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Radiology

Radiology

Stay up to date on the latest medical knowledge with this Radiology activity. In this online self-assessment activity, you'll read our reference articles and test your knowledge with 1109 activities in Radiology for 1028.75 total CME hours.


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1 Year Unlimited Physician MD/DO/PA CME

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Featured Article Activities

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Neonatal Evaluation

The initial examination within the first 24 hours of birth is critical in determining the general well-being of newborns ...
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Hours: 1

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Aspergillosis

Aspergillosis is a disease caused by the fungus Aspergillus. It mostly occurs in the form of chronic pulmonary aspergill ...
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Rating: 5.00
Hours: 1

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Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Over the past several years, magnetic resonance imaging of the breast has become an increasingly important modality for ...
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Hours: 0.75

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Shoulder Dislocations Overview

Shoulder dislocations represent 50 percent of all major joint dislocations, with anterior dislocation being most common. ...
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Hours: 1

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Familial Adenomatous Polyposis

Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) or familial polyposis coli (FPC) is an autosomal dominant polyposis syndrome with v ...
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Hours: 1.25

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Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as “Lou Gehrig’s disease,” is a neurodegenerative disease of the motor n ...
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Hours: 1.5

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Radiology Activities

Title Description Hours Questions
131 I Sodium Iodide Radioiodine-131 is a therapeutic agent used in the management and treatment of hyperthyroidism and thyroid carcinoma. This activity describes the ind ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
5th Metatarsal Fracture Fractures of the fifth metatarsal are common injuries that must be recognized and treated appropriately to avoid poor clinical outcomes for the patien ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominal Abscess Abdominal abscesses contain cellular debris, enzymes, and liquid and can be from an infectious or non-infectious source. They are a common and serious ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominal Angina Abdominal angina is postprandial pain that occurs in mesenteric vascular occlusive disease when blood flow to the colon is unable to meet visceral dem ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominal Aorta Repair Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair is performed because the mortality rates are as high as 78% following rupture. Open and endovascular surgery are the ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm An abdominal aortic aneurysm is a life-threatening condition which requires monitoring or treatment depending upon the size of the aneurysm and/or sym ... Read the Article 1.5 23 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Imaging Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAAs) are a relatively common pathology. Ruptured aneurysms have an exceptionally high mortality rate. Early diagnosis an ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Rupture Abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture represents a catastrophic emergency and if not recognized and appropriately treated, carries significant morbidity a ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominal Aortic Repair Abdominal aortic repair is a major surgical procedure done to treat an aortic aneurysm. Elective surgery on an abdominal aortic aneurysm is indicated ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominal Hematoma A hematoma is a blood collection in an extravascular space, and is named according to the location of the blood collection. Rectus sheath hematomas r ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominal Thrust Maneuver The abdominal thrust maneuver, also known as the Heimlich maneuver, is used to treat upper airway obstructions caused by foreign bodies. This maneuver ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ablative Nerve Block Ablation procedures have been used to treat chronic back pain and sciatica of unknown etiology as an alternative to surgical severing the dorsal rami. ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Abnormal uterine bleeding is a broad term that describes irregularities in the menstrual cycle involving frequency, regularity, duration, and volume o ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acalculous Cholecystitis Acalculous cholecystitis is a hypokinetic condition of gallbladder emptying. It often presents as an acute ailment (acute cholecystitis), but it can a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Achalasia Achalasia is an esophageal smooth muscle motility disorder that occurs due to a failure of relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter. This conditio ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Achilles Tendonitis The Achilles tendon ranks as the strongest tendon in the human body connecting the plantaris, gastrocnemius, and soleus to the calcaneus bone. This ac ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acne Fulminans Acne fulminans or acne maligna is a rare skin disorder presenting as an acute, painful, ulcerating, and hemorrhagic clinical form of acne. It may or m ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acoustic Neuroma Acoustic neuromas are tumors that develop from the sheath of Schwann cells. They tend to occupy the cerebellopontine angle and are usually found adjac ... Read the Article 1.25 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acromegaly Acromegaly is a disorder caused by excessive production of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary gland, resulting in excessive growth of body tis ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acromioclavicular Joint Injury Acromioclavicular joint injuries account for more than forty percent of all shoulder injuries. Mild injuries are not associated with any significant ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Arterial Occlusion Acute arterial occlusion is synonymous with acute limb ischemia and is considered a vascular emergency. Acute limb ischemia is defined as a sudden los ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Cholecystitis Acute cholecystitis is inflammation of the gallbladder that occurs due to occlusion of the cystic duct or impaired emptying of the gallbladder. Often ... Read the Article 1.5 22 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis also referred to as post-infectious encephalomyelitis, is an acute, rapidly progressive autoimmune process that i ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Diverticulitis Acute diverticulitis is inflammation of a diverticulum, a sac-like protrusion from the colon wall, due to micro-perforation. Diverticulitis presents i ... Read the Article 1.25 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Headache Headache is a nearly universal complaint. Most headaches are benign, and the majority of patients can be safely treated and discharged with minimal wo ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Intermittent Porphyria Acute intermittent porphyria is a rare autosomal dominant disease, characterized by a deficiency of hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS). It presents w ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Kidney Injury Acute kidney injury, previously known as acute renal failure, denotes a sudden and often reversible reduction in the kidney function, as measured by ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Mesenteric Ischemia Acute mesenteric ischemia is caused by a sudden decline in blood flow through the mesenteric vessels. Diagnosis can be difficult because symptoms are ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Myocardial Infarction Acute myocardial infarctions are one of the leading causes of death in the developed world, with prevalence approaching three million people worldwide ... Read the Article 1.75 25 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute On Chronic Liver Failure Acute on chronic liver failure is a clinical syndrome of sudden hepatic decompensation observed in patients with pre-existing chronic liver disease. A ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Pancreatitis Acute pancreatitis is the leading cause of gastrointestinal-related hospitalization in the United States, and its frequency continues to rise in the ... Read the Article 2 35 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Pulmonary Embolism Acute pulmonary embolism is a common clinical condition with a variable clinical presentation, making its diagnosis challenging. This activity outline ... Read the Article 2 30 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Pyelonephritis Acute pyelonephritis is a bacterial infection causing inflammation of the kidneys. Pyelonephritis occurs as a complication of an ascending urinary tra ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening that is characterized by poor oxygenation and non-compliant or "stiff" lungs. The dis ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Scrotum Pain Acute scrotum pain is an umbrella term that includes a wide variety of unique disease processes. Patients may describe the rapid onset of symptoms wit ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Sinusitis Rhinosinusitis is among the most common conditions encountered in the primary care clinic. It can result from viral, bacterial, or fungal infections, ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Stroke Acute strokes, also known as cerebrovascular accidents, are broadly classified as either ischemic or hemorrhagic. Acute strokes result in loss of bloo ... Read the Article 1.75 26 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adamantinoma An adamantinoma is a rare low-grade malignant bone tumor typically found in the diaphyses and metaphyses of long bones in 20 to 40-year-olds. Adamanti ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adenomyomatosis Adenomyomatosis is a benign condition that can present with right upper quadrant pain and is characterized by hyperplasia of the gallbladder wall muco ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adenomyosis Adenomyosis is a gynecologic condition characterized by ectopic endometrial tissue within the uterine myometrium. Presenting signs and symptoms vary, ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adolescent and Idiopathic Scoliosis Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the most common form of pediatric scoliosis occurring in individuals between the ages of 10 to 18. By definit ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adrenal Adenoma Adrenal adenomas are benign neoplasms of the adrenal cortex. Non-secreting adrenal adenomas secrete low levels of hormones, are usually asymptomatic a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adrenal Cancer Adrenal masses are a frequent observation in the adrenal gland. While most lesions are benign, adrenocortical carcinoma should be a consideration when ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adrenal Cortical Nodular Hyperplasia A number of heterogeneous disorders can result in adrenal cortical nodular hyperplasia. Cortical hyperplasia is a benign enlargement of the gland. Nor ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adrenal Hemorrhage Adrenal hemorrhage represents a rare disease of variable etiologies. The disease often presents in a wide variety of clinical settings and presents a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adrenal Metastasis Adrenal metastases are the most common malignant lesions involving the adrenal gland and the second most common tumor of the adrenal gland after benig ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adrenal Myelolipoma Adrenal myelolipomas are benign adrenal neoplasm predominantly composed of mature adipose tissue and intermixed myeloid tissue. They comprise 6-16% of ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adrenalectomy Adrenalectomy is performed to adrenal tumors that secret excess hormone and for those that are concerning for malignancy. There are many approached to ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adult Acquired Flatfoot Adult acquired flatfoot (AAFD), formerly described as posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD), is a debilitating condition with complex pathology d ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adult Dehydration Dehydration is a common condition that affects patients of all ages. Dehydration may complicate other medical problems and may cause significant illne ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Afferent Loop Syndrome This activity reviews the etiology, evaluation, and management of afferent loop syndrome (ALS), with particular attention to the difference in managem ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Airway Foreign Bodies Foreign body aspiration is the fourth leading cause of death in preschool and younger age children and accounts for a significant number of emergency ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alexia Alexia is a rare condition in which reading comprehension is nonexistent or significantly limited due to brain injury, damage, or trauma. It can be as ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alprostadil Alprostadil is a medication used in the management and treatment of erectile dysfunction in males and for temporary patency of ductus arteriosus in ne ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alveolar Proteinosis Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is a rare disease characterized by an accumulation of a lipoproteinaceous material within the alveoli. It can be idiopa ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alzheimer Disease Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common cause of a decline in cognitive ability. It is a neurodegenerative disorder that usually affects people over ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as “Lou Gehrig’s disease,” is a neurodegenerative disease of the motor neurons. This activity reviews ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anaerobic Infections Anaerobic bacteria are part of the normal flora of human skin and mucosal membranes. The site of anaerobic infection is commonly the site of normal co ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aneurysmal Bone Cysts Aneurysmal bone cysts are non-malignant, tumor-like, vascular lesions that can grow aggressively, be locally destructive, and weaken bones to the poin ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angiography Angiography is performed to image the anatomical and structural details of the vascular system, including the cardiac chambers. Initially used for str ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ankle Arthrocentesis Acute arthritis, particularly monoarthropathy, is a common acute presentation. In regards to the ankle, there is not always a clear etiology for the m ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ankylosing Spondylitis Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic, inflammatory disease of the axial spine. Chronic back pain and progressive spinal stiffness are the most common f ... Read the Article 2 34 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Annular Disc Tear An annular fissure or tear is a deficiency of one or more layers of the annulus fibrosus. Most annular fissures are asymptomatic, but some may be pain ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anorexia and Cachexia Cachexia is a significant loss of muscle and adipose tissue. It occurs in patients with advanced cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chroni ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antalgic Gait In Children Antalgic gait is common in pediatric patients. The differential diagnosis is broad and includes both benign and more serious etiologies. A careful his ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anterior Cerebral Artery Stroke Anterior cerebral artery stokes occur in the territory of the anterior cerebral artery which involve the superior and medial part of the parietal lobe ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anterior Cruciate Ligament Knee Injuries The anterior cruciate ligament is one of the two cruciate ligaments which aids in stabilization of the knee joint. It is the most commonly injured li ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anterior Glenohumeral Joint Dislocation Anterior glenohumeral joint dislocations are the most commonly encountered joint dislocations. They can be the result of low or high energy trauma. Th ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anterior Hip Dislocation