac tumors are rare, and the incidence is from 0.001 to 0.3% by autopsy. The ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Catheterization Risks and Complications Cardiac catheterization is one of the most widely performed cardiac procedures. In the United States, more than 1,000,000 cardiac catheterization proc ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Chromaffin Cell Pheochromocytoma Cardiac pheochromocytoma is a rare type of primary cardiac tumor. It is a catecholamine-secreting tumor that can cause serious morbidity and mortality ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Cirrhosis Cardiac cirrhosis is a term used to include the spectrum of hepatic disorders that occur secondary to hepatic congestion due to cardiac dysfunction, e ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Fibroma Cardiac fibromas are the second most common primary cardiac tumor after rhabdomyoma in children. They are primarily composed of connective tissue and ... Read the Article 0.75 2 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Rehabilitation Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and the leading cause of death in the United States. Cardiac rehabilitati ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Rhabdomyoma Cardiac rhabdomyoma is a rare tumor. It arises from the striated muscles. It is a type of hamartoma seen in the pediatric age group. Although mostly a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Risk Assessment This activity reviews the presurgical cardiac risk assessment and highlights the role of the interprofessional team in optimizing presurgical fitness ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Stress Imaging Cardiac stress imaging is a noninvasive modality used in evaluating coronary artery disease, myocardium viability, and exercise capacity. This activit ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Surgery Cardiac surgery is the specialty of medicine concerning the surgical treatment of pathologies related to the heart and thoracic aorta. The spectrum of ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Tamponade Cardiac tamponade is a medical emergency that takes place when abnormal amounts of fluid accumulate in the pericardial sac compressing the heart and l ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Trauma Cardiac trauma can be categorized as either blunt or penetrating according to the mechanism of injury. Outcomes range from spontaneously-resolving arr ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Ultrasound Cardiac ultrasound, or echocardiography, is a noninvasive diagnostic modality that can provide detailed hemodynamic information in a short period of t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema Pulmonary edema refers to the accumulation of excessive fluid in the alveolar walls and alveolar spaces of the lungs. It can be a life-threatening con ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiogenic Shock Cardiogenic shock is a primary cardiac disorder characterized by a low cardiac output state of circulatory failure that results in end-organ hypoperfu ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiomegaly Cardiomegaly is an umbrella designation for a variety of conditions leading to enlargement of the heart which usually remains undiagnosed until the sy ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardioplegia Cardioplegia serves to intentionally and temporarily arrest the heart for myocardial protection during cardiac surgery. This activity describes cardio ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiopulmonary Bypass Cardiopulmonary bypass has become the standard of care for many cardiac procedures. The procedure is relatively safe if the duration of surgery is not ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is a diagnostic modality used to evaluate a patient's functional capacity. The test can provide a wealth of kn ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiopulmonary Fitness Cardiopulmonary fitness testing is a durable and versatile tool that provides valuable diagnostic and prognostic information regarding patients with c ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carney Complex Carney complex (CNC) is a rare genetic disorder associated with one of the multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes. Carney complex affects multip ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotid Artery Stenosis The distinction between hemodynamic and embolic stroke in the setting of chronic internal carotid artery occlusion is important. Embolic symptoms are ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotid Artery Stenting Traditionally, carotid endarterectomy (CEA) has been the primary method of treating high-grade asymptomatic and symptomatic carotid artery stenosis. A ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotid Artery Surgery Symptoms of extracranial carotid disease are usually caused by embolization. Arterial emboli account for approximately 25 percent of strokes in Europe ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotid Bruit A carotid bruit is a vascular sound usually heard with a stethoscope over the carotid artery because of turbulent, non-laminar blood flow through a st ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotid Contusion The neck has several important anatomical structures which include the carotid arteries bilaterally. While the injury to the carotid artery is not a c ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotid Endarterectomy Atherosclerosis can lead to a build-up of plaque in the carotid artery, causing narrowing and carotid artery disease, which increases the risk for cer ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Catheter Ablation Catheter ablation is a rapidly evolving field and has proven to be a valid solution for many patients suffering from recurrent arrhythmias. Even thoug ... Read the Article 0.75 2 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Catheter Management Of Aortic Valve Disorders Aortic valve disease is one of the most common valvular disorders in the United States and worldwide. Transcatheter management is emerging as a releva ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Catheter Management Of Coarctation Coarctation of the aorta is a narrowing of the aorta typically at the location of the ductus arteriosus distal to the left subclavian artery accountin ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Catheter Management Of Left Atrial Appendage Closure Devices For patients with atrial fibrillation, percutaneous left atrial appendage closure (LAAC) emerged as a valid alternative to oral anticoagulation. This ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Catheter Management Of Mitral Stenosis The diagnostic test of choice for percutaneous transcatheter mitral valve replacement (PMVR) remains to be the echocardiogram. While surgery is the pr ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Catheter Management Of Patent Foramen Ovale Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a common abnormality that describes the presence of a small opening between the top two chambers of the heart. Several l ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Catheter Management Of Ventricular Septal Defect Traditionally, ventricular septal defects (VSDs) have been closed with an open approach, but since then, a percutaneous transcatheter closure been dev ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Catheter Management Pulmonary Valvular Disorders Transcatheter intervention for right ventricular outflow tract obstruction with balloon angioplasty and stent implantation was a remarkable advancemen ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cavernous Sinus Syndromes Cavernous sinus syndrome (CSS) is any disease process that affects the cavernous sinus. It presents as proptosis, chemosis, ophthalmoplegia, Horner sy ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central Venous Catheter Central venous catheter insertion is a common and often, necessary procedure for the care of critically ill patients. Central venous access may be att ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Spine Fractures Overview The cervical spine is a dynamic structure tasked with protecting nervous innervation to the entire body while also maintaining a range of motion for t ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chagas Disease Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) is a zoonotic disease caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. This is a vector-borne illness spread by the ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chest Tube A chest tube, also known as a thoracostomy tube, is a flexible tube that can be inserted through the chest wall and into the pleural space. This activ ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chest Wall Deformities Chest wall deformities are a set of congenital diseases; these can manifest as; an isolated feature, with other congenital anomalies, or as part of a ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cholesterol Emboli Cholesterol embolization syndrome occurs when atheromatous plaques in large arteries release cholesterol emboli and atheromatous debris into the circu ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Coronary Occlusion Chronic coronary occlusion or chronic total occlusion (CTO) has a wide spectrum ranging from subtotal to total coronary involvement. The diagnosis is ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Ischemic Heart Disease Selection of Treatment Modality The term stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) often is used synonymously with chronic coronary artery disease (CAD) and encompasses a variety of condi ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Thrombo-Embolic Pulmonary Hypertension Chronic pulmonary embolism (also known as chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension) is a potentially life-threatening condition and is associated ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Total Occlusion Of The Coronary Artery Chronic total occlusion (CTO) lesions are diagnosed in patients who are undergoing coronary angiography as part of the evaluation of ischemic heart di ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chylothorax A chylothorax is the accumulation of chyle in the pleural space. This is most commonly seen following traumatic disruption of the thoracic duct, and i ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ciliary Dysfunction The majority of newborns with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), formerly known as immotile cilia syndrome, develop neonatal respiratory distress with ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cirrhotic Cardiomyopathy Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy is a type of cardiac dysfunction that develops in patients with cirrhosis without other known cardiac disease. It develops in ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clonidine Clonidine is an antihypertensive medication that acts on alpha-adrenergic and imidazoline receptors agonists. Clonidine is an antihypertensive drug th ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coarctation of the Aorta Coarctation of the aorta is a narrowing of the aorta, most commonly occurring just beyond the left subclavian artery. However, it can occur in various ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Commotio Cordis Commotio cordis is ventricular fibrillation precipitated by blunt trauma to the heart. Although it is infrequent, it is an important cause of sudden ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Complex Coronary Artery Lesions Contemporary treatment of coronary artery disease is highly dependent on percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) along with medical management. PCI t ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Pulmonary Airway Malformation Congenital pulmonary airway malformation is a congenital lung disease that can present from the prenatal period to childhood. Though rare overall, it ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congestive Heart Failure Heart failure is a complex clinical syndrome in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the requirements of the body. It results from a ... Read the Article 1.5 24 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Constrictive Pericarditis The pericardium is the fibroelastic sac that covers the heart. Besides acting as a protective barrier, it also affects cardiac hemodynamics. Constrict ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Constrictive-Effusive Pericarditis Constrictive pericarditis involves scarring and loss of elasticity of the pericardium surrounding the heart, leading to impaired filling. Effusive-con ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cor