Anterior hip dislocations are usually caused by forceful abduction with external rotation of the thigh and most commonly following a motor vehicle acc ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anterior Mediastinal Mass The most common anterior mediastinal masses in the adult population are thymoma, teratoma, thyroid goiter, and lymphoma. This activity describes the e ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anthrax Anthrax is an infectious disease caused by an encapsulated, spore-forming, gram-variable bacteria called Bacillus anthracis. This commonly presents wi ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anthrax Infection Anthrax is a spore-forming rod that is readily found in soil in tropical environments. Anthrax has many features that make it an optimal biologic weap ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anton Syndrome Anton-Babinski syndrome, also known as ABS or Anton syndrome, is visual anosognosia, or denial of vision loss, associated with confabulation, or makin ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Dissection While uncommon, acute aortic dissection is an infrequent but catastrophic disorder. Patients present with tearing chest pain that radiates to the back ... Read the Article 1.75 27 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Insufficiency A normal aortic valve is comprised of three semilunar cusps that attach to the aortic wall. Aortic regurgitation (AR), also known as aortic insufficie ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Transection Aortic transection is an injury encountered with blunt thoracic trauma with substantial morbidity and mortality. Many patients with aortic transection ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Trauma Aortic injury is one of the most time-sensitive, life-threatening conditions. It is second only to head injury as a global leading cause of death. Mos ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Valvular Atresia Aortic valvular atresia is a congenital condition in which the aortic valvular cusps are fused at birth. It frequently forms as a spectrum of malforma ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Appendicitis Appendicitis is the inflammation of the vermiform appendix. It typically presents acutely, within 24 hours of onset, but can also present as a more ch ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Appendicitis in Pregnancy Appendicitis during pregnancy is a condition in which the appendix becomes inflamed and infected. Its treatment consists of emergent surgery for the r ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Appendix Cancer Appendiceal malignancies are a rare group of tumors often found incidentally during surgical removal of the appendix. Histologically, this malignancy ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
APUDoma APUDomas, currently known as neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), are a group of heterogeneous tumors that arise from the diffuse neuroendocrine system. They ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arachnoid Cysts Arachnoid cysts are common incidental findings on cross-sectional neuroimaging of the brain. When they are present in the appropriate location and of ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arachnoiditis Arachnoiditis is a persistent inflammation of the arachnoid mater as well as subarachnoid space due to mechanical, chemical, and infectious injuries. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arterial Gas Embolism Arterial gas embolism is a rare, life-threatening entity, which requires prompt recognition and early intervention. Failure to diagnose, and initiate ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arteriovenous Malformation Of The Brain Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are a developmental anomaly of the vascular system, consisting of tangles of poorly formed blood vessels in which t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arteriovenous Malformations Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are abnormal fistulas between arteries and veins without an intervening capillary bed. High arterial flow directly ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arytenoid Subluxation Arytenoid subluxation or dislocation is a rare laryngeal injury that occurs as a result of airway instrumentation or direct trauma to the cricoaryteno ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Asbestosis Asbestosis is an interstitial lung disease caused by inhalation of asbestos fibers. Asbestos fibers have been historically chosen for construction, sh ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aspergilloma An aspergilloma is a fungus ball or mycetoma composed of Aspergillus hyphae along with cellular debris and mucus. It is a noninvasive type of chronic ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aspergillosis Aspergillosis is a disease caused by the fungus Aspergillus. It mostly occurs in the form of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA), aspergilloma or al ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aspergillus Fumigatus Aspergillus is a ubiquitous saprophyte in nature found in air, soil and organic matter. Humans normally inhale the spore form of the fungi. However, t ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Asplenia Asplenia means the absence of a spleen. Asplenia can occur in a variety of clinical settings, and it can refer to an anatomic absence of the spleen or ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Astrocytoma Astrocytoma originates in astrocytes, which are a kind of glial cells in the cerebrum which are star-shaped. It is the most common glioma, usually aff ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ataxia Telangiectasia Ataxia telangiectasia (Louis-Bar Syndrome) is a rare autosomal recessive condition characterized by cutaneous telangiectasias, cerebellar atrophy with ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atlantoaxial Instability The atlantoaxial segment consists of the atlas (C1) and axis (C2) and forms a complex transitional structure bridging the occiput and cervical spine. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrial Myxoma Myxomas are the most common primary cardiac tumor. It is estimated that more than 75% of myxomas originate in the left atrium either at the mitral ann ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atypical Breast Hyperplasia Atypical hyperplasia of the breast is defined as abnormal epithelial proliferative lesions of the breast which are not qualitatively or quantitatively ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Automatic Internal Cardiac Defibrillator The automated internal cardiac defibrillator or shock box is the common name given to the Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD). ICD is a state ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Avascular Necrosis Osteonecrosis is a degenerative bone condition characterized by death of cellular components of bone secondary to an interruption of the subchondral b ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Back Pain Back pain is one of the most common causes for patients to seek emergency care. It has a broad range of potential etiologies for both adult and pediat ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacterial Pneumonia The word "pneumonia" originates from the ancient Greek word "pneumon," which means "lung," so the word "pneumonia" becomes "lung disease." Medically i ... Read the Article 1.75 26 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Baker's Cyst A Baker's cyst is a fluid-filled sac that forms in the popliteal fossa, which is located on the posterior aspect of the knee. In adults, Baker's cysts ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Balloon Sinuplasty Balloon sinuplasty for the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) refractory to conservative medical therapy has greatly risen over the last decade ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Barium Swallow The barium swallow study, also known as a barium esophagogram or esophagram, is a contrast-enhanced radiographic study commonly used to assess structu ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Basilar Artery Infarct The basilar artery (BA) is formed over the surface of pons by two vertebral arteries to supply the critical areas of the brain and brainstem. Anatomic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Basilar Artery Thrombosis The basilar artery is formed by the convergence of the vertebral arteries at the junction of the pons and medulla. It provides oxygen-rich blood to th ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Basilar Invagination Basilar invagination is an abnormality at the craniovertebral junction, either congenital or degenerative, resulting in the odontoid prolapsing into t ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Basilar Skull Fractures Basilar skull fractures, usually caused by substantial blunt force trauma, involve at least one of the bones that compose the base of the skull. Basil ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Battle Sign Battle Sign is bruising over the mastoid process that is typically the result of head trauma. Battle sign typically requires significant head trauma a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Beckwith Wiedemann Syndrome Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome is the most common overgrowth syndrome. It is a genetic imprinting disorder, and it can present as a wide and varied clini ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Behcet Disease Behcet disease, also known as an oculo-orogenital syndrome, is a chronic remitting and relapsing inflammatory disorder characterized by recurrent oral ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Benign Breast Calcifications Benign breast calcifications are common. If benign breast calcifications are not appropriately identified, unnecessary intervention and use of finite ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bennett Fracture The Bennett fracture is the most common fracture involving the base of the thumb. This fracture refers to an intraarticular fracture that separates th ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Berry Aneurysm Berry (saccular) aneurysms are the most common type of intracranial aneurysm, representing 90% of cerebral aneurysms. Generally speaking, there is a b ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Berylliosis Berylliosis, also known as chronic beryllium disease (CBD), is a granulomatous disease caused by exposure to beryllium. CBD has a variable clinical co ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bezold Abscess Bezold's abscess is a rare deep neck abscess and is an intratemporal complication of a coalescent mastoiditis via direct extension into the peri-masto ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biceps Tendon Rupture The biceps tendon consists of 2 heads originating from the coracoid process (short head) and supraglenoid tubercle of the scapula (long head). The ten ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biceps Tendon Rupture of the Lower Limb Rupture of the biceps femoris tendon can be treated conservatively or surgically, depending on the severity of the tendon retraction. Most of the pati ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biceps Tendon Sheath Injection Shoulder pain is a common patient complaint encountered both by primary care physicians and orthopedic surgeons. Many structures in the shoulder can a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bicornuate Uterus A bicornuate uterus is a uterine malformation that is produced due to impairment in the fusion of Mullerian ducts. The bicornuate uterus is a rare ano ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bile Duct Injury Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is performed over 750,000 times in the United States annually. As laparoscopic cholecystectomy has been increasingly used ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bile Duct Repair Injuries to the bile duct are almost universally iatrogenic and occasionally are due to trauma. The most common procedure leading to bile duct injury ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bile Duct Stricture Bile duct strictures are segments of the narrowing of the intrahepatic and/or extrahepatic biliary ductal system. The narrowing impedes the normal ant ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biliary Atresia Biliary atresia is a disease of the intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts with an unknown etiology. It presents in neonates with jaundice, clay colo ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biliary Colic Biliary colic is defined as pain in the abdomen, due to obstruction usually by stones in the cystic duct or common bile duct of the biliary tree. It t ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biliary Duct Hamartoma Biliary duct hamartomas, otherwise known as Von Meyenburg complexes, are dilated cystic bile ducts, which are embryologic remnants that failed to invo ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biliary Obstruction Biliary obstruction refers to blockage of the bile duct system preventing bile from flowing from the liver into the intestinal tract. Bile obstructio ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biliary Tract Cancer Biliary tract cancer consists of tumors that arise from epithelial cells lining the biliary tract, which consists of the intrahepatic bile duct, extra ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biliary Tract Cholangiocarcinoma The diagnosis and management of cholangiocarcinoma are challenging and complex. To achieve good results and provide appropriate patient care, the trea ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biologic Warfare Agent Toxicity Biological warfare agents include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and biological toxins. Some agents are frequently lethal while others are intended to caus ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bisphosphonate Related Jaw Osteonecrosis Bisphosphonates are synthetic pyrophosphate analogs used to treat hypercalcemia secondary to conditions affecting bone resorption such as malignancy, ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bladder Rupture Bladder rupture is most commonly due to abdominal and/or pelvic trauma but may be spontaneous or iatrogenic in association with surgical or endoscopic ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bladder Stones Bladder stones are solid calculi that are primarily found in the urinary bladder. While often calcified, they may also be composed of non-calcific mat ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bladder Trauma Bladder injury is broadly divided into extraperitoneal and intraperitoneal injuries. Extraperitoneal bladder injuries generally occur with pelvic frac ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blastomycosis Blastomycosis is a fungal infection caused by Blastomyces dermatitidis. It presents as a pulmonary infection after the inhalation of spores, and it ma ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blunt Abdominal Trauma Abdominal trauma caused by blunt force is a common presentation in the emergency room seen in adults and children. The chief cause of blunt abdominal ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blunt Force Trauma Trauma is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients under 35-years of age and the sixth leading cause of death worldwide. The majority ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Boerhaave Syndrome Boerhaave syndrome is also known as spontaneous esophageal rupture or effort rupture of the esophagus. Although vomiting is thought to be the most com ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bone Age Bone age assessment can be of utmost importance in various complicated situations involving medical, surgical, forensic, and legal issues. Apart from ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bone Cyst A simple bone cyst is a solitary, benign, fluid-filled, cyst that may be a single chamber or septated. The most common sites are the proximal humerus ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bone Marrow Aspiration And Biopsy Bone marrow aspiration and biopsies are often performed both in the inpatient and outpatient settings for the diagnosis of a multitude of hematologic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bone Marrow Edema Syndrome Bone marrow edema syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion that is characterized by pain and increased interstitial fluid within bone marrow without an ob ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bone Nonunion Nonunion of bone is the body's inability to heal a fracture. The most agreed-upon standard definition of nonunion made by the FDA is a fracture that p ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Boutonniere Deformity Boutonniere deformity describes a medical condition in which the finger is flexed at the proximal interphalangeal joint (PIP), and there is hyperexten ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bouveret Syndrome Bouveret syndrome is caused by a large stone passing through a bilioduodenal fistula causing gastric outlet obstruction. Morbidity and mortality rates ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bowel Adhesions Bowel adhesions are irregular bands of scar tissue that form between bowel loops, which are normally not bound together. The bands of tissue can devel ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bowel Ischemia Bowel ischemia can classify as small intestine ischemia, which is commonly known as mesenteric ischemia and large intestine ischemia, which generally ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bowel Perforation Bowel perforation results from insult or injury to the mucosa of the bowel wall caused due to a violation of the closed system. Bowel perforation can ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brachial Neuritis Brachial neuritis, also called neuralgic amyotrophy, has two major clinical symptoms, pain and muscle weakness from atrophy. It is a multifocal, immun ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brachial Plexitis Brachial plexitis is a condition characterized by acute onset of shoulder pain followed by weakness and/or sensory loss of the shoulder and/or upper e ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brain Abscess Brain abscess is a localized zone of necrosis with a surrounding membrane within the brain parenchyma, usually resulting from an infectious or traumat ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brain Cavernous Angiomas Cavernous angiomas, also referred to as cavernous malformations (CMs), cavernous hemangiomas, or cavernomas are benign intracranial vascular malformat ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brain Death Brain death is both a legal and clinical term. The term has been present in medical literature and texts for many years as part of the National Confer ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brain Herniation Brain herniation, also called brain code, requires early diagnosis and prompt management in order to prevent irreversible pathological cascades that e ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brain Metastasis Brain metastases are a common complication of cancer and the most common type of brain tumor. Anywhere from 10% to 26% of patients who die from their ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brain Trauma Brain trauma or traumatic brain injury (TBI) results from a blow, bump, jolt, or penetrating injury to the head that disrupts the normal function of t ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Branchial Cleft Cysts Branchial cleft cysts are congenital epithelial cysts that comprise approximately one-third of congenital neck masses. They are benign lesions and can ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Abscess Breast abscesses are a common problem, especially in lactating women. Most breast abscesses are benign, however when a non-lactating patient presents ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Biopsy With improved screening and diagnostic techniques, the incidence and prevalence of breast cancer are rising worldwide. In 2018 alone, there were 2.2 m ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Cancer Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women, accounting for more than 1 in 10 new cancer diagnoses each year. It is the second most com ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Cancer Conservation Therapy Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths among females in the world. The rapid growth of breast conservation therapy has significantl ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Cyst Breast cysts are a common diagnosis among women and one of the most common reasons for a referral to a breast clinic. These cysts can be entirely asym ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Fat Necrosis Breast fat necrosis is a non-suppurative inflammation of adipose tissue caused by the disruption of oxygen supply to fat cells, ultimately leading to ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Fibroadenoma A breast fibroadenoma is a painless, unilateral, benign tumor that presents as a solid lump. It commonly occurs in women between the age of 14 to 35 y ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Implant Rupture Breast augmentation is a surgical procedure where a saline or silicone implant is placed retroglandular or retropectoral within the breast. A possible ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Lymphatics Breast cancer is the most commonly seen cancer diagnosis in women worldwide. Lymph node involvement is one of the most important prognostic factors in ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging Over the past several years, magnetic resonance imaging of the breast has become an increasingly important modality for screening for and diagnosing b ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Nipple Discharge Nipple discharge is fluid that leaks from one or both nipples of non-pregnant and non-breastfeeding women. Nipple discharge can at times be a complex ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Ultrasound Breast ultrasound is performed due to the high incidence rate of breast cancer amongst women globally. Ultrasound is typically used as an adjunct to m ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Broca Aphasia Broca’s aphasia is a non-fluent aphasia in which the output of spontaneous speech is markedly diminished and there is a loss of normal grammatical str ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bronchial Atresia Congenital bronchial atresia is a rare condition characterized by focal obliteration of a proximal segment of a bronchus. The apicoposterior segmental ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bronchiectasis Bronchiectasis is a chronic lung disease characterized by persistent and lifelong widening of the bronchial airways and weakening of the function muco ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bronchiolitis Bronchiolitis is a common lung infection in young individuals. The viral infection involves the lower respiratory tract and can present with signs of ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bronchiolitis Obliterans Bronchiolitis obliterans is also known as obliterative bronchiolitis or constrictive bronchiolitis. When it occurs after lung transplantation or hemat ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bronchoalveolar Cancer Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) is a variant of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that in recent years has received a new identity and nomenclatur ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bronchogenic Cyst Bronchogenic cysts are foregut-derived cystic malformations of the respiratory tract. They are usually located within the mediastinum at an early stag ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Budd Chiari Syndrome Hepatic venous outflow obstruction due to any cause except the cardiac ones regardless of the level of obstruction is known as Budd-Chiari syndrome. T ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Buerger Disease Buerger disease is a nonatherosclerotic, progressive, segmental inflammatory disease affecting the small and medium-sized arteries of upper and lower ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
C1 Fractures The craniocervical junction is comprised of C1 (atlas) and C2 (axis). The occipito-atlantal and atlantoaxial articulations provide 50% of the flexion ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
C2 Fractures Registry study places the incidence of C2 fracture at 6 per 100000 people. In Sweden, across 6370 patients with C2 fractures: 51% were male, and the a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Calcifying Epithelioma of Malherbe A pilomatrixoma, or calcifying epithelioma of Malherbe, is a benign tumor of the hair follicle matrix that exclusively occurs in heat-bearing areas. T ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Canavan Disease Canavan disease, also called Canavan-Van Bogaert-Bertrand disease, is a rare, progressive, and fatal neurological hereditary disorder that begins in i ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cancer Breast Screening In women, breast cancer is number one in incidence and mortality when compared to all cancers. It is the most common non-skin cancer and second deadli ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cancer Screening Cancer screening is pivotal in reducing the mortality and morbidity from cancer. Some of the screening methods, like a pap smear, has been successful ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cancer-associated Thrombosis Cancer-associated thrombosis is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality for cancer patients. It commonly occurs in patients with clinical ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Capillary Infantile Hemangiomas Capillary hemangiomas (infantile hemangiomas, juvenile hemangiomas, hemangioblastomas or strawberry nevi of infancy), are common benign orbital neopla ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Caplan Syndrome Caplan syndrome was first described in 1953 by Dr. Anthony Caplan, a physician on the Cardiff Pneumoconiosis Panel, as radiologic evidence of intrapul ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Capsule Endoscopy Capsule endoscopy, also known as wireless capsule endoscopy or video capsule endoscopy, is a gastrointestinal study that uses a pill camera to take im ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carbon Dioxide Angiography Carbon dioxide (CO2) angiography is an alternative to conventionial iodinated contrast angiography, particularly in situations where there are contrai ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carcinoid Tumors Carcinoid tumors are slow-growing tumors arising from neuroendocrine cells and capable of secreting a variety of peptides and neuroamines. The common ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carcinomatous Meningitis Carcinomatous meningitis is the dissemination of malignant cells from the primary tumor sites to leptomeningeal layers of the CNS. It occurs in the ad ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Calcifications Cardiac calcifications carry different diagnostic and prognostic significance depending on their location. They can involve the coronary arteries, car ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Imaging As innovative technology has progressed throughout the field of medicine, so too has the ability to visualize the heart and its vasculature noninvasiv ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Stress Imaging Cardiac stress imaging is a noninvasive modality used in evaluating coronary artery disease, myocardium viability, and exercise capacity. This activit ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Tamponade Cardiac tamponade is a medical emergency that takes place when abnormal amounts of fluid accumulate in the pericardial sac compressing the heart and l ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Ultrasound Cardiac ultrasound, or echocardiography, is a noninvasive diagnostic modality that can provide detailed hemodynamic information in a short period of t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiogenic Shock Cardiogenic shock is a primary cardiac disorder characterized by a low cardiac output state of circulatory failure that results in end-organ hypoperfu ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiomegaly Cardiomegaly is an umbrella designation for a variety of conditions leading to enlargement of the heart which usually remains undiagnosed until the sy ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotid Artery Dissection Carotid artery dissection is a condition whereby the layers of the carotid artery are spontaneously separated. This potentially compromises blood flow ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotid Artery Fibromuscular Dysplasia Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) of the carotid artery is a non-atherosclerotic and noninflammatory disease that can lead to stenosis and/or aneurysm of ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotid Artery Stenting Traditionally, carotid endarterectomy (CEA) has been the primary method of treating high-grade asymptomatic and symptomatic carotid artery stenosis. A ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotid Bruit A carotid bruit is a vascular sound usually heard with a stethoscope over the carotid artery because of turbulent, non-laminar blood flow through a st ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotid Cavernous Fistula Carotid cavernous fistula (CCF) is an abnormal shunt from the carotid artery to the cavernous sinus. The symptomatology of CCFs is mainly a result of ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotid Contusion The neck has several important anatomical structures which include the carotid arteries bilaterally. While the injury to the carotid artery is not a c ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotidynia Carotidynia, also known as Fay syndrome or TIPIC Syndrome, is a rare vascular disorder that presents with atypical pain in the face and neck area. The ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is an entrapment neuropathy caused by compression of the median nerve as it travels through the wrist's carpal tunnel. It ... Read the Article 1.25 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Catheter Directed Thrombolysis Of Pulmonary Embolism Pulmonary embolism (PE) is the third most common cause of cardiovascular death in the United States of America. It is one of the most common causes of ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cauda Equina And Conus Medullaris Syndromes Cauda equina and conus medullaris syndromes have overlap in anatomy and clinical presentation. The cauda equina is a group of nerves and nerve roots s ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Caudal Anesthesia A caudal block is a type of central neuraxial block, most commonly used in pediatrics to provide analgesia for surgeries up to the umbilicus, and in a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cavernous Hepatic Hemangiomas Hepatic hemangiomas are benign, hypervascular, venous malformations that occur in the liver. They are the most common benign mesenchymal tumors of the ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cavernous Sinus Aneurysm Cavernous sinus aneurysms are most common in the elderly population and often present with an indolent ophthalmoplegia. The morbidity of these aneurys ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cavernous Sinus Syndromes Cavernous sinus syndrome (CSS) is any disease process that affects the cavernous sinus. It presents as proptosis, chemosis, ophthalmoplegia, Horner sy ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cavernous Venous Malformation Cerebral cavernous malformations, also known as cavernomas or cavernous hemangiomas, are clusters of abnormal and hyalinized capillaries without inter ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cavum Septum Pellucidum The septum pellucidum (meaning translucent wall in Latin - SP), also known as the ventricle of Sylvius, is a thin, triangular double membrane separati ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cavum Veli Interpositi The velum interpositum (VI) is a membrane resulting from the superposition of two layers of the tela choroidea of the third ventricle demarcating a po ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cecal Volvulus Volvulus occurs when portions of the bowel get entangled upon a mesenteric axis, which can cause impairment of the blood supply or can result in compl ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Celiac Artery Compression Syndrome Celiac artery compression syndrome is also known as Dunbar syndrome or median arcuate ligament syndrome. It is a rare condition characterized by recur ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Celiac Disease Celiac disease, also known as gluten-sensitive enteropathy, is an autoimmune disease of the small intestine. Celiac disease is a condition in which th ... Read the Article 1.5 24 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Celiac Plexus Block First described as a method of providing surgical anesthesia to the upper abdomen, the celiac plexus block (CPB) has been utilized in practice for nea ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central Cord Syndrome The central cord syndrome is the most common type of incomplete cord injury and almost always occurs as a consequence of a traumatic injury. It result ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central Nervous System Lymphoma Lymphoma of the central nervous system, both primary and secondary, represents a rare subset of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. According to the World Health Or ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central Pontine Myelinolysis Central pontine myelinolysis is a rare neurologic condition most frequently caused by the rapid correction of hyponatremia. This activity reviews the ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebellar Infarct A cerebellar infarct (or cerebellar stroke) is a type of cerebrovascular event involving the posterior cranial fossa, specifically the cerebellum. Imp ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebellopontine Angle Cancer The cerebellopontine angle (CPA) is an important landmark anatomically and clinically. The most common