Pulmonale Cor pulmonale is a Latin word that means "pulmonary heart," its definition varies, and presently, there is no consensual definition. Cor pulmonale can ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cor Triatriatum Cor triatriatum is a rare congenital heart defect in which a thin, fibromuscular membrane causes division of either the right or left atrium, resultin ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Arterial Pressure Evaluation Coronary artery pressure measurement is fundamental in treating angiographically intermediate lesions. Inappropriate percutaneous coronary interventio ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Arteriovenous Fistula Coronary arteriovenous fistula should be suspected in patients who present with unexplained heart failure, have continuous murmur on auscultation, and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Artery Anomalies With the increasing application of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) as the standard of care for patients with acute chest pain, health ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is a major surgical operation where atheromatous blockages in a patient’s coronary arteries are bypassed with h ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Of The Gastroepiploic Artery Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has been the mainstay for the treatment of coronary artery disease for several decades. Various vessels have be ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Redo The coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) procedure is used to improve blood flow to at-risk areas of myocardial tissues. When a patient requires subseq ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Artery Calcification Arterial calcium development is closely related to vascular injury, inflammation, and repair. Calcification occurs very early in the process of athero ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Artery Dissection Coronary artery dissection is the separation of the coronary arterial wall and can be spontaneous, traumatic, or iatrogenic. This activity will focus ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Artery Fistula Coronary artery fistulas are aberrant connections between coronary arteries and other structures, such as other branches of arteries or heart chambers ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Artery Perforation Coronary artery perforation is a rare complication associated with a percutaneous coronary intervention. This activity highlights the risk factors, de ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Artery Stents Coronary artery stents have become the cornerstone in the management and treatment of coronary artery disease. This activity illustrates the indicatio ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Artery Surgery Coronary artery surgery is performed because coronary artery disease remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Variations in technique a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Artery Thrombus The pathogenesis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and unstable angina is the rupture of the coronary artery plaque resulting in acute thrombotic o ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Artery Vasospasm Coronary artery vasospasm (CAVS) is a constriction of the coronary arteries that can cause complete or near-complete occlusion of the vessel. In 1959, ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Cameral Fistula Coronary cameral fistula is an abnormal communication existing between a coronary artery and any cardiac chamber. It appears in less than 1% of the po ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary CT Angiography Chest pain is often the herald of cardiovascular disease and is one of the most common diagnostic challenges encountered by practicing clinicians. Car ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Ectasia Treatment of coronary ectasia encompasses multiple options across different disciplines. The treatment goal is to correct the defects leading to ische ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Flow Effects of Arterial Spasm or Microembolization Two conditions that can lead to angina symptoms include coronary artery spasm and microembolization. Coronary artery spasm can cause partial or comple ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Sinus Thrombosis The coronary venous system generally receives minimal attention in the medical literature. Even though the coronary sinus is a major access site for m ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Stents Coronary stents (CS) are expandable tubular metallic devices which are introduced into coronary arteries that are clogged due to an underlying atheros ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Craniotomy A craniotomy is a surgical procedure in which a part of the skull is temporarily removed to expose the brain and perform an intracranial procedure. Th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cryoballoon Pulmonary Vein Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia encountered in the United States. The prevalence of atrial fibrillation dramatically in ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cyanosis Cyanosis is characterized by a blueish discoloration of the skin or mucous membranes. Cyanosis is frequently encountered in clinical practice, and the ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cyanotic Heart Disease Congenital heart disease (CHD) are structural abnormalities of the heart or intrathoracic great vessels occurring during fetal development. CHD is the ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Defibrillation Cardiac defibrillation is the act of administering a transthoracic electrical current to a person experiencing one of the two lethal ventricular dysrh ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
DeWinter Pattern Acute coronary syndromes are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis has a central role, as to allow a timely reperfusion strategy. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dexmedetomidine The FDA-approved indications for dexmedetomidine are sedation of intubated and mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit (ICU), and ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetic Perioperative Management With the rising prevalence of diabetes mellitus; an increasing number of people with diabetes undergo surgery each year. This activity highlights the ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diagnostic Ultrasound Use In Undifferentiated Hypotension Hypotension is a common presentation. At times, the available history is limited and the physical exam alone can be misleading. Multiple ultrasound pr ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dialysis Fistula Dialysis fistula creation is a commonly performed procedure for patients with end-stage renal disease who require permanent vascular access for hemodi ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diaphragm Disorders The diaphragm is a vital organ for mammals as it is the primary muscle for respiration. Diaphragmatic paralysis is the loss of its muscular power and ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diaphragm Eventration Diaphragm eventration is the permanent elevation of a hemidiaphragm and can be due to congenital or acquired causes. Diaphragm eventration can become ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diaphragm Injury The diaphragm is composed of the central tendon, costal, sternal, and lumbar components, the lateral parts of which are a continuation of the oblique ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diaphragm Rupture Diaphragmatic injuries are relatively uncommon, representing less than 1% of traumatic injuries. They are typically considered a marker of severe trau ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diaphragm Trauma The diagnosis of traumatic diaphragm injuries (TDI) can be difficult but is critical, as a delayed diagnosis can carry significant sequelae. TDIs can ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diaphragmatic Pacing Diaphragm pacing is a procedure that is performed to stimulate the phrenic nerve to cause diaphragm contraction. This diaphragm contraction helps in g ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dilated Cardiomyopathy Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a disease of the heart muscle characterized by enlargement and dilation of one or both of the ventricles along with im ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dipyridamole Dipyridamole is an antiplatelet agent used in secondary prophylaxis against stroke and as an adjunctive agent with warfarin post mechanical valve repl ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dipyridamole Nuclear Stress Test While conventional stress tests are exercise based, in certain circumstances, there may be contraindications to exercise. In these cases, pharmacologi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Direct Laryngoscopy Direct laryngoscopy allows visualization of the larynx. It is used during general anesthesia, for surgical procedures of the larynx, and during resusc ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Distributive Shock As is true of the four broad classifications of shock, distributive shock, also known as vasodilatory shock, causes inadequate tissue perfusion. In di ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Double Aortic Arch Double aortic arch is the commonest form of a group of defects that affect the development of the aorta. This defect causes an abnormal circular forma ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Double Chambered Right Ventricle The double-chambered right ventricle was first described in the 19th century. It is now considered a distinctive anatomic entity; wherein there is a m ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Double Orifice Mitral Valve Double orifice mitral valve (DOMV) is a rare, congenital, or acquired anomaly that is typically asymptomatic. With time, however, it may lead to mitra ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dressler Syndrome Dressler syndrome, also known as postmyocardial infarction syndrome, is a form of secondary pericarditis with or without pericardial effusion that occ ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Drug Induced Valvular Heart Disease Drug-induced valvular heart disease (DIVHD) is a condition involving changes in the morphology and functionality of valvular leaflets secondary to exp ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Duodenal Atresia And Stenosis Duodenal atresia is a congenital intestinal obstruction that can cause bilious or nonbilious vomiting within the first 24 to 38 hours of neonatal life ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dyspnea on Exertion Dyspnea, also called shortness of breath, is a patient's perceived difficulty to breathe. Sensations and intensity can vary and are subjective. It is ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ebstein Anomaly And Malformation Ebstein anomaly of the tricuspid valve is a congenital malformation, in which there is downward displacement of insertion of septal and posterior leaf ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Echocardiogram Cardiac echocardiography is a safe and non-invasive test that provides the clinical team with important cardiac function data. This functional data is ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ehlers Danlos Syndrome Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a genetic disorder affecting collagen formation and function. It affects virtually every organ system, which can resul ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Eisenmenger Syndrome Eisenmenger syndrome (ES) is a constellation of symptoms that arise from a congenital heart defect and result in large anatomic shunts. Due to anatomi ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Electrical Alternans Electrical alternans is defined as alternating QRS amplitudes in any or all leads on an electrocardiogram (ECG) with no additional evident changes in ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Electrophysiologic Testing The invasive electrophysiological study (EPS) became a widely used procedure, performed all over the world as an essential part of the diagnosis of ar ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Emergency Room Thoracotomy An emergency room thoracotomy is performed in selected cases of direct thoracic injury concurrently with ACLS/ATLS resuscitation. Survival rates are l ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Endocardial Fibroelastosis Endocardial fibroelastosis (EFE) is primarily a disease of infants and children, but can rarely present in adulthood as well. In 