lesions at the CPA are vestibular schwannoma, m ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is a type of cerebrovascular disorder characterized by the accumulation of amyloid beta-peptide within the leptomeninges a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebral Aneurysm Cerebral aneurysms are defined as dilations that occur at weak points along the arterial circulation within the brain. The majority of cerebral aneury ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is an inherited disease with almost exclusively n ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebral Cavernous Malformations A cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) is an abnormally large collection of "low flow" vascular channels without brain parenchyma intervening between ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebral Ischemia Cerebral ischemia is a common mechanism of acute brain injury that results from impaired blood flow to the brain. Cerebral ischemia represents a medic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear protein- and glucose-rich liquid in the subarachnoid space of the central nervous system. It is found in the vent ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebrovascular Disease A stroke, or cerebrovascular accident, is an emergency medical condition characterized by an acute compromise of the cerebral perfusion or vasculature ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Degenerative Disc Disease Degenerative disc disease of the cervical spine typically develops in the aging population equally in terms of sexes. Patients are most commonly prese ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Disc Injuries The spinal cord is a nervous tissue bundle from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region, and the vertebral column protects it. The ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Dislocation Cervical dislocations have classically been associated with traumatic spinal cord injuries. These injuries can cause spinal cord compression and drama ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Injury Cervical spine injuries, although uncommon, can result in significant and long-term disability. The cervical spine encompasses seven vertebrae and ser ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Intraepithelial Squamous Cell Lesion This article reviews the anatomy, natural history, epidemiology, etiology, clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, evaluation, treatment, compl ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Myelopathy Cervical myelopathy is a condition describing a compression at the cervical level of the spinal column resulting in spasticity (sustained muscle contr ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Spine Fractures Overview The cervical spine is a dynamic structure tasked with protecting nervous innervation to the entire body while also maintaining a range of motion for t ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Spondylosis Cervical spondylosis is a natural age-related disease process that is associated with degenerative changes within the intervertebral disc. It most com ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervicogenic Headache A cervicogenic headache (CGH) presents as unilateral pain that starts in the neck. It is a common chronic and recurrent headache that usually starts a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chance Fractures A Chance fracture is an unstable spine fracture that typically occurs at the thoracolumbar junction. It is a horizontal fracture extending from poster ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Charcot Neuropathic Osteoarthropathy Charcot neuropathic osteoarthropathy is a destructive joint disorder initiated by trauma to a neuropathic extremity. It can lead to dislocations and f ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chest Tube A chest tube, also known as a thoracostomy tube, is a flexible tube that can be inserted through the chest wall and into the pleural space. This activ ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chest Wall Tumors The chest wall refers to the structures surrounding and protecting the lungs, enclosed by the spine, and separated from the abdomen by the diaphragm. ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chiari I Malformation Arnold-Chiari 1 malformation, otherwise known as the Chiari 1 malformation, is the more common variant of the Chiari malformations, defined as a spect ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chiari II Malformation Chiari II malformation is a relatively common congenital malformation of the posterior fossa and the spine characterized by beaked midbrain, downward ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chilaiditi Syndrome Chilaiditi syndrome is a generally benign condition in which a segment of intestine is interposed between the liver and diaphragm, which can be confus ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Child Abuse and Neglect The World Health Organization (WHO) defines child maltreatment as “all forms of physical and emotional ill-treatment, sexual abuse, neglect, and explo ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Child Intussusception Intussusception is a condition in which part of the intestine folds into the section next to it. Intussusception usually involves the small bowel and ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Child Physical Abuse And Neglect Approximately one in four children experience child abuse or neglect in their lifetime. Of maltreated children, 18 percent are abused physically, 78 p ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Child Syndrome Congenital hemidysplasia with ichthyosiform erythroderma and limb defects syndrome, also known as CHILD syndrome, is a rare condition that affects dif ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Childhood Brain Tumors Pediatric brain tumors are the most common type of solid childhood cancer and only second to leukemia as a cause of pediatric malignancies. They are c ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cholangitis Acute cholangitis, also known as ascending cholangitis, is a life-threatening condition that is caused by an ascending bacterial infection of the bili ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cholecystocutaneous Fistula Cholecystocutaneous fistulas are a rare surgical condition. This activity reviews their clinical presentation, underlying causes, pathophysiology, and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Choledochal Cyst A choledochal cyst (CC) or biliary cyst is a congenital or acquired anomaly affecting the biliary tree. It involves the dilation of the biliary tree t ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cholelithiasis Cholelithiasis or gallstones are hardened deposits of digestive fluid that can form in your gallbladder. The gallbladder is a small organ located just ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cholesterol Emboli Cholesterol embolization syndrome occurs when atheromatous plaques in large arteries release cholesterol emboli and atheromatous debris into the circu ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chondroblastoma Chondroblastoma is a benign, chondroid-producing neoplasm composed of chondroblasts. It accounts for less than 1% of all bone tumors and usually arise ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chondrosarcoma Chondrosarcomas are malignant cartilaginous neoplasms with diverse morphological features and clinical behavior. They account for about 20 percent of ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chordoma A chordoma is a low-grade, slow-growing but locally invasive and locally aggressive tumor that is a type of sarcoma. Chordomas arise from remnants of ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Choriocarcinoma Choriocarcinoma is a rare, aggressive neoplastic type of trophoblastic disease. The 2 major types of choriocarcinoma are gestational and non-gestation ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Choroid Plexus Papilloma Choroid plexus papillomas (CPPs) are rare central nervous system tumors. They may be seen at any age, but are more common in infants. Their site of oc ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chromaffin Cell Cancer Pheochromocytoma is a tumor that arises from chromaffin cells present in the adrenal medulla or paraganglion cells. It can present with vague symptoms ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Cholecystitis Chronic cholecystitis is a prolonged, subacute condition caused by the mechanical or functional dysfunction of the emptying of the gallbladder. It pre ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Headaches Chronic headaches are headaches that occur for at least 15 days of a month for at least three months. There are a variety of causes and ways to manage ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Mesenteric Ischemia Mesenteric ischemia is a manifestation of peripheral vascular disease in which the blood supply fails to meet the metabolic demands of visceral organs ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Pancreatitis Chronic pancreatitis is a progressive inflammatory disorder that leads to irreversible destruction of exocrine and endocrine pancreatic parenchyma cau ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Pelvic Pain Chronic pelvic pain can be a disabling, chronic, persistent pain, within the pelvis in women. Relatively common, chronic pelvic pain is associated wit ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Testicular Pain Chronic orchialgia is defined as 3 months of intermittent or constant testicular pain that is significantly bothersome to the patient. It is the cause ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Thrombo-Embolic Pulmonary Hypertension Chronic pulmonary embolism (also known as chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension) is a potentially life-threatening condition and is associated ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Churg Strauss Syndrome Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, formerly known as Churg-Strauss syndrome, belongs to a group of diseases characterized by necrotizing v ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clear Cell Renal Carcinoma Among the genitourinary cancers, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the seventh most common cancer in men and has a high mortality rate. The prognosis of m ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clonorchis Sinensis Clonorchis sinensis is also known as the Chinese liver fluke. These are most commonly found in Eastern Asia but are also commonly found in Russia. The ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Closed Head Trauma Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an injury to the brain from an external mechanical force. TBI can generally be classified as either closed or penetrat ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clostridial Cholecystitis Emphysematous cholecystitis is a fulminant variety of acute cholecystitis that differs in its pathology and epidemiology from cholecystitis induced by ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coarctation of the Aorta Coarctation of the aorta is a narrowing of the aorta, most commonly occurring just beyond the left subclavian artery. However, it can occur in various ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cochlear Implants A Cochlear Implant (CI) is a medical device that uses electricity to stimulate the spiral ganglion cells of the auditory nerve to restore sensorineura ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Colitis Colitis is an increasingly common condition in which the mucosal lining of the colon becomes acutely or chronically inflamed. Patients with colitis ma ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Collagen-Vascular Disease Associated With Interstitial Lung Collagen vascular disease-associated interstitial lung disease (CVD-ILD) consists of several immunologically-mediated diseases with characteristic pul ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Colloid Brain Cyst Colloid cysts are benign growths that are usually located either in the third ventricle or at or near the foramen of Monroe which is found at the ante ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Colon Diverticulitis Diverticulitis has increased in incidence over the past few decades and represents a significant healthcare burden in western countries. In the United ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Colon Resection Colon resection is the removal of either a portion of or the entire colon. This activity reviews the indications and contraindications for colon resec ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection Primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in pregnancy is associated with the highest risk of trans-placental transmission. Universal screening for pre ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a condition resulting from the herniation of abdominal contents into the thoracic cavity resulting in lung hypoplas ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Lobar Emphysema Congenital lobar emphysema is a rare developmental anomaly of lungs that occurs mostly due to defective bronchial cartilages. It is diagnosed with a c ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Syphilis Congenital syphilis (CS) is caused by transmission of the spirochete Treponema pallidum from mother to fetus, resulting in diverse clinical presentati ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congestive Heart Failure Heart failure is a complex clinical syndrome in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the requirements of the body. It results from a ... Read the Article 1.5 24 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congestive Heart Failure And Pulmonary Edema Heart failure is a growing public health problem and is now the most common cause of hospitalizations in the U.S. among patients 65 years and older. T ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Constrictive Pericarditis The pericardium is the fibroelastic sac that covers the heart. Besides acting as a protective barrier, it also affects cardiac hemodynamics. Constrict ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Constrictive-Effusive Pericarditis Constrictive pericarditis involves scarring and loss of elasticity of the pericardium surrounding the heart, leading to impaired filling. Effusive-con ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Contrast Agent Toxicity Contrast agents, also called contrast media, are substances used to enhance the radiodensity of a targeted tissue by altering the way that electromagn ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Contrast-Induced Nephropathy Iodine contrast medium is essential in invasive and interventional cardiac procedures. Because of an increasing number of coronary angiography and cor ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Conus And Cauda Equina Tumors Primary spinal cord tumors are less common than metastatic spinal tumors. Tumors of the spinal canal may be classified in three ways depending on the ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Arteriovenous Fistula Coronary arteriovenous fistula should be suspected in patients who present with unexplained heart failure, have continuous murmur on auscultation, and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is a major surgical operation where atheromatous blockages in a patient’s coronary arteries are bypassed with h ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Artery Dissection Coronary artery dissection is the separation of the coronary arterial wall and can be spontaneous, traumatic, or iatrogenic. This activity will focus ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Artery Fistula Coronary artery fistulas are aberrant connections between coronary arteries and other structures, such as other branches of arteries or heart chambers ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Cameral Fistula Coronary cameral fistula is an abnormal communication existing between a coronary artery and any cardiac chamber. It appears in less than 1% of the po ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary CT Angiography Chest pain is often the herald of cardiovascular disease and is one of the most common diagnostic challenges encountered by practicing clinicians. Car ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Corpus Callosum Agenesis Corpus callosum is the largest white matter structure containing 200 million axons, connecting the two hemispheres of the brain. Agenesis of the corpu ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coxiella Burnetii Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q fever, which is a zoonotic disease. Q fever can present as a febrile illness, pneumonia, or hepatitis. I ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cranial Nerve III Palsy The third cranial nerve is also known as oculomotor nerve and has two major components, the outer parasympathetic fibers that supply the ciliary muscl ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Craniopharyngioma Craniopharyngioma is a rare, virtually benign tumor of the central nervous system (CNS). It is a partly cystic embryonic malformation that can occur i ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rare, fatal