1943, Endocardial fib ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Endocarditis Infective endocarditis is a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality in children and adolescents despite new advantages in management and prophyla ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Endocarditis Antibiotic Regimens Infective endocarditis is an uncommon infection with a high mortality rate. It requires prompt identification and carefully selected antibiotic therap ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Endomyocardial Biopsy The role and utility of endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) in the work-up of cardiovascular diseases remains controversial and the practice varies widely in ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Endomyocardial Fibrosis Endomyocardial fibrosis (EMF) is characterized by left and right ventricular endocardial fibrosis and resultant restrictive cardiomyopathy. EMF is rar ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Endoscopic Vein Harvesting Endoscopic vein harvesting (EVH) is a procedure to harvest the greater saphenous vein (GSV), the most widely used conduit in coronary artery bypass gr ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Endotracheal Tube In its simplest form, the endotracheal tube is a tube constructed of polyvinyl chloride that is placed between the vocal cords through the trachea. It ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidural Anesthesia Epidural anesthesia is a technique that may be used as a primary surgical anesthetic or as a resource for postoperative pain management. It is safe an ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epiphrenic Diverticula Epiphrenic diverticulum, also known as a pulsion diverticulum, is a rare type of esophageal diverticulum occurring in the distal 10 centimeters of the ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esmolol Esmolol (esmolol hydrochloride) is an intravenous cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic antagonist. Esmolol is used in various settings including urgent c ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophageal Atresia The trachea and esophagus arise from a separation of a common foregut tube during early fetal development. Failure of separation or complete developme ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophageal Perforation And Tears Esophageal perforation poses a significant interprofessional challenge to the entire therapeutic team. It can occur in three different anatomical comp ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophageal Trauma Esophageal injury (EI) is a rare but challenging clinical finding in the setting of trauma. Esophageal injuries or perforations are transmural disrupt ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Essential Hypertension The current definition of hypertension (HTN) is systolic blood pressure (SBP) values of 130mmHg or more and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) more tha ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ethacrynic Acid Ethacrynic acid is a medication used in the management and treatment of chronic heart failure. It is in the loop diuretic class of drugs. This activit ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Excimer Laser Coronary Angioplasty Excimer laser coronary angioplasty (ELCA) is a safe and effective technique as an adjunct to conventional PCI and can improve clinical outcomes when u ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Familial Hypercholesterolemia Familial hypercholesterolemia is known as a group of inherited genetic defects that lead to the severe elevation of serum cholesterol concentrations. ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Felodipine Felodipine is a medication used in the management and treatment of essential hypertension. It is a member of the dihydropyridine class of calcium chan ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Femoral Aneurysm Femoral artery pseudoaneurysm consists of an outpouching of 1 or 2 layers of the vessel wall. A true aneurysm, on the other hand, involves all the 3 l ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Femoral Vascular Closure Devices After Catheterization Procedure Femoral vascular closure devices have become powerful tools for interventional cardiologists and other proceduralists to achieve hemostasis at the cat ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fibrinogen Fibrinogen is a 340kDa hexameric plasma glycoprotein synthesized by the liver and is the major structural component of a clot. The type of fibrinogen ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fibrinous Pericarditis The fibrous pericardium is the outer layer and holds the heart in place and protect it from surrounding infections. It is composed of thick connective ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Flecainide Flecainide is a class IC antiarrhythmic agent. This activity will highlight the mechanism of action, pharmacodynamics, evidenced-based usage and toxic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fludeoxyglucose (18F) Fludeoxyglucose F18 is a radioactive tracer that acts as a glucose analog and is used for diagnostic purposes in conjunction with Positron Emitting To ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fontan Completion The Fontan procedure provides a palliative treatment option for children that are diagnosed with functionally univentricular congenital heart disease. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fractional Flow Reserve Angiographic results alone can guide the decision to perform a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Angiography is used to visually assess the co ... Read the Article 0.75 2 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fungal Endocarditis Endocarditis is the inflammation of the endocardium, the innermost lining of the heart. Endocarditis may be due to infective or non-infective etiologi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Heart Transplantation A heart transplant is performed in patients with refractory acute and chronic heart failure. An orthotopic heart transplant is the most commonly utili ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Heart Transplantation Allograft Vasculopathy Despite advances in mechanical circulatory support, cardiac transplant remains the definitive treatment intervention for patients with advanced heart ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Heart Transplantation Patient Selection Heart failure (HF) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States and worldwide, and falls second only to pancreatic cancer as the p ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Heart Transplantation Rejection Heart transplantation (HTx) is a procedure performed in patients with end-stage heart failure (HF) who remain symptomatic despite appropriate medical ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Heart-Lung Transplantation A heart-lung transplant is performed for unsalvagable dual cardiac and pulmonary failure. An organ transplant is an established life-saving therapy fo ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemorrhagic Shock Shock refers to the inadequate perfusion of tissues due to the imbalance between oxygen demand of tissues and the body’s ability to supply it. Classic ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemothorax Hemothorax is a collection of blood in the space between the visceral and parietal pleura (pleural space). The clinical findings in such patients incl ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Heparin Unfractionated heparin is an anticoagulant indicated for both the prevention and treatment of thrombotic events such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Heparin Induced Thrombocytopenia Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a severe complication that can occur in patients exposed to any form or amount of heparin products. A fall i ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Heyde Syndrome Heyde syndrome is a multisystem disorder characterized by the triad of aortic stenosis (AS), gastrointestinal bleeding, and acquired von Willebrand sy ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
High-Output Cardiac Failure High-output cardiac failure is a less common form of heart failure, and although it may sound contradictory at first, in the simplest form, it is stil ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Holiday Heart Syndrome The holiday heart syndrome is a common cause of cardiac disease predominantly in the United States of America. The Holiday heart syndrome, also referr ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Holt Oram Syndrome Holt-Oram syndrome also referred to as the heart-hand syndrome, is an autosomal dominant disorder that is distinguished by upper limb abnormalities in ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Horseshoe Kidney Horseshoe kidneys are the most common fusion defect of the kidneys occurring in approximately 1:500 individuals. They are characterized by abnormaliti ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Complications Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is generally a relatively safe therapy for various conditions. However, there are some adverse side effects. When adv ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypercalcemia Calcium is the most abundant cation found in the human body and plays an integral role in neural transmission, enzyme activity, myocardial function, c ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperglycemia The term "hyperglycemia" derived from the Greek hyper (high) + glykys (sweet/sugar) + haima (blood). Hyperglycemia is blood glucose greater than 125 m ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperkalemia Hyperkalemia is defined as a serum or plasma potassium level above the upper limits of normal, usually greater than 5.0 mEq/L to 5.5 mEq/L. While mild ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperlipidemia Hyperlipidemia is a term that encompasses various genetic and acquired disorders that describe elevated lipid levels within the body. It is a very com ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by a mutation in sarcomere protein genes which effect contraction of the hea ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM), historically referred to as idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis, is a relatively common disorde ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a type of congenital heart disease that results in the underdevelopment of the left-sided structures of the ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypoplastic Lung Disease Pulmonary hypoplasia is a relatively uncommon medical condition characterized by incomplete development of the lungs that can affect the overall devel ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypothermia Accidental hypothermia occurs when the body dissipates more heat than it absorbs or creates, leaving the body unable to generate sufficient heat to ma ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypovolemic Shock Patients with hypovolemic shock have severe hypovolemia with decreased peripheral perfusion. If left untreated, these patients can develop ischemic in ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Iatrogenic Pneumothorax Pneumothorax is gas in the pleural space. This condition can present in one of three ways: spontaneous (primary), secondary, and traumatic. This activ ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ibutilide Ibutilide is indicated for the conversion of acute atrial flutter and atrial fibrillation to normal sinus rhythm (NSR). Off-label uses of ibutilide in ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Idiopathic Pulmonary Artery Hypertension Pulmonary hypertension, also known as idiopathic pulmonary artery hypertension (IPAH), it is a progressive disease that affects the precapillary pulmo ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Idioventricular Rhythm Idioventricular rhythm is a slow regular ventricular rhythm with a rate of less than 50 bpm, absence of P waves, and a prolonged QRS interval. When th ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Implantable Defibrillator Practitioners use the terms sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) and sudden cardiac death interchangeably; however, their definitions are distinct. Sudden card ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Implantable Loop Recorder Ambulatory electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring is an invaluable tool to assist in diagnosing certain cardiac conditions. There are a variety of ambulat ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Infectious Endocarditis Infectious endocarditis refers to the colonization of cardiac valve endocardium by virulent microorganisms. It is a rare condition that can lead to r ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Inferior Myocardial Infarction Without timely treatment, coronary artery occlusion results in decreased perfusion to the myocardium, resulting in myocardial ischemia followed by my ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Inferior Vena Cava Filter Inferior vena cava filters (IVC filters) are indicated as a treatment to prevent pulmonary embolism in a select group of patients that have venous thr ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Inhalation Injury Inhalation injury is a broad term that includes pulmonary exposure to a wide range of chemicals in various forms including smoke, gases, vapors, or fu ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Innominate Artery Injury Innominate artery injuries can present either by penetrating or blunt force. A provider must make a quick decision on treatment to avoid the feared mo ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Inotropes And Vasopressors Vasopressors and inotropes are medications used to create vasoconstriction or increase cardiac contractility, respectively, in patients with shock. Th ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intercostal Nerve Block An intercostal nerve block is simple to perform and useful for pain management, either as a primary intervention or as an adjunct. In particular, inte ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Internal Mammary Artery Bypass Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death worldwide, and coronary artery bypass graft is considered the mainstay for the treatment of seve ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Interpleural Analgesia The interpleural analgesic technique was first described by Reiestad et al. for the treatment of acute postoperative pain. It is believed that this te ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Interrupted Aortic Arch A rare type of congenital heart disease is an interrupted aortic arch (IAA), which affects approximately 1.5% of congenital heart disease patients. In ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Interventricular Septum Abscess An interventricular septal abscess is a life-threatening complication of infective endocarditis. It occurs as a consequence of either native or prosth ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump This activity reviews the indications and contraindications of intra-aortic balloon pump in the patients with cardiogenic shock secondary to various c ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intracardiac Shunts Intracardiac shunts are abnormal pathways for blood flow in the heart that form either in addition to or in place of normal pathways for blood flow. T ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intracoronary Stents On September 16, 1977, in Zurich Germany, Andreas Grunzig performed the first balloon angioplasty in a coronary artery on Andreas Bachman. Grunzig use ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intraoperative Echocardiography Although transesophageal ultrasound was first reported in the 1970s, the advent of phased array transducers and flexible transesophageal probes in the ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intravascular Lithotripsy Shockwave intravascular lithotripsy is a novel device that modifies calcified lesions via calcium fracture to allow for effective stent deployment. Th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Inverse Ratio Ventilation Inverse ratio ventilation (IRV) is an alternative strategy for mechanical ventilation that reverses the classical inspiratory/expiratory paradigm. Thi ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ischemic Cardiomyopathy Ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) describes ineffective blood pumping by the heart as a result of ischemic damage to the myocardium. It is a common condit ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Isolated Coronary Artery Anomalies Coronary artery anomalies (CAAs) are a varied group of congenital disorders that refer to abnormalities involving the origin, course, and structure of ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Isoproterenol Isoproterenol is a beta-1, and beta-2 adrenergic receptor agonist indicated primarily for bradydysrhythmias. The administration and subsequent post-ad ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Jervell and Lange Nielsen Syndrome Jervell and Lange Nielsen syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by bilateral sensorineural hearing loss and a prolonged QTc in ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Kawasaki Disease Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute, self-limited medium vessel vasculitis that has a predilection for the coronary arteries. This activity reviews the ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ketamine Ketamine (ketamine hydrochloride) has been approved for use in general anesthesia either alone or in combination with other medications. It is a super ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lambls Excrescences Lambl’s excrescences, a histological term describing rare cardiac growths that develop at the valvular coaptation sites of the heart which are seen as ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Late Onset Depression In the older population, one of the serious health concerns that are associated with comorbidity, impaired functioning, excessive use of health care ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lateral Wall Myocardial Infarction Isolated lateral wall myocardial infarction (LMI), similar to other acute myocardial infarctions (MI), is caused by acute atherosclerotic plaque ruptu ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Left Atrial Enlargement Left atrial enlargement (LAE) is an anatomic variation of the left atria and is a result of increased left atrial pressure for a prolonged period. Lef ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Left Ventricular Assist Devices Heart failure (HF) is a frequent cause of inpatient admissions. The Framingham study in 1993 described the risk factors for heart failure and showed u ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Left Ventricular Failure Left heart failure occurs when there is dysfunction of the left ventricle, resulting insufficient delivery of blood to vital organs. Left ventricular ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Left Ventricular False Aneurysm Left ventricular false aneurysm is a rare complication of myocardial rupture contained by non-myocardial tissue. The most common cause of a false aneu ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Left Ventricular Non-compaction Cardiomyopathy Left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC) is a very rare congenital cardiomyopathy. It is a disease of endomyocardial trabeculations that increase in num ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Left Ventricular Rupture Left ventricular (LV) rupture is a catastrophic but a common occurrence with acute myocardial infarction patients. The incidence of LV free-wall ruptu ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Leriche Syndrome Leriche Syndrome also commonly referred to as aortoiliac occlusive disease, is caused by severe atherosclerosis affecting the distal abdominal aorta, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Libman Sacks Endocarditis Libman-Sacks endocarditis, also known as murantic or verrucous endocarditis, is a form of nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE) which involves t ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lobectomy The anatomic resection of an entire lobe of a lung is called a lobectomy. It is usually done with the help of the video scope and with less than 8 cm ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Local Anesthetic Toxicity Local anesthetics are commonly used in most medical and dental practice. While adverse effects are rare, the rising prevalence of local anesthetics in ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Loeffler Endocarditis Loeffler endocarditis is restrictive cardiomyopathy, defined as an impaired relaxation of the heart with impaired diastolic filling. Diffuse eosinophi ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lown Ganong Levine Syndrome Lown-Ganong-Levine (LGL) pattern is a rare pre-excitation pathway that may present on EKG in patients of various ages. Occasionally, tachyarrhythmias ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lung Biopsy This activity reviews salient details regarding accessing tissue specimens via a puncture through the chest wall into the lung (percutaneous lung lesi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lung Biopsy Techniques And Clinical Significance Lung biopsy is a widely accepted procedure for diagnosing pulmonary disorders by obtaining samples of lung tissue. Besides lung nodules and masses, a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lung Isolation Anesthesia Lung isolation involves the utilization of bronchial barrier devices to separate the lungs enabling each lung to function as a separate unit. Lung iso ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lung Torsion Lung torsion is a life-threatening pathology that occurs when the lung or a pulmonary lobe rotates causing vascular and airway obstruction. This is a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lung Transplantation Rejection As the number of lung transplants annually in the US and worldwide has increased, so has the occurrence of lung transplant rejection. Lung transplant ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lung Volume Reduction Surgery Lung volume reduction surgery is performed for patients with end-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to try and improve the quantity and quali ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lutembacher Syndrome Lutembacher syndrome (LS) was first described in a letter by anatomist Johann Friedrich Meckel in 1750. Corvisart who later described the association ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lymphangitic Carcinomatosis Lymphangitic carcinomatosis is the infiltration & inflammation of lymphatic vessels secondary to the spread of malignancy from a primary site. Pulmona ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Malignant Effusion Pleural effusion is a frequent complication of advanced malignancy with significant associated morbidity and mortality. Recent advances in the managem ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Malignant Hypertension Malignant hypertension is a term that has been used to describe patients with elevated blood pressure (BP) and multiple complications with poor progno ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Malignant Hyperthermia Malignant Hyperthermia (MH) is a hereditary disorder of skeletal muscle that classically presents as a hypermetabolic response to halogenated anesthet ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Management of Antithrombotics Around Gastrointestinal Procedures Antiplatelets and anticoagulants are used to reduce the risk of venous thromboembolism in patients at high risk. However, when these patients need ga ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Marfan Syndrome One of the most common inherited disorders affecting connective tissue, Marfan syndrome (MFS) is an autosomal dominant condition with a reported incid ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mechanical Ventilation Although mechanical ventilation can be a complex and seemingly elusive topic, expectations are that healthcare professionals who deal with critically ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mediastinal Cancer The mediastinum is a cavity that separates the lungs from the other structures in the chest. Generally, it is further divided into three main parts: a ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mediastinal Carcinoid Tumors Mediastinal carcinoid tumors are extremely rare malignancies with aggressive behavior and a grim prognosis. These malignancies often go undetected unt ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mediastinal Nonseminoma Germ cell tumors are cancers that arise from the reproductive cells of the testis or ovaries. Germ cell tumors can arise along the track of the migrat ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mediastinal Seminoma Mediastinal seminoma is a malignant germ cell tumor in the mediastinum. The tumor usually occurs in the anterior-superior mediastinum in males aged 20 ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mediastinal Trauma The mediastinum is contained within the thoracic cavity and has a high concentration of major vascular and visceral structures. Traumatic injury to an ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mediastinitis Mediastinitis refers to inflammation or infection that involves the mediastinum, the cavity within the thorax that is bordered by the pleural sacs, th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mediastinoscopy Mediastinoscopy is a thoracic surgical procedure performed with a mediastinoscope to examine the mediastinum— the space in the thoracic cavity between ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mediastinotomy Anterior mediastinotomy (the Chamberlain procedure) is surgical entry to the mediastinum via an incision in the parasternal 2nd left intercostal space ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mid-Ventricular Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy Mid-ventricular Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a rare, reversible myocardial injury that presents with distinctive regional wall abnormalities of the lef ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Milrinone Milrinone is a medication indicated for cardiac support in patients with acute heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, or chronic heart failure. It fun ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Minimally Invasive Aortic Valve Surgery Aortic valve replacement is the standard treatment for patients with severe or symptomatic aortic insufficiency or aortic stenosis. In the past, the s ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mitral Commissurotomy Mitral valve commissurotomy is the technique used to repair mitral valve stenosis. Mitral stenosis is most commonly due to rheumatic heart disease. Th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mitral Regurgitation Mitral regurgitation (MR) is caused by the retrograde flow of blood from the left ventricle (LV) into the left atrium (LA) through the mitral valve (M ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mitral Stenosis Mitral stenosis (MS) is a form of valvular heart disease characterized by narrowing of the mitral valve orifice. The most common cause of mitral steno ... Read the Article 2 34 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mitral Valve Insufficiency This review article discusses clinical aspects of mitral regurgitation (MR), in terms of etiology, epidemiology, diagnosis, management, and treatment ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mitral Valve Prolapse Mitral valve prolapse (MVP), also known as floppy mitral valve syndrome, systolic click-murmur syndrome, and billowing mitral leaflets, is valvular he ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mitral Valve Repair Mitral valve repair is commonly used to treat mitral valve pathology due to mitral regurgitation. Mitral regurgitation (MR) is classified as primary o ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Morgagni Hernia Morgagni hernia are rare congenital diaphragmatic defects that can lead to bowel obstruction and incarceration if not repaired. Surgery can be perform ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Morphine FDA-approved usage of morphine sulfate includes moderate to severe pain that may be acute or chronic. Most commonly used in pain management, morphine ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Multifocal Atrial Tachycardia Multifocal atrial tachycardia (MAT) is a supraventricular tachycardia resulting in a rapid, irregular atrial rhythm that is caused by multiple ectopic ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Multivessel Disease Multivessel disease is defined as significant stenosis (>70%) in two or more major coronary arteries (of =2.5mm diameter). This article helps in under ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mural Thrombi Mural thrombi are thrombi that attach to the wall of a blood vessel and cardiac chamber. Mural thrombus occurrence in a normal or minimally atheroscle ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Myocardial Stunning and Hibernation Coronary artery disease can result in acute and chronic myocardial perfusion deficits. This hypoperfusion can result in impaired myocardial contractil ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Myopericarditis The terms pericarditis refers to inflammation of the pericardium and myocarditis. Both can occur together in clinical practice, and hence the term myo ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nail Clubbing Clubbing of the nails is soft tissue swelling of the terminal phalanx resulting in flattening of the angle that exists between the nail bed and the na ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neonatal Anesthesia Neonatal anesthesia requires a unique knowledge of neonatal physiology, which is different than the physiology of older infants, children, or adults. ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neurological Sequelae Of Endocarditis Endocarditis is inflammation or infection of the endocardium, the inner lining of cardiac valves and cardiac muscle. It most commonly results from bac ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
NICKS Procedure Nicks procedure is performed to avoid patient prosthesis mismatch in patients with the small aortic annulus. The main goal is to implant a prosthetic ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nicotinic Ganglionic Blocker Mecamylamine is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension. It is in the nicotinic ganglion blocker class of drugs. This activi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nitrous Oxide Nitrous oxide is an odorless, colorless, non-flammable gas. While nitrous oxide is not flammable, it will support combustion to the same extent as ox ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Non ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) can be divided into subgroups of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-ST-segment elevation myocardial ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nondepolarizing Paralytics Non-depolarizing, neuromuscular blocking drugs (NMBDs) work by competing with acetylcholine (Ach) for binding sites on nicotinic alpha subunits. They ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nonviral Myocarditis Myocarditis is a significant cause of sudden death and nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy, especially in the young. It has a very diverse and sometime ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Norepinephrine Untreated hypotension can be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Norepinephrine is a first-line agent for hypotension that does not respon ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nosocomial Pneumonia Nosocomial pneumonia or hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is defined as pneumonia that occurs 48 hours or more after hospital admission and not incuba ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ochronosis Ochronosis is named for the reddish-brown hue of tissue termed "ochre-like" that was first described by a young physician named Archibald Garrod in th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Omega-3 Fatty Acids Omega-3 fatty acids is a medication used in the management and treatment of hyperlipidemia. It is in the antilipemic class of medications. This activi ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Open Heart Massage Before the implementation of closed chest compressions in the early 1960s, open cardiac massage was a common procedure performed during cardiac arrest ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Opioid Toxicity Opioids and opiates together comprise a class of medications widely used primarily to control severe pain. If first-line agents are not effective in c ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Oral Hypoglycemic Medications The most effective management of diabetes mellitus demands an interprofessional approach involving both lifestyle modifications with diet and exercise ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Orbital Atherectomy Orbital atherectomy (OA) is an adjunctive therapy used for lesion preparation of calcified plaque with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and pe ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Overdrive Pacing Temporary cardiac pacing (TCP) is a type of exogenous cardiac pacing in which an external energy source that delivers electrical impulses to stimulate ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pacemaker Pacemakers are adjustable artificial electrical pulse generators that can be temporary or permanent. They frequently emit a pulse lasting between 0.5 ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pacemaker Indications Pacemakers are electronic devices that stimulate the heart with electrical impulses to maintain or restore a functional heartbeat. Pacemakers were ini ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pacemaker Malfunction Pacemakers are implanted in patients with rhythmic cardiac problems. These pacemakers can often malfunction and produce a set of symptoms that require ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pacemaker Syndrome Pacemakers have become an established modality for long-term management of life-threatening arrhythmias and can significantly improve patients' qualit ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Palpitations Palpitations are defined as rapid pulsations or abnormally rapid or irregular beating of the heart. They are often described as the perception of a sk ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Papillary Fibroelastoma Papillary fibroelastomas are one of the most common types of primary cardiac tumors. They are increasingly recognized as the spatial resolution of ima ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Papillary Muscle Rupture Papillary muscle rupture is a rare and potentially fatal complication that typically follows a myocardial infarction or occurs secondary to infective ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Paradoxical Embolism Paradoxical embolism is an uncommon cause for acute arterial occlusion. Paradoxical Embolism (PDE) occurs when a thrombus crosses an intracardiac def ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation Atrial fibrillation (AF) causes an irregularly irregular heart rhythm. AF is the most common sustained arrhythmia characterized by disorganized, rapid ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Partial And Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection Total and partial anomalous venous connection comprises a wide spectrum of congenital cardiovascular malformations where one or more pulmonary veins r ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Patent Ductus Arteriosus The ductus arteriosus is a fetal vessel that allows the oxygenated blood from the placenta to bypass the fetal lungs in utero. At birth, a newborn inh ... Read the Article 1.5 24 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Patent Foramen Ovale Patent foramen ovale (PFO) occurs when a remnant of normal fetal anatomy abnormally persists into adulthood. It represents a benign finding in the new ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pectus Carinatum Pectus carinatum is a structural deformity of the chest wall that affects nearly 1 in 1000 teens, and early identification allows for more noninvasive ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pediatric Preoperative Management The preoperative management of anesthesia in children differs from that in adults. These differences include employing cognitive and age-appropriate l ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Penetrating Chest Trauma Chest trauma has quickly risen to be the second most common traumatic injury in non-intentional trauma. Trauma to the chest is also associated with th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pentalogy of Cantrell Pentalogy of Cantrell is a collection of congenital malformations involving the heart, pericardium, diaphragm, sternum, and ventral abdominal wall. It ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pentoxifylline Pentoxifylline is a drug used in the management of peripheral vascular disease. It is a xanthine derivative. This activity outlines the mechanism of a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the leading causes of death. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a non-surgical, invasive procedure wi ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) also called percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a minimally invasive procedure to open b ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Percutaneously Inserted Ventricular Assist Device There are now percutaneous inserted ventricular assist devices available. This device is a non-pulsatile axial flow pump that is placed across the aor ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pericardial Cyst A pericardial cyst is typically considered a congenital anomaly, with most patients diagnosed via incidental findings on routine chest imaging. Rarely ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pericardial Effusion A pericardial effusion refers to the accumulation of excess fluid in the pericardial sac surrounding the heart. In a healthy individual, the pericardi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pericardiocentesis Pericardiocentesis is a procedure performed to remove pericardial fluid from the pericardial sac that surrounds the myocardium. It is often performed ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pericarditis Pericarditis is inflammation of the pericardial sac and is the most common pathologic process involving the pericardium. Temporally, it may be further ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Perioperative Anticoagulation Management Management of perioperative anticoagulation requires an interprofessional approach to determine the duration and discontinuation of temporary interrup ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Perioperative Cardiac Management The importance of the appropriate perioperative cardiac management in non-cardiac surgery lies in the high number of surgical procedures performed eac ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Peripartum Cardiomyopathy Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a rare cause of cardiomyopathy that occurs during late pregnancy or in the early postpartum period. It is characte ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Peripheral Arterial Disease Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a circulatory problem causing a reduced blood flow through the arteries. This typically reduces blood flow to the ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