degenerative brain disorder caused by prion proteins. It belongs to a group of transmissible spongifo ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Crohn Disease Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are two conditions commonly referred to as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). They are immunologically m ... Read the Article 2 34 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cryptococcal Meningitis Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic infection that causes more than 100,000 HIV-related deaths each year. Although the infection is usually HIV-related ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) known formerly as bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) is a form of idiopathic diffuse intersti ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cushing Disease Cushing disease is an endocrine disorder characterized by excessive production of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) by the anterior pituitary leading ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cushing Syndrome Cushing syndrome is caused by prolonged exposure to high circulating levels of cortisol. The most common cause of cushingoid features is iatrogenic co ... Read the Article 1.75 25 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cutaneous Melanoacanthoma Cutaneous melanoacanthoma is a rare benign epithelial lesion that typically presents as a solitary black plaque or nodule, usually on either the head ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cystic Fibrosis Until relatively modern times, cystic fibrosis was poorly understood. In 1949, Lowe et al. postulated that cystic fibrosis must be caused by a geneti ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cystic Hygroma Cystic hygromas are the most common subtype of lymphangiomas, presenting at birth and in early infancy. Enlargement of cystic hygromas is common, and ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cystic Kidney Disease Cystic kidney diseases are multisystemic disorders that can develop due to genetic or non-genetic causes in children and adults. These can be a seriou ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Deep Venous Thrombosis Ultrasound Evaluation Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is a common condition for which clinical diagnosis is typically unreliable due to the infrequency of the classic findings ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Degloving Injuries Internal degloving injuries are usually associated with high energy trauma and can be devastating. This injury occurs when a tangential shearing occur ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dental Abscess Dental infections, while relatively straightforward regarding diagnosis and access, can be challenging to manage acutely. Dental abscesses or periapic ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dextran Dextran is a medication used in the management and treatment of various clinical conditions, including during hemorrhage, shock, surgical procedures, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dextrocardia Dextrocardia is a congenital condition in which the heart is located in the right side of the thorax. This activity reviews the evaluation and managem ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease of inadequate control of blood levels of glucose. It has many subclassifications, including type 1, type 2, maturi ... Read the Article 1.75 28 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetic Gastroparesis Gastroparesis is defined by objective delaying of gastric emptying without any evidence of mechanical obstruction. Diabetic gastroparesis is a potenti ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diagnostic Ultrasound Use In Undifferentiated Hypotension Hypotension is a common presentation. At times, the available history is limited and the physical exam alone can be misleading. Multiple ultrasound pr ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dialysis Catheter Dialysis catheters are artificial indwelling transcutaneous conduits used to access the intravascular space or intraperitoneal space for renal replace ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dialysis Fistula Dialysis fistula creation is a commonly performed procedure for patients with end-stage renal disease who require permanent vascular access for hemodi ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diaphragm Disorders The diaphragm is a vital organ for mammals as it is the primary muscle for respiration. Diaphragmatic paralysis is the loss of its muscular power and ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diaphragmatic Hernia A diaphragmatic hernia (DH) is a protrusion of abdominal contents into the thoracic cavity as a result of a defect within the diaphragm. It is most co ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diaphyseal Femur Fracture Diaphyseal femur fractures are commonly encountered in association with other high-energy injuries. These injuries can lead to life-threatening sequel ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diffuse Axonal Injury Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a type of traumatic brain injury (TBI) that results from a blunt injury to the brain. In the United States, traumatic b ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diffuse Esophageal Spasm Diffuse esophageal spasm is an esophageal motility disorder that often manifests as dysphagia. If the diagnosis is delayed, diffuse esophageal spasm i ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is a systemic condition characterized by characteristic ossification patterns that can occur in the sp ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is an aggressive type of childhood cancer that forms in the brainstem. They are very rare and almost always oc ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diffusion Tensor Imaging Diffusion tensor imaging is an advanced magnetic resonance imaging modality that uses the Brownian motion of water molecules to provide data for image ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dipyridamole Nuclear Stress Test While conventional stress tests are exercise based, in certain circumstances, there may be contraindications to exercise. In these cases, pharmacologi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Disc Herniation A herniated disc is a condition affecting the spine in which the annulus fibrosus is damaged enabling the nucleus pulposus (which is normally located ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Discoid Meniscus Menisci are two crescent-shaped structures in the knee that act as shock absorbers between the femur and tibia, dissipating stress and dispersing comp ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Disk Battery Ingestion Disk batteries (or button batteries) are found in many consumer electronics. The last few decades have seen an increase in demand for compact electron ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diskitis Discitis is a serious but uncommon medical diagnosis. It is an infection of the intervertebral disc space. The role of the intervertebral discs is to ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Distal Humerus Fractures Distal humerus fractures in the adult population represent about 2% of all fractures and 33% of all humerus fractures. They typically present in a bim ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Distal Radius Fractures Emergency Department and primary care clinics are frequently called on to evaluate orthopedic complaints. It is essential for most providers to feel c ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) has sustained a niche for measuring bone mineral density since its approval by the Food and Drug Administratio ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Duodenal Atresia And Stenosis Duodenal atresia is a congenital intestinal obstruction that can cause bilious or nonbilious vomiting within the first 24 to 38 hours of neonatal life ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Duodenal Perforation Duodenal perforations can either be free or contained. Free perforation arises when bowel contents leak freely into the abdominal cavity and causing d ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Duplex Ultrasound Duplex ultrasound is an integral tool for medical diagnosis and therapy. Duplex ultrasonography combines the principles of anatomic and flow ultrasono ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Dural arteriovenous fistulas, sometimes referred to as dural arteriovenous malformations, are vascular abnormalities in which arteries arising from br ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Duret Hemorrhages Duret hemorrhages are attributed to descending transtentorial herniation from any cause. It can be challenging to distinguish Duret hemorrhages from p ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dysphagia Dysphagia is defined as objective impairment or difficulty in swallowing, resulting in an abnormal delay in the transit of a liquid or solid bolus. Th ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dyspnea on Exertion Dyspnea, also called shortness of breath, is a patient's perceived difficulty to breathe. Sensations and intensity can vary and are subjective. It is ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Eagle Syndrome Eagle syndrome, also known as stylohyoid syndrome, styloid syndrome, or styloid–carotid artery syndrome, is a rare condition caused by an elongated or ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ecchinococcus Echinococcus is a parasite that leads to cyst formation in different viscera of the human body particularly the liver and lungs. These cysts can ruptu ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Echinococcus Granulosus Echinococcosis (Echinococcus granulosis) is a zoonotic larval infection that infects humans globally. Patients with this condition may be asymptomatic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ectopic Pregnancy An ectopic pregnancy occurs when fetal tissue implants outside of the uterus or attaches to an abnormal or scarred portion of the uterus. Ectopic preg ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ectopic Pregnancy, Ultrasound Ectopic pregnancy is a diagnosis that is quite challenging to make. It has been estimated that 40% of ectopic pregnancies go undiagnosed on initial pr ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ectopic Thyroid The thyroid gland is the first endocrine gland that develops during fetal embryology, which starts between the third and fourth gestational weeks. The ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
EEG Triphasic Waves Triphasic waves are abnormal electroencephalogram (EEG) waveforms seen with a multitude of clinical conditions including encephalopathy and structural ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Elbow Dislocation Elbow dislocations are a common large joint dislocation experienced in children and adults. They can occur with associated fractures or damage to surr ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Elbow Fractures Overview The most common type of fracture in the pediatric population is elbow fractures. Most commonly, individuals fall on their outstretched hand. Prompt a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Elevated Hemidiaphragm Elevated hemidiaphragm occurs most commonly from direct or indirect injury to the phrenic nerve. It is often found as an incidental finding on diagnos ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
EMS Pneumothorax The majority of emergency medical service (EMS) providers in the United States have protocols for rapid assessment and treatment of pneumothorax. Ther ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Enchondroma Enchondromas are benign tumors of unknown etiology that occur in the hyaline cartilage in bones of endochondral origin. Enchondromas account for appro ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Endometrial Polyp Endometrial polyps refer to overgrowths of endometrial glands and stroma within the uterine cavity. Endometrial polyps vary in size from few millimete ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Endometrioma Endometriomas are cystic lesions that stem from the disease process of endometriosis. Endometriomas are most commonly found in the ovaries. They are f ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Endotracheal Tube In its simplest form, the endotracheal tube is a tube constructed of polyvinyl chloride that is placed between the vocal cords through the trachea. It ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Endotracheal Tube Intubation Techniques Endotracheal intubation is an essential resuscitative procedure in the emergency setting. Direct and video laryngoscopy are the two most common approa ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Enteric Feedings Enteral nutrition is nutrition delivered using the gut. This can refer to oral, gastric, or postpyloric feeds. There are many indications requiring a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Enterocutaneous Fistula Enterocutaneous fistula mortality rates vary from 6 to 33 percent. Associated morbidity and complications can also be significant. Enterocutaneous fis ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Enterovesical Fistula An enterovesical fistula is a pathologic connection between the bowel and the bladder. This activity reviews the evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Enthesopathies Enthesopathies encompass a broad range of pathologies that include ligamentous and tendinous injuries. They are relatively common and can be the initi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Eosinophilic Granuloma Eosinophilic granuloma (EG) is a rare and mildest form of Langerhans cell histiocytosis. The presentation of EG can be monostotic, polyostotic, or can ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ependymoma Ependymomas are glial cell tumors that commonly arise in the lining cells of the ventricular system, and less commonly outside the central nervous sys ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidermoid Cancer Epidermoid tumors are congenital lesions that arise from ectodermal cells misplaced during the closure of the neural tube in the process of embryogene ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidural This activity reviews epidural analgesia and anesthesia and highlights used medications, indications, contraindications, uses, and techniques. It ment ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidural Hematoma An epidural hematoma (EDH) is an extra-axial collection of blood within the potential space between the outer layer of the dura mater and the inner ta ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidural Steroids Epidural steroids injections (ESI) have been utilized for the treatment of pain due to lumbar disc injuries since the 1950s. They are frequently used ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epiglottitis Epiglottitis is an inflammatory condition of the epiglottis and/or nearby structures including the arytenoids, aryepiglottic folds, and vallecula. Epi ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Erythema Multiforme Erythema multiforme (EM) is a cutaneous and mucosal hypersensitivity reaction with characteristic lesions in target triggered by certain antigenic sti ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esmolol Esmolol (esmolol hydrochloride) is an intravenous cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic antagonist. Esmolol is used in various settings including urgent c ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophageal Cancer Esophageal cancer is a deadly malignancy with a very low survival, even with treatment. In the United States, esophageal cancers represent the fifth m ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophageal Cyst Esophageal cysts are rare congenital malformations that categorize as being epithelial-lined or duplication in nature. They are usually diagnosed in c ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophageal Hematoma Intramural hematoma of the esophagus (IHE) or dissecting intramural hematoma of the esophagus is an uncommon condition which presents with acute esoph ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophageal Intramural Pseudodiverticulosis Dysphagia is a common symptom with multiple possible etiological factors, one of which is diffuse intramural esophageal diverticulosis. This activity ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophageal Leiomyoma Esophageal leiomyomas are the most common benign tumors of the esophagus. This activity explains how to properly evaluate for esophageal leiomyoma, a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophageal Perforation And Tears Esophageal perforation poses a significant interprofessional challenge to the entire therapeutic team. It can occur in three different anatomical comp ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophageal Varices Esophageal varices are dilated submucosal distal esophageal veins connecting the portal and systemic circulations. They form due to portal hypertensio ... Read the Article 1.25 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophageal Webs And Rings Esophageal webs and rings are usually asymptomatic but can occasionally present with intermittent dysphagia to solids. Some patients may develop food ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophagogastroduodenoscopy Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) is a diagnostic endoscopic procedure used to visualize the oropharynx, esophagus, stomach, and proximal duodenum. It ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ewing Sarcoma Ewing sarcoma is the second most common primary malignant bone tumor, mostly affecting adolescents in the second decade of their life, and it is a hig ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
External Fixation Principles and Overview External fixation has been used for the treatment of fractures for 2000 years. The application and devises have changed, but the biomechanics remain t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Eyelid Myokymia Eyelid myokymia is described as continuous and fine contractions that affect lower eyelid mainly. The causes of this condition are not well known, but ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Facet Arthritis Facet joints are formed by the articulations of the superior and inferior articular processes of adjacent vertebrae. Except for the atlantooccipital a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Facet Joint Disease Facet joint disease is a condition in which the joints of the spine become a source of pain. This is a very common disease process and its prevalence ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Failed Back Surgery Syndrome Failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) is defined by the International Association for the Study of Pain as “lumbar spinal pain of unknown origin e ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Familial Adenomatous Polyposis Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) or familial polyposis coli (FPC) is an autosomal dominant polyposis syndrome with varying degrees of penetrance. ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Farmers Lung Farmer's lung is a type of hypersensitivity pneumonitis that is caused by precipitants such as moldy hay or straw. This condition’s specificity towar ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fascial Dehiscence Fascial dehiscence is a significant complication of abdominal surgery, particularly cases done in an emergent setting. Associated bowel obstructions a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fatal Familial Insomnia Fatal familial insomnia is a very rare and invariably fatal autosomal dominant neurodegenerative prion disease caused by a mutation of the prion prote ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fatty Liver Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) or "Fatty Liver" corresponds to the presence of macrovesicular changes without inflammation (steatosis) and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Femoral Aneurysm Femoral artery pseudoaneurysm consists of an outpouching of 1 or 2 layers of the vessel wall. A true aneurysm, on the other hand, involves all the 3 l ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Femoral Aneurysm Repair A vessel is considered to be aneurysmal when it enlarges to about one and a half to two times the size of the normal vessel. True femoral artery aneur ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Femoral Head Avascular Necrosis Avascular necrosis of the femoral head is a type of osteonecrosis due to disruption of blood supply to the proximal femur. There are approximately 100 ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Femoral Hernia Femoral hernias are less frequent than inguinal hernias. Recognition of a femoral hernia is an important factor in the workup and evaluation of a pati ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Femoral Neck Fractures Hip fractures are common injuries. Femoral neck fractures are a specific type of intracapsular hip fracture. The femoral neck connects the femoral sha ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Femoral Shaft Fractures Femoral shaft fractures are a common orthopedic injury occurring in high energy trauma or low energy trauma in the elderly. Femoral shaft fractures ar ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fibrocystic Breast Disease Fibrocystic breast disease is the most common benign type of breast disease, diagnosed in millions of women worldwide. Certain hormonal factors underp ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma (FL-HCC) is a rare cancer of the liver and it displays features that make it very different in its behavior and ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fibromuscular Dysplasia Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a rare systemic vascular disease, affecting younger women and accounting for 10% to 20% of the cases of renal artery ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fine Needle Aspiration Fine-needle aspiration is a minimally invasive way to obtain a cell sample to confirm a diagnosis or to guide treatment. Fine-needle aspiration is an ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Finger Dislocation Finger joint dislocation is a common hand injury. Finger dislocation can occur at the proximal interphalangeal (PIP), distal interphalangeal (DIP), or ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fistula In Ano Fistula-in-ano is a tract connecting the anal canal to the perianal skin. It requires surgical treatment in the majority of cases. Proper management i ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Flail Chest Flail chest is a traumatic condition of the thorax. It may occur when 3 or more ribs are broken in at least 2 places. It is considered a clinical di ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fludeoxyglucose (18F) Fludeoxyglucose F18 is a radioactive tracer that acts as a glucose analog and is used for diagnostic purposes in conjunction with Positron Emitting To ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Focal Nodular Hyperplasia In 1958, pathologist, Hugh Edmondson, MD, first described focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) as a solid, benign hepatic mass of non-vascular origin. Unli ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma Traumatic injury is the leading cause of death among individuals younger than 45 years old. Eighty percent of traumatic injury is blunt with the major ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Foreign Body Airway Obstruction According to the National Safety Council’s statistics, foreign-body airway obstruction (FBAO) is the fourth leading cause of unintentional death, resu ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Foreign Body Aspiration Foreign body aspiration remains a significant cause of death in children for anatomic as well as developmental reasons. Choking is typically defined a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Foville Syndrome Foville syndrome is a rare inferior medial pontine syndrome first characterized in 1858 by anatomist and psychiatrist Achille Louis Francois Foville. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Freiberg Infarction Freiberg infarction pattern results in flattening and collapse of the head of the second metatarsophalangeal joint, leading to degenerative changes an ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Frontal Sinus Fractures Fractures of the frontal sinus are most commonly seen in the emergency department after motor vehicle accidents (MVA's), falls, assaults, falling obje ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fungal Sinusitis There are several types of fungal sinusitis. The classification depends on the degree of invasion of the sinuses. The overarching categories are non-i ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gadolinium Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast agents are pharmaceuticals that increase the information content of diagnostic images. They serve to improve the sensitivity and specificity ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Galeazzi Fractures A Galeazzi fracture is a fracture of the middle to distal third of the radius associated with dislocation or subluxation of the distal radioulnar join ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gallbladder Cancer Gallbladder cancer (GC) is a rare malignancy but represents almost 50% of all biliary tract cancer. Biliary cancers are highly fatal malignancies with ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gallbladder Empyema Empyema of the gallbladder is the most severe complications of acute cholecystitis. It is usually the result of the progression of acute cholecystitis ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gallbladder Polyp Gallbladder polyps describe several conditions that present as projections into the gallbladder lumen. They may be asymptomatic, or they may be relate ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gallbladder Volvulus Gallbladder volvulus (GV) is an uncommon condition presenting as an acute abdomen. Urgent surgical intervention is necessary. In a majority of cases, ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gallstone Ileus Gallstone ileus is one of the rarest forms of all mechanical bowel obstructions and is a complication of cholelithiasis. Patients have non-specific sy ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gallstones (Cholelithiasis) Gallstones or cholelithiasis are stones that form in the gallbladder composed of cholesterol, bilirubin, and bile. These stones are asymptomatic in mo ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gamekeepers Thumb The metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint of the thumb plays an important role in functional hand movements such as gripping and pinching. The radial and ul ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ganglion Cyst Ganglion cysts are synovial cysts that are filled with gelatinous mucoid material and commonly encountered in orthopedic clinical practice. Although t ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gardner Syndrome Gardner syndrome is a phenotypic variant of familial adenomatous polyposis. It is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by numerous adenomatous ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastric Outlet Obstruction Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) is a result of any disease process that causes a mechanical impediment to gastric emptying. It can be caused by mecha ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastric Perforation Perforation of the stomach is a full-thickness injury of the wall of the organ. Since peritoneum completely covers the stomach, perforation of the wal ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastric Volvulus Gastric volvulus is a rare, clinical event that occurs in both adults and pediatric patients. In 1886, Berti was the first to describe a gastric volvu ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastrocnemius Strain The gastrocnemius muscle consists of two heads. The medial head originates from the posterior medial femoral condyle while the lateral head arises fro ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastrointestinal Foreign Body Foreign body (FB) and food impaction are one of the most common gastrointestinal complaints seen in the emergency department. Foreign bodies tend to p ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastrointestinal Stromal Cancer Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are typically benign tumors that most commonly occur along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. While only compris ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastrointestinal Tuberculosis Gastrointestinal (GI) tuberculosis (TB) accounts for 1% to 3 % of all TB cases worldwide. It can occur in the context of active pulmonary disease or a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Geriatric Cervical Spine Injury According to the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, there are 12 injury-related emergency department visits for every 100 persons over ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gestational Age Assessment Gestational age is a key piece of data used by healthcare providers to determine when to perform various screening tests and assessments of the fetus ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gestational Sac Evaluation The gestational sac is the first structure seen in pregnancy by ultrasound as early as 4.5 to 5 weeks of gestational age, but it is only 97.6% specifi ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Giant Cell Tumor Giant cell tumor is one of the most common benign bone tumors, occurring in young adults ages 20–40 years with a high recurrence rate and a potential ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glanders And Melioidosis Glanders and melioidosis are infectious diseases caused by Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei, respectively. Glanders has been eliminat ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glenoid Fractures The glenohumeral joint is a complex joint that lacks innate stability; the humeral head relies heavily on the ligaments of the shoulder and the rotato ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glioblastoma Multiforme Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a primary brain malignancy with a poor prognosis. No specific risk factors are identified. Diagnosis is by imaging li ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gliomas Glioma is the most common form of central nervous system (CNS) neoplasm that originates from glial cells. In the United States, there are six cases of ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Globe Rupture Globe rupture is a vision-threatening emergency. It is essential that clinicians have a high index of suspicion for globe rupture when treating patien ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glomus Cancer Glomangioma or glomuvenous malformation is a rare cutaneous venous malformation that shows glomus cells (undifferentiated smooth muscle cells which ar ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glomus Jugulare Glomus jugulare is a slow-growing paraganglioma of the head and neck that arises within the jugular foramen and localized to the jugular fossa. Paraga ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glottic Cancer Laryngeal cancers are one of the most common head and neck malignancies. Glottic cancers arise from true vocal cords and similarly to other laryngeal ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glucagonoma Syndrome Glucagonomas are neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreatic islets that secrete glucagon. Glucagonoma syndrome occurs due to the effects of elevated gluc ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gout Gout is one of the most common causes of chronic inflammatory arthritis in the United States, which is characterized by monosodium urate (MSU) monohyd ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gynecomastia Gynecomastia is an increase in male breast volume. This condition most often occurs during times of hormonal change such as at birth, during adolescen ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hallervorden Spatz Disease Hallervorden-Spatz disease now known as pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) is a rare autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disord ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hallux Valgus A hallux valgus is a complex deformity of the first ray of the forefoot. This deformity is, at times, red and painful and can disrupt daily activities ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hamartoma A hamartoma is a local malformation made up of an abnormal mixture of cells and tissue. Although most hamartomas are benign, they cause morbidity by v ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hamate Fractures Fractures of the hamate are rare, under-reported injuries. They can be divided anatomically into two groups: body or hook. While conventional X-rays m ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hamstring Injury Hamstring muscles comprise the three major muscles of the posterior aspect of the thigh. These include the semimembranous as the medial most, long and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hand and Wrist Rheumatoid Arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an immune-mediated multisystem inflammatory disease that predominantly affects the synovial joints. This activity provide ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Heart Failure And Ejection Fraction Heart failure (HF) is a common and potentially fatal disease if left untreated. This article aims to describe the different types of heart failure. It ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemiplegic Migraine A hemiplegic migraine is a rare form of migraine in which the migraine headache attack is accompanied by unilateral weakness. Typically, migraine aura ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemorrhagic Stroke Hemorrhagic stroke is due to bleeding into the brain by the rupture of a blood vessel. Hemorrhagic stroke may be further subdivided into intracerebral ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemothorax Hemothorax is a collection of blood in the space between the visceral and parietal pleura (pleural space). The clinical findings in such patients incl ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hepatic Adenoma Hepatic adenomas also called hepatocellular adenomas, are rare but benign epithelial tumors of the liver frequently associated with the use of oral co ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hepatic Cyst Hepatic cysts are fluid-filled cavities in the liver generally asymptomatic and found incidentally on imaging studies. They can sometimes be associate ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hepatic Cystadenoma Hepatic cystic lesions were once thought to be relatively uncommon; however, they are being diagnosed more frequently with the continued advancement a ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hepatic Hemangioma Hemangiomas are benign vascular tumors that may involve either the skin or viscera. Infantile hemangioma (IH) grows rapidly after birth then involutes ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hepatic Lymphoma Primary hepatic lymphoma (PHL) is a rare form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) which primarily involves the liver. This is in contrast to predominant lym ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hepatobiliary Iminodiacetic Acid Scan Hepatobiliary scintigraphy is a diagnostic nuclear medicine procedure that uses radiotracers to evaluate the biliary system and indirectly, the liver. ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hepatobiliary Scintigraphy Hepatobiliary scintigraphy is a nuclear imaging technique that permits evaluation of the liver and biliary system for acute and chronic cholecystitis, ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Heroin Heroin, also known as diacetylmorphine, is derived from the opium poppy plant. Professionals initially touted morphine as a substitute with less misus ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Herpes Simplex Encephalitis Herpes simplex encephalitis is caused by Herpes Simplex Virus type 1(HSV-1) or type 2 (HSV-2). HSV-1 causes encephalitis in children beyond the neonat ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Heterotopic Ossification Heterotopic ossification is frequently observed in the rehabilitation population. It consists of the formation of mature, lamellar bone in extraskelet ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hiatal Hernia A hiatal hernia is a condition in which the upper part of the stomach or other internal organ bulges through the hiatus of the diaphragm. When there i ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hip Fracture Overview Hip fractures are fractures of the proximal femur and are commonly seen in the elderly population following a fall. This type of injury has a high rat ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hip Joint Injection Hip pain is a common clinical complaint and a source of disability with an incidence of 12 to 15 percent among all adults over the age of 60 years. Th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hip Osteonecrosis Osteonecrosis of the hip, commonly known as avascular necrosis (AVN) of the hip, is the death of the femoral head as a result of vascular disruption. ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hip Pointer Injuries A hip pointer is a contusion of the iliac crest and/or the greater trochanteric region of the femur following a direct impact or collision. The manag ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hirsutism Hirsutism is the growth of excessive male-pattern hair in women after puberty. It affects facial and body areas dependent on androgens, namely mustach ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
HIV Encephalitis HIV encephalitis is a complication of HIV infection, which presents with neurocognitive dysfunction of varying severity. Almost half of HIV-infected p ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
HIV-1 Associated Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis is a common cause of central nervous system (CNS) infection in patients with HIV/AIDS who do not take appropriate prophylaxis. Cerebral ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Homonymous Hemianopsia Homonymous hemianopsia (or hemianopia) is a field loss deficit in the same halves of the visual field of each eye, often resulting from cerebrovascula ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Homonymous Superior Quadrantanopia The visual field test maps the vision in each individual eye by measuring the entire scope of vision when vision is focused on a central point. A visu ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Horner Syndrome Horner syndrome is a rare condition classically presenting with partial ptosis (drooping or falling of the upper eyelid), miosis (constricted pupil) a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Horseshoe Kidney Horseshoe kidneys are the most common fusion defect of the kidneys occurring in approximately 1:500 individuals. They are characterized by abnormaliti ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Huntington Disease Huntington disease (HD), a neurodegenerative autosomal dominant disorder, is characterized by involuntary choreatic movements with cognitive and behav ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hydatidiform Mole A hydatiform mole (also known as a molar pregnancy) is a gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD), which originates from the placenta and can metastasi ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hydronephrosis And Hydroureter Hydronephrosis and hydroureter result from obstruction of urine flow in the urinary system at the renal pelvis and ureter level, respectively. This is ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Complications Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is generally a relatively safe therapy for various conditions. However, there are some adverse side effects. When adv ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Treatment Of Delayed Radiation Injury There will be 1.2 million cases of invasive cancer diagnosed in the United States this year. Half of those patients will receive radiation therapy as ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypercalciuria Hypercalciuria is generally considered to be the most common identifiable metabolic risk factor for calcium nephrolithiasis. It also contributes to os ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) classified as an interstitial lung disease is characterized by a complex immunological reaction of the lung parenchy ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperthermia for Chest Wall Recurrence Primary breast cancer recurrence to the chest wall is a common. Hyperthermia to the chest wall recurrence, in conjunction with other available treatme ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperuricosuria Uric acid renal calculi are formed as a consequence of various metabolic abnormalities. Although rare, its prevalence is increasing with the change in ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypomelanosis of Ito Hypomelanosis of Ito (HI), or pigmentary mosaicism, was previously named incontinentia pigmenti achromians. The disease is currently named hypomelanos ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a type of congenital heart disease that results in the underdevelopment of the left-sided structures of the ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypothermia Accidental hypothermia occurs when the body dissipates more heat than it absorbs or creates, leaving the body unable to generate sufficient heat to ma ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism results from low levels of thyroid hormone with varied etiology and manifestations. The drug of choice for the treatment of hypothyroid ... Read the Article 1.75 27 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Iatrogenic Pneumothorax Pneumothorax is gas in the pleural space. This condition can present in one of three ways: spontaneous (primary), secondary, and traumatic. This activ ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ichthyosis Fetalis Harlequin ichthyosis (HI) is an extremely rare, autosomal recessive congenital disorder of the epidermal skin layer. Neonates with HI have a high mort ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonia With Autoimmune Features This article is aimed at introducing idiopathic interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features (IPAF) as a separate entity under the umbrella of inte ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a lung disorder where there is scarring of the lungs from an unknown cause. It is usually a progressive disease ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Immersion Pulmonary Edema Immersion pulmonary edema (IPE) is used as an umbrella term for scuba divers pulmonary edema (SDPE) and swimming-induced pulmonary edema (SIPE). Both ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura Immune thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP) is defined as a low platelet count, usually, less than 100,000 in the presence of a generalized petechial rash, ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Incision and Drainage Incision and drainage (I&D) is a widely used procedure in various care settings including emergency departments and outpatient clinics. It is the prim ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Indinavir Indinavir is an alpha-amino acid amide protease inhibitor used as a treatment therapy for Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, which can lea ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Infantile Cortical Hyperostosis Infantile cortical hyperostosis (ICH), also known as Caffey disease, was first reported by Roske in 1930 and described by Caffey and Silverman in 1945 ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Infarct Avid Imaging Study Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of ischemic cardiomyopathy. Approximately half of the patients with coronary artery disease can have dysf ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Inferior Vena Cava Filter Inferior vena cava filters (IVC filters) are indicated as a treatment to prevent pulmonary embolism in a select group of patients that have venous thr ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Inferior Vena Cava Syndrome Inferior vena cava syndrome (IVCS) is caused by physical invasion or compression by a pathological process or by thrombosis within the vein itself. Th ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Inferior Vena Caval Thrombosis Inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombosis is a disease associated with high morbidity. Although the condition is considered rare, case reports have shown th ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Innominate Artery Injury Innominate artery injuries can present either by penetrating or blunt force. A provider must make a quick decision on treatment to avoid the feared mo ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Insulinoma Insulinoma is a type of functional neuroendocrine tumor characterized by hypersecretion of insulin causing hypoglycemia. This activity reviews the man ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intercostal Nerve Block An intercostal nerve block is simple to perform and useful for pain management, either as a primary intervention or as an adjunct. In particular, inte ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Internal Jugular Vein Thrombosis Internal jugular vein thrombosis occurs when a thrombus develops in the lumen of the internal jugular vein (IJV). Hereditary and acquired risk factors ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intersection Syndrome Intersection syndrome is a condition that affects the first and second compartments of the dorsal wrist extensors. The condition is thought to occur a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Interstitial Lung Disease Interstitial lung disease (diffused parenchymal diseases) are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by fibrosis (scarring) of the lungs. Th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Interstitial Pulmonary Fibrosis Nonidiopathic interstitial pulmonary fibrosis describes a group of diseases causing fibrosis to the lung parenchyma due to a known cause. This a serio ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intertrochanteric Femur Fracture Intertrochanteric femur fractures are a very common injury seen in the elderly. Understanding the pathophysiology as well as the proper treatment opt ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intestinal Carcinoid Cancer Carcinoid tumor refers to a well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor (NET) that originate commonly in the gastrointestinal tract (about 55%) or in oth ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intestinal Fistula A fistula is an abnormal communication between two epithelial surfaces. An intestinal fistula is a fistula that connects the intestine to an adjacent ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intestinal Perforation Intestinal perforation, defined as a loss of continuity of the bowel wall, is a potentially devastating complication that may result from a variety of ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction Intestinal pseudo-obstruction is characterized by the dilation of bowel in the absence of an anatomical obstruction. Patients present with the signs a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intracranial Hemorrhage Intracranial hemorrhage encompasses four broad types of hemorrhage: epidural hemorrhage, subdural hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and intraparenc ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intracranial Hypertension Intracranial hypertension is a spectrum of neurological disorders where cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure within the skull is elevated. Normal CSF pr ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intradiscal Electrothermal Therapy Intradiscal electrothermal therapy is a procedure of applying heat to the annulus in cases of low back pain due to discogenic conditions that fail to ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Cancer Of The Pancreas Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) are cystic neoplasms of the pancreas that grow within the pancreatic ducts and produce mucin. They ha ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intraductal Papilloma Intraductal papilloma is a benign tumor found within breast ducts. The abnormal proliferation of ductal epithelial cells causes the growth. A solitary ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intraoperative Echocardiography Although transesophageal ultrasound was first reported in the 1970s, the advent of phased array transducers and flexible transesophageal probes in the ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intrapleural Catheter Pleural effusions are common; in the United States, nearly 1.5 million pleural effusions are diagnosed each year. Congestive heart failure is the most ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intrathecal Delivery System Intrathecal drug delivery systems are typically used for three main purposes, which are the treatment of chronic non-malignant pain, muscle spasticity ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intussusception In Adults The diagnosis of intussusception in adults is rare and challenging. The management, on the other hand, is rather straight forward. To achieve good ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ionizing Radiation Ionizing radiation has been proven to be a risk factor for malignancy in the future. Evidence from studies conducted following the Chernobyl accident, ... Read the Article 2.25 38 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ischemic Stroke Cerebrovascular accidents, commonly known as strokes, are prevalent across patient populations and can be a significant cause of morbidity and mortali ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Isthmic Spondylolisthesis Spondylolisthesis occurs when there is an anterior subluxation or “slippage” of the vertebral body above on the vertebral body below. In most cases, s ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Jaundice Jaundice, also known as hyperbilirubinemia, is defined as a yellow discoloration of the body tissue resulting from the accumulation of excess bilirubi ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Jod Basedow Syndrome Jod-Basedow syndrome, also known as iodine-induced hyperthyroidism, is a rare cause of thyrotoxicosis seen typically after the administration of exoge ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Jugular Foramen Syndrome The jugular foramen syndrome (JFS) (Vernet syndrome) refers to paralysis of the IX, X, and XI cranial nerves traversing the jugular foramen. Safe rese ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Jumpers Knee “Jumper's knee,” also called patellar tendinopathy, is a painful condition of the knee caused by small tears in the patellar tendon that mainly occurs ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), a heterogeneous group of chronic arthritis, is the most common chronic rheumatological condition in children. The ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Kasabach Merritt Syndrome Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon (KMP), first described in 1940, is a rare but life-threatening coagulopathy of infancy which presents with thrombocytopeni ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Kidney Trauma Renal trauma can result in injury to the parenchyma or the renal vasculature which can cause bleeding or injury to the collecting system with possible ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Kienbock Disease Kienböck disease refers to avascular necrosis of the lunate carpal bone, known as lunatomalacia. It was first recognized and described by Austrian rad ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Kinkajou Bite Kinkajou (Potos flavus) is an omnivorous rainforest mammal that lives in the tropical forests of Central and South America. It is considered related t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Knee Effusion The knee is a hinge joint and susceptible to injury from trauma, inflammation, infection, and degenerative changes. A knee effusion may result from ac ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Knee Meniscal Tears The lateral and medial menisci are crescent-shaped fibrocartilaginous structures that collectively cover approximately 70% of the articular surface of ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Krukenberg Tumor Krukenburg tumor is a metastatic malignancy of the ovary characterized by mucin-rich signet-ring adenocarcinoma that primarily arises from a gastroint ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Kyphoscoliosis Kyphoscoliosis is a disease of the thoracolumbar spine in which normal curvature is excessively deviated in multiple planes. Its complications are var ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Labyrinthitis Labyrinthitis is an inflammation of the membranous labyrinth of the inner ear and typically presents with vertigo, nausea, vomiting, tinnitus, and/or ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Laminectomy Laminectomy is one of the most common procedures to decompress spinal canal in cases of narrowing secondary to a variety of conditions such as degener ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure used for the removal of a diseased gallbladder. Since the early 1990s, this te ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Laparoscopic Inguinal Hernia Repair Inguinal hernia repairs are one of the most common general surgical operations performed in the world. Diagnosis of inguinal hernias is typical perfor ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Laryngeal Fracture A laryngeal fracture requires a considerable impact force. The most common cause of laryngeal trauma is a motor vehicle accident or sports injury, fol ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Laryngotracheobronchitis Laryngotracheobronchitis, as the name implies, refers to inflammation of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi. Cases of laryngotracheobronchitis can be mo ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lateral Medullary Syndrome Lateral medullary syndrome results from a vascular event in the lateral part of the medulla oblongata. The arteries commonly involved in lateral medul ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Le Fort Fractures Le Fort injuries are complex fractures of the midface, named after Rene Le Fort who studied cadaver skulls that were subjected to blunt force trauma. ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Left Renal Vein Obstruction Left renal vein obstruction, also known as Nutcracker phenomenon (NCP), occurs due to the external compression of the left renal vein (LRV) in between ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is the central measure of left ventricular systolic function. LVEF is the fraction of chamber volume ejected ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Legg Calve Perthes Disease Legg-Calve-Perthes disease (LCPD) is idiopathic osteonecrosis or idiopathic avascular necrosis of the capital femoral epiphysis of the femoral head. T ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Legionnaires' Disease Legionnaires' disease is a condition of severe pneumonia caused by Legionella, an aerobic gram-negative bacillus. This is a common cause of hospital a ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Leiomyosarcoma This activity reviews the evaluation, diagnosis, treatment, and latest advances in the field of leiomyosarcoma. In this activity, we will discuss the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lemierre Syndrome Lemierre syndrome (LS) is a rare complication of bacterial pharyngitis/tonsillitis and involves an extension of the infection into the lateral pharyng ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Leptomeningeal Carcinomatosis Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis is cancer involving the pia mater and arachnoid mater. Studies have shown that both solid tumors, including brain tumors ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Leriche Syndrome Leriche Syndrome also commonly referred to as aortoiliac occlusive disease, is caused by severe atherosclerosis affecting the distal abdominal aorta, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Leser Trelat Sign The sign of Leser-Trelat is considered to be a fairly rare paraneoplastic cutaneous marker of internal malignancy with the hallmark finding being an a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Linitis Plastica This activity reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, genetic background, staging, histological assessment, evaluation, treatment, the prognosis of ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lipemia Retinalis Lipemia retinalis (LR) is characterized by creamy white discoloration of retinal vessels. It is a feature of chylomicronemia. Proper ophthalmic evalua ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lisch Nodules Lisch nodules, traditionally described as iris hamartomas is one of the pathognomic markers of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and are rarely seen in i ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lisfranc Dislocation A Lisfranc dislocation or injury describes a spectrum of injuries involving the tarsometatarsal joints of the foot. The Lisfranc joint is comprised of ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Liver Abscess A liver abscess is defined as a pus-filled mass in the liver that can develop from injury to the liver or from an intra-abdominal infection disseminat ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Liver Angiosarcoma Angiosarcoma is described as a high-grade, malignant neoplasm of endothelial cells of blood or lymphatic vessels. Primary hepatic angiosarcoma is a ra ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Liver Imaging Liver lesions have a broad spectrum of pathologies ranging from benign liver lesions such as hemangiomas to malignant lesions such as primary hepatoce ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Liver Metastasis The presence of hepatic metastases increases the morbidity and mortality of patients with another site of a primary tumor disease. The majority of pub ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Locked-in Syndrome Locked-in syndrome is a condition where a person experiences quadriplegia and bulbar palsy due to damage in the brainstem. Cognition and vertical eye ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Low Grade Gliomas Low-grade gliomas are benign tumors and are grade 1 and grade 2 tumors according to WHO classification. They can be due to some genetic mutations or e ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lower Genitourinary Trauma Trauma is a major cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. Trauma to the lower genitourinary tract presents unique challenges as there are u ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ludwig Angina Ludwig's angina is life-threatening cellulitis of the soft tissue involving the floor of the mouth and neck. It involves two compartments on the floor ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lumbar Degenerative Disk Disease Between each vertebral body of the spine are pads of fibrocartilage-based structures that provide support, flexibility, and minor load-sharing known a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lumbar Puncture The lumbar puncture is a diagnostic procedure in the diagnosis of meningitis, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and certain neurological disorders. It is also ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Lumbar spinal stenosis is a common source of leg and back pain. It refers to a narrowing in the vertebra, in the areas of the central canal, lateral ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lumbar Spondylolysis And Spondylolisthesis Spondylolysis refers to a posterior defect in the vertebral body at the pars interarticularis. Usually, this defect is due to trauma or from a chronic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lumbosacral Discogenic Syndrome Lumbosacral discogenic syndrome is a common cause of axial low back pain (ABP), which can arise from structures such as facet joints, spinal muscles, ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lumbosacral Plexopathy Lumbosacral plexopathy is a relatively uncommon occurrence that can be difficult to diagnose and manage. When an injury occurs to the lumbosacral plex ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lumbosacral Spondylolisthesis Lumbosacral spondylolisthesis is a forward translation of the fifth lumbar vertebrae over the first sacral vertebrae. Untreated, it may be associated ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lung Abscess A lung abscess is a microbial infection of the lung that results in necrosis of the pulmonary parenchyma. Depending on the duration, it can be classif ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lung Biopsy This activity reviews salient details regarding accessing tissue specimens via a puncture through the chest wall into the lung (percutaneous lung lesi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lung Cancer Lung cancer or bronchogenic carcinoma refers to tumors originating in the lung parenchyma or within bronchi. It is one of the leading causes of cancer ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lung Cancer Screening Worldwide lung cancer has the highest rate of mortality and is the leading cause of cancer deaths. The incidence of lung cancer is approximately equal ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lung Carcinoid Tumors Pulmonary carcinoid tumors are uncommon neuroendocrine epithelial malignancies accounting for less than 1% of all lung cancers. They divide into two s ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lung Metastasis The lung is one of the most common sites of cancer metastasis. This activity will provide an overview of the common cancers that metastasize to lung, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lung Pancoast Tumor Pancoast or superior sulcus tumor consists of a wide range of tumors invading the apical chest wall and producing a characteristic syndrome named Panc ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lung Perfusion Scan A ventilation-perfusion (VQ) scan is a diagnostic test using radioisotopes to evaluate lung perfusion and ventilation. Its most common clinical use is ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lunotriquetral Instability Lunotriquetral joint instability is often misdiagnosed and if left untreated can result in lunotriquetral dissociation. Although patients may lack sym ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lyme Carditis Lyme carditis has been reported in 1% to 5% of diagnosed patients with Lyme disease. The most prominent manifestations are conduction system disturban ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lymphangitic Carcinomatosis Lymphangitic carcinomatosis is the infiltration & inflammation of lymphatic vessels secondary to the spread of malignancy from a primary site. Pulmona ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lymphocyte Depleted Hodgkin Lymphoma Lymphocyte-depleted classic Hodgkin lymphoma is the rarest subtype of classic Hodgkin lymphoma, accounting for 1% to 1.5% of classic Hodgkin lymphoma ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lymphocytic Hypophysitis Lymphocytic hypophysitis is a rare, autoimmune condition of the pituitary gland. It causes the pituitary gland to be infiltrated by lymphocytes and ca ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lymphoscintigraphy Lymphoscintigraphy is a powerful diagnostic imaging tool that can be obtained with little risk of adverse events. This activity reviews the applicatio ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lytic Bone Lesions Bone tumors are mostly benign. Most important determinants in imaging of bone tumors are morphology on plain radiograph (well defined lytic, ill-defin ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Male Breast Cancer Although breast cancer is typically synonymous as a disease that commonly occurs in women, it does occur in men as well. This is because although mini ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Malignant Effusion Pleural effusion is a frequent complication of advanced malignancy with significant associated morbidity and mortality. Recent advances in the managem ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Malignant Melanoma A melanoma is a tumor produced by the malignant transformation of melanocytes. Melanocytes are derived from the neural crest; consequently, melanomas, ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Malignant Mesothelioma Malignant mesothelioma is a rare growth of mesothelial cells strongly associated with asbestos exposure. Mesothelial cells form the lining layers of t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Malignant Otitis Externa Malignant otitis media is a serious infection of the ear canal and temporal bone. It can lead to severe complications if not treated urgently. This ac ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors Salivary gland tumors are a rare group of complex, heterogenous histologies that are located in the parotid gland, submandibular gland, sublingual gla ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Malignant Tumors of the Palate Malignant tumors of the palate incorporate a wide range of differing histologies with their own distinctive characteristics. The location is rich in m ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mallory Weiss Syndrome Mallory-Weiss syndrome is one of the common causes of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding and is characterized by the presence of longitudinal super ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mammary Duct Ectasia Mammary duct ectasia is a benign non-proliferative breast disease. It affects the large duct system. The exact cause is still unknown, but it may be c ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mammary Paget Disease Paget's disease of the breast is an uncommon manifestation of underlying breast cancer in postmenopausal female patients. Underlying breast lesion is ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mammography Aside from skin cancer, breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and represents 14% of all new cancers in the United States. Breast cancer ris ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mammoscintigraphy Breast cancer is increasing in incidence and is one of the leading types of cancer. Once thought to be mostly a disease of elderly females, there is a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Man In A Barrel Syndrome Man in a barrel syndrome is a neurological syndrome involving bilateral upper extremity weakness with preserved facial and lower extremity strength. T ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mandible Fracture Mandible is one of the most commonly fractured facial bone and is frequently seen in the emergency department. This activity reviews the anatomy of th ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
March Fracture March fractures (metatarsal stress fractures) were first described in 1855, when the term was coined for the foot pain and swelling experienced by Pru ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Marchiafava Bignami Disease Marchiafava-Bignami disease (MBD) is a very rare disorder characterized by demyelination and necrosis of the corpus callosum. The adjacent subcortical ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Maxillary Fracture Maxillary fractures are common in patients sustaining facial trauma and may be caused by road traffic accidents, sports, or assault. Maxillary fractur ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Maxillary Sinus Fracture Maxillary sinus fractures (MSFs) are most commonly caused by blunt force trauma to the face. Depending on the magnitude and location of the direct inj ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
May-Thurner Syndrome May-Thurner syndrome (MTS), described in 1957 by Dr. May and Dr. Thurner, as a left common iliac vein (LCIV) thrombosis secondary to compression by an ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Meckel Diverticulum Meckel diverticulum is a common congenital abnormality of the small intestine that is caused by incomplete obliteration of the vitelline (omphalomesen ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Meconium Ileus Meconium Ileus (MI) is one of the earliest manifestations of cystic fibrosis (CF) and presents in up to 20