PHACE Syndrome Infantile hemangioma is the most prevalent benign tumor of infancy, with an estimated incidence between 4 and 5 percent. Large facial segmental hemang ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pharmacological Cardioversion Cardioversion is the process of converting an abnormal and potentially dangerous heart rhythm into a normal sinus rhythm. The normal heart rate comes ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Phrenic Nerve Injury The phrenic nerve is among the most important nerves in the body due to its role in respiration. The phrenic nerve provides the primary motor supply t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Platypnea Platypnea diagnosis and treatment are usually challenging and complex to health practitioners. This activity reviews the causes of Pltypnea, simplifie ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pleurodesis Pleurodesis is a procedure performed to obliterate the pleural space to prevent recurrent pleural effusion or pneumothorax or to treat a persistent pn ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pneumothorax A pneumothorax is a collection of air outside the lung but within the pleural cavity. It occurs when air accumulates between the parietal and visceral ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Poland Syndrome Poland syndrome consists of anatomic anomalies that include the absence of the sternocostal head of the pectoralis major muscle with other varied mani ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Poland Syndrome In Children Poland syndrome encompasses a range of chest wall anomalies with possible ipsilateral upper extremity involvement. This syndrome is an uncommon and di ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Polycystic Kidney Disease Polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is an autosomal dominant disorder. It is a multisystem and progressive disease with cysts formation and kidney enlar ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Polygenic Hypercholesterolemia Hypercholesterolemia causes atherosclerotic vascular disease leading to the development of coronary artery disease, transient ischemic attack, stroke, ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Porcelain Aorta Porcelain aorta (PA) is a structural aortic wall disease characterized by extensive heavy calcification of the ascending thoracic aorta extending to t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Post Infarct Ventricular Septal Rupture The most severe potential complications of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) involve tearing or rupture of acutely infarcted myocardial ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Posterior Myocardial Ischemia Posterior myocardial infarction (PMI) accounts for a substantial number of cases of acute coronary syndrome (ACS); however, true PMI is often under-re ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postoperative Delirium Post-operative delirium (POD) can occur from anywhere between 10 minutes after anesthesia up until discharge from the hospital. It is commonly recogni ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postoperative Wound Infection Postoperative wound infection is a common problem. The process of wound infection is complex and involves an interplay between several biological path ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postpartum Cardiomyopathy Postpartum cardiomyopathy, also known as peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM), is defined as new onset heart failure between the last month of pregnancy a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pregnancy Globally, there are more than 200 million pregnancies each year. Of these pregnancies, more than 40% are unintended. Unintended does not imply unwante ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Premature Ventricular Contraction During a premature ventricular contraction (PVC), the heartbeat is initiated by the Purkinje fibers rather than the SA node. Given that a PVC occurs b ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Presyncope Presyncope or near-syncope is often ill-defined and may have different meanings to different providers but denotes near fainting or a prodrome of sync ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Procedural Sedation Procedural sedation permits the safe performance of procedures that a patient cannot tolerate in the fully conscious state. Through this activity, th ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Protamine Protamine is a medication used to reverse and neutralize the anticoagulant effects of heparin. Protamine is the specific antagonist that neutralizes ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Prothrombin Complex Concentrate Prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) comes from the process of ion-exchange chromatography from the cryoprecipitate supernatant of large plasma pools ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pseudoaneurysm Pseudoaneurysms are false aneurysms that occur at the site of arterial injury. They are unlike true aneurysms as a layer of the arterial wall does no ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformation A pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (PAVM) is a rare pulmonary condition described as a pathologic right-to-left shunt which impairs gas exchange a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformation (AVMs) Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (AVMs) is a rare clinical problem in which abnormal communications develop between a pulmonary artery and a pulmo ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulmonary Artery Banding This activity outlines indications, contraindications, and surgical steps of pulmonary artery banding and highlights the role of the interprofessional ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulmonary Artery Catheterization Pulmonary artery catheterization is a diagnostic procedure in which an intravascular catheter is inserted through a central vein, such as the femoral, ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulmonary Artery Sling Pulmonary artery sling is a specific type of anatomical vascular anomaly that can compress nearby structures. Instead of arising from the main pulmona ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulmonary Atresia With Intact Ventricular Septum This activity provides a detailed review of the complex congenital heart defect pulmonary atresia with the intact ventricular septum. This review art ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulmonary Capillary Wedge Pressure Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) is frequently used to assess left ventricular filling, represent left atrial pressure, and assess mitral val ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulmonary Contusion Pulmonary contusions are lung injuries commonly sustained during cases of blunt chest trauma. These traumatic lung injuries result in impaired gas exc ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulmonary Hypertension Pulmonary hypertension encompasses a heterogeneous group of disorders with the common feature of elevated pulmonary vascular resistance. Patients ofte ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulmonary Papilloma Pulmonary papillomas are benign papillary tumors characterized by a fibrovascular core covered by an epithelium. These tumors are rarely multiple. The ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulmonary Regurgitation Pulmonary regurgitation is a valvular abnormality with a myriad of etiologies, the most common of which being secondary to the repair of tetralogy of ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulmonary Rehabilitation Chronic respiratory disorders are a group of respiratory ailments with significant morbidity. Pulmonary rehabilitation is a comprehensive intervention ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulmonary Sequestration Pulmonary sequestration is thought to account for less than 6 percent of congenital lung malformations. In this condition, there is a nonfunctional se ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulmonic Regurgitation Pulmonic regurgitation (PR) is most commonly seen secondary to various etiologies causing pulmonary hypertension. It also appears in post valvotomy pa ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulmonic Stenosis Pulmonic stenosis is a typically benign condition in most patients. While generally non-life-threatening after the neonatal period, complications and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulsus Paradoxus Pulsus paradoxus refers to a systolic pressure drop greater than 10mmHg during inspiration. Pulsus paradoxus results from alterations in the mechanica ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Quinidine Quinidine is one of the oldest known antiarrhythmics; an interprofessional approach is necessary when using this drug, including specialties such as c ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radial Artery Coronary Bypass The radial artery graft is considered the second option as a conduit after the left internal mammary graft in coronary artery bypass grafting. Multipl ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radiation Esophagitis Radiation esophagitis is inflammation of the esophagitis due to radiation. Radiation esophagitis is typically an adverse effect that develops in indiv ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radiation Induced Coronary Artery Disease Radiation-induced coronary artery disease (RICAD) is the second most common cause of morbidity and mortality in mainly oncology patients treated with ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Injury Recurrent laryngeal nerve injuries are a common cause of vocal cord paresis and resulting in voice changes or hoarseness. The etiology, history, and m ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Reentry Arrhythmia A reentry arrhythmia is a self-sustaining cardiac rhythm abnormality in which the action potential propagates in a manner analogous to a closed-loop c ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Renal Artery Stenosis Renal artery stenosis is narrowing of the one or both of renal arteries. It is the major cause of hypertension and according to some reports is the ca ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Restenosis Despite advances in cardiovascular health and interventional cardiology, coronary restenosis continues to be a challenge for interventional cardiologi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Restrictive Cardiomyopathy Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) is characterized by diastolic dysfunction of a non-dilated ventricle. Multiple types of restrictive cardiomyopathies ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Retinal Hemorrhage Retinal hemorrhages are a common clinical manifestation in patients visiting an eye clinic. Retinal hemorrhages give a clue to an underlying systemic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Retrograde Cardioplegia To ensure the protection of the heart during cardiopulmonary bypass, administration and even distribution of cardioplegia solution to the myocardium i ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rheumatic Heart Disease Rheumatic heart disease is a systemic immune condition that occurs as a complication of rheumatic fever. This occurs after a beta-hemolytic streptococ ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rheumatoid Arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disorder of the joints characterized by inflammatory arthritis as well as extra-articular involvement. It c ... Read the Article 1.75 25 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Right Aortic Arches Right aortic arch anomalies occur in approximately 0.01 to 0.1 percent of the general population. In general, these anomalies do not directly cause an ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Right Heart Cardiac Catheterization Right heart catheterization is an invasive hemodynamic procedure that allows direct measurement of right-sided cardiac pressures and calculation of ca ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Right Heart Failure Heart failure is a condition in which the heart loses its ability to pump blood efficiently to the rest of the body. Right heart failure is most commo ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Right Ventricular Hypertrophy Right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) is a pathologic increase in muscle mass of the right ventricle in response to pressure overload, most commonly due ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Risk Factors For Coronary Artery Disease Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common cause of mortality among adults in the United States. While common, it is preventable. This activity ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rotational Atherectomy Coronary stenoses with circumferential or significant vessel calcification are rigid and frequently not dilatable with use of conventional balloon ang ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Saccular Aneurysm This activity will focus on saccular cerebral and aortic aneurysms. Most cerebral aneurysms are asymptomatic and small, and they are found incidentall ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Saphenous Vein Grafts In 1967 Dr. Rena Favaloro first described the use of an autologous reversed greater saphenous vein (GSV) graft as a bypass graft. The GSV continued t ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Scimitar Syndrome Scimitar syndrome is a rare congenital heart defect, variant of a partial anomalous pulmonary venous return that results in a left-to-right shunt. Thi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Secondary Hypertrophic Osteoarthropathy Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (HOA) is mainly caused by mainly fibrovascular proliferation and is characterized by a combination of clinical findings ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Secondary Pulmonary Hypertension In healthy individuals, the pulmonary circulation is a low-resistance, low-pressure system that allows deoxygenated blood in the right side of the hea ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sengstaken-Blakemore Tube In 1950 Robert W. Sengstaken and Arthur H. Blakemore recognized that the introduction of blood banks and the ability to provide patients with large qu ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sensory and Perceptual Alterations Sensory-perceptual alteration can be defined as when there is a change in the pattern of sensory stimuli, followed by an abnormal response to such sti ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sick Sinus Syndrome Sick sinus syndrome, also known as sinus node dysfunction, is a disorder of the sinoatrial node caused by impaired pacemaker function and impulse tran ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Single Lung Ventilation Single lung ventilation involves ventilating one lung and letting the other collapse for providing surgical exposure in the thoracic cavity or isolati ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Single Ventricle A single ventricle is an uncommon occurrence in embryogenesis, which results in the anatomical or functional loss of a ventricular cavity. These malfo ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sinus Bradycardia Sinus bradycardia is a cardiac rhythm with appropriate cardiac muscular depolarization initiating from the sinus node and a rate of fewer than 60 beat ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sinus Of Valsalva Aneurysm A sinus of valsalva aneurysm (SOVA) is an abnormal dilatation of the aortic root located between the aortic valve annulus and the sinotubular junction ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sodium Nitroprusside Sodium nitroprusside is a medication used in the management of acute hypertension. It is a potent vasodilator and is administered as an IV infusion wi ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spinal Cord Ischemia Spinal cord ischemia and infarction occur less frequently than cerebral infarction but result in significant mortality, disability, and reduced qualit ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spirometry Spirometry is one of the most commonly used approaches to test pulmonary function. It measures the volume of exhaled air vs. time. This activity highl ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spontaneous Pneumothorax Spontaneous pneumothorax is an abnormal condition of the lung characterized by the collection of gas in the pleural space between the lungs and the ch ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Stent Thrombosis Stent thrombosis, also known as abrupt vessel closure and acute stent thrombosis, is one of the fatal complications of percutaneous coronary intervent ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Stentless Autograft/Homograft Aortic Valve Replacement Aortic valve replacement is indicated when aortic stenosis or regurgitation disturbs the flow of blood out of the heart. Homograft valve and pulmonary ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sternal Fracture Sternal fractures have a reported incidence of 3%-6.8% in motor vehicle collisions as they are most commonly caused by blunt chest trauma. These fract ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sternoclavicular Joint Injury Sternoclavicular joint injuries are uncommon injuries that involve the sternoclavicular joint and its associated ligaments. They can be traumatic or a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Strangulation Injuries Strangulation injuries occur when external forces are applied to the neck leading to a variety of traumatic pathology. If the injury is severe enough ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Stunned Myocardium Prolonged severe reduction of coronary blood flow leads to myocardial necrosis, eventually seizing myocardial contractility irreversibly. However, whe ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Subacute Bacterial Endocarditis Prophylaxis Infective endocarditis (IE) is an infection of the endocardial surfaces of the heart, which includes 1 or more heart valves. The incidence of infectiv ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Subaortic Stenosis Subvalvular aortic stenosis (SAS), also called subaortic stenosis, is a rare disorder seen in infants. In most cases, it involves the presence of a me ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Subclavian Artery Thrombosis Subclavian artery thrombosis is a common condition that is felt to be underdiagnosed. It involved obstruction of blood flow through the subclavian art ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Subclavian Vein Thrombosis Subclavian vein thrombosis occurs due to either a primary etiology or a secondary etiology. It requires a thorough history and physical exam for diagn ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Subcutaneous Emphysema Subcutaneous emphysema is the de novo generation or infiltration of air underneath the dermal layers of skin. The development of subcutaneous air may ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Subphrenic Abscess Subphrenic abscesses represent infected collections bounded above by the diaphragm, and below by the transverse colon and mesocolon, and the omentum. ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sudden Cardiac Death Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is death due to a cardiovascular cause that occurs within one hour of the onset of symptoms. A sudden cardiac arrest occurs ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sudden Death in Athletes Sudden death in athletes has been a tragic occurrence in the fields of sports medicine, cardiology, primary care, and pediatrics. By far the most comm ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Superior Vena Cava Syndrome Superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome is a collection of clinical signs and symptoms resulting from either partial or complete obstruction of blood flow t ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Supravalvar Aortic Stenosis Supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS) is a congenital heart defect that accounts for 8 to 14 percent of all cases of congenital aortic stenosis. It inv ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Supraventricular Tachycardia Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is a dysrhythmia originating at or above the atrioventricular (AV) node and is defined by a narrow complex (QRS &lt ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Surgical Access Incisions A well-planned surgical incision is one of the most crucial steps in any surgical procedure. It is always essential to determine the proper location o ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Synchronized Electrical Cardioversion When tachycardic rhythms fail to respond to pharmacologic treatment, or present with or deteriorate into unstable manifestations, synchronized cardiov ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Systolic Hypertension Isolated systolic hypertension is the predominant form of hypertension in the elderly population. Traditionally it has been defined as a systolic bloo ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Takayasu Arteritis Takayasu arteritis (pulseless disease) is a systemic inflammatory condition characterized by damage to the large and medium arteries and their branche ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, also known as Gebrochenes-Herz syndrome, transient apical ballooning syndrome, apical ballooning cardiomyopathy, stress-indu ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Targeted Hypothermia Temperature Management Targeted temperature management aims to reduce mortality and improve neurological outcomes in unresponsive patients who achieve ROSC after cardiac arr ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Technetium (99mTc) Sestamibi Technetium 99m sestamibi (MIBI), also known as 99m Tc-methoxy isobutyl isonitrile, is a radiopharmaceutical used in the evaluation of pathology within ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tension Pneumothorax Pneumothorax is when air collects in between the parietal and viscera pleurae resulting in lung collapse. It can happen secondary to trauma (traumatic ... Read the Article 1.75 28 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Terazosin Terazosin is a medication used in the management and treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia as well as essential hypertension. Terazosin is a long- ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tetralogy of Fallot Tetralogy of Fallot is a congenital anomaly resulting in pulmonary stenosis, an interventricular defect, biventricular aortal origin, and right ventri ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Third-Degree Atrioventricular Block An atrioventricular block is a loss of the regular function of the cardiac electroconductive pathways linking the sinoatrial node (SA node) and the ve ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thoracentesis Thoracentesis is a procedure that is performed to remove fluid from the thoracic cavity. This can be done for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thoracic Aorta Aneurysm Thoracic aortic aneurysms require a prompt diagnosis as most patients are asymptomatic until dissection or rupture of the aorta occurs, leading to wor ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thoracic Duct Leak Thoracic duct leaks are most often due to traumatic injury and iatrogenic injury. Surgery of the esophagus and the heart are the most common source of ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thoracic Empyema Thoracic empyema is an infectious process defined by frank pus in the pleural space. Due to the high mortality associated with this condition, health ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thoracic Trauma Thoracic trauma accounts for up to 35 percent of trauma-related deaths in the United States and encompasses a broad range of injuries that can cause s ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thoracotomy Thoracotomy is described as an incision made between the ribs to access the contents of the thoracic cavity. Due to the anatomic location of the conte ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thrombectomy Thrombectomy involves removing a clot from a blood vessel, most commonly from the brain, heart, or lungs. Stroke and myocardial infarction remain two ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thrombocytopenia Thrombocytopenia is a platelet count below the lower limit of normal, i.e., 150000/microliter (for adults). This activity reviews the etiology, evalua ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tietze Syndrome Tietze syndrome is an atypical cause of anterior chest pain characterized by localized tenderness and non-suppurative swelling, usually associated wit ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tissue Plasminogen Activator Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is classified as a serine protease (enzymes that cleave peptide bonds in proteins). It is thus one of the essential ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tonsillitis Tonsillitis, or inflammation of the tonsils, is a common disease and makes up approximately 1.3% of outpatient visits. It is predominantly the result ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Torsade de Pointes Torsades de Pointes is a type of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia characterized on electrocardiogram by oscillatory changes in amplitude of the QRS ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tracheal Cancer Primary tracheal neoplasms are very uncommon but are usually malignant in adults and benign in children. They present with symptoms that mimic other c ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tracheal Trauma Tracheal trauma may be penetrating or blunt and acute or subacute. A blow or stab wound to the neck or crush injuries to the upper chest may cause acu ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tracheo Innominate Artery Fistula Tracheoinnominate fistulas (TIFs) are life-threatening complications most frequently described as occurring after tracheostomy. They are associated wi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tracheobronchial Tear Tracheobronchial tears are uncommon injuries or lacerations or puncture occurring anywhere in the tracheobronchial tree resulting from penetrating or ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tracheomalacia Tracheomalacia is a condition that is characterized by excessive collapsibility of the trachea. Depending on the severity of the disease, patients’ sy ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Surgical aortic valve replacement has been the standard treatment for patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis (AS). Previously, patients dete ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Transcatheter Management of Left Ventricular Pseudoaneurysms Left ventricular pseudoaneurysms (LVP) are very rare but commonly lethal complications that are secondary to myocardial infarctions, cardiac surgeries ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Transesophageal Echocardiogram Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) uses ultrasound waves to examine the heart and great vessels. There are four basic TEE rescue views that are al ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Transfusion Reactions Transfusion reactions are adverse events associated with the transfusion of whole blood or one of its components. They range in severity from minor to ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Transhiatal Esophagectomy Transhiatal esophagectomy is an alternative to the three incisions Ivor Lewis esophagectomy, which aims to provide decreased morbidity and improve cli ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Transluminal Extraction Coronary Atherectomy Transluminal coronary atherectomy is performed on heavily calcified and stubborn coronary lesions otherwise not amenable to a conventional percutaneou ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Transmyocardial Laser Extravascular Angiogenesis Transmyocardial laser extravascular angiogenesis (TMLR) has emerged as an option in patients suffering from chronic refractory angina that can improve ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Transposition Of The Great Arteries Transposition of the great arteries (TGA) is a congenital pediatric cardiac defect arising from an embryological discordance between the aorta and pul ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Trauma Primary Survey The primary survey is designed to rapidly assess and treat life-threatening injuries. The main causes of death in trauma patients are airway obstructi ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Treadmill Stress Testing Exercise testing is a form of cardiovascular stress testing that typically utilizes electrocardiography along with blood pressure monitoring and exerc ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tricuspid Atresia Tricuspid atresia is a cyanotic congenital heart defect characterized by the complete agenesis of the tricuspid valve. This activity reviews the evalu ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tricuspid Regurgitation Tricuspid regurgitation, also called tricuspid insufficiency, is a relatively common condition that can result from structural abnormalities of any pa ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tricuspid Valve Endocarditis Tricuspid valve infective endocarditis is uncommon compared to left-sided infective endocarditis. Right-sided infected infective endocarditis accounts ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tricuspid Valve Repair Tricuspid valve repair is almost always performed due to tricuspid regurgitation and in conjunction with left-sided valve surgery or coronary artery b ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Truncus Arteriosus Persistent truncus arteriosus (TA) is a rare, congenital, cyanotic heart defect characterized by a ventricular septal defect (VSD), a single truncal v ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tuberous Sclerosis Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder that affects multiple systems. It is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion and is characte ... Read the Article 2 34 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ultrasound-Guided Intercostal Nerve Block The blockage of anterior branches of the intercostal nerves is a selective superficial block, with a very low incidence of complications and effective ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Unilateral Diaphragmatic Paralysis Unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis is a condition caused when one side of the diaphragm becomes weak or paralyzed. There are many possible causes for ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Unstable Angina Unstable angina is chest discomfort or pain caused by an insufficient flow of blood and oxygen to the heart. It is part of the acute coronary syndrome ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Upper Extremity Deep Venous Thrombosis Researchers have extensively studied deep vein thrombosis (DVT) of the lower extremities. With the increased use of central venous catheters, cardiac ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Uremic Pericarditis The pericardium is the fibroelastic sac surrounding the heart. It is composed of two layers, visceral and parietal, that are separated by a potential ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vascular Aortic Arch Ring Aortic arch anomalies can give rise to vascular rings, a rare vascular anomaly with significant health implications. This activity deals with underst ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vascular Ring Double Aortic Arch The term "vascular ring" refers to the vascular structures that encircle and compress the trachea and esophagus causing respiratory and gastrointestin ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Velocardiofacial Syndrome Velocardiofacial syndrome, also known as Di George syndrome or chromosome 22q11.2 syndrome, is the most common microdeletion syndrome in humans. Thoug ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ventilation Assist Control Mechanical ventilation is a common intervention used to treat patients with acute respiratory failure. Assist-Control ventilation is the most common s ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ventilator Management Invasive mechanical ventilation is an intervention that is frequently used in acutely ill patients requiring either respiratory support or airway prot ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ventricular Aneurysm A left ventricular aneurysm is one of the worst complications after acute myocardial infarction. The natural course leading to the formation of a vent ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ventricular Fibrillation Arrhythmias originating from the ventricular myocardium or His-Purkinje system are grouped under ventricular arrhythmia (VA). This includes a subset o ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ventricular Premature Complexes Ventricular premature beats (VPBs), or premature ventricular complexes/contractions (PVCs), are ectopic beats that arise from within the ventricles. T ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ventricular Septal Defect Ventricular septal defects (VSDs) are the most common congenital cardiac anomaly in children and the second most common congenital abnormality in adul ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ventricular Septal Rupture In 1847, Latham first introduced the diagnosis of ventricular septal rupture (VSR). The interventricular septum divides the ventricular chamber into r ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Verapamil The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved indications for verapamil include angina (chronic stable, vasospastic or prinzmetal variant), unstable ... Read the Article 1.75 26 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vertebral Artery Injury Injuries to the vertebral artery may either be traumatic or spontaneous. Traumatic injuries are most frequently due to blunt injury to the head and ne ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency Vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI) represents inadequate blood flow through the posterior circulation of the brain, which is supplied by the two vert ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Video-Assisted Thoracoscopy Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has revolutionized the approach to and management of many pulmonary and cardiac diseases over the past two ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Viral Myocarditis Myocarditis is an inflammatory process of the myocardium. It can present in the acute, subacute, or chronic phase with either focal or diffuse involve ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Warfarin Toxicity Warfarin is a vitamin K antagonist used as an anticoagulant used for treatment and prevention of a variety of coagulopathic and thromboembolic disorde ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Warm Blood Cardioplegia The current gold standard of cardiac surgical myocardial protection is the administration of cardioplegia. The optimal temperature of the cardioplegia ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wellens Syndrome Wellens syndrome describes an abnormal electrocardiographic (ECG) pattern, deeply inverted T waves in leads V2 and V3, that are secondary to proximal ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wide QRS Complex Tachycardia Wide complex tachycardia is a dysrhythmia with a long list of potential causes that ranges from various arrhythmias, structural heart abnormalities, e ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Williams Syndrome WS is a rare genetic disorder that presents with congenital heart disease, distinctive facial features (elfin-like faces), hypercalcemia, neurodevelop ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wolff Parkinson White Syndrome Wolff Parkinson White Syndrome (WPW) is considered to be a congenital abnormality that involves the presence of abnormal electrical conductive circuit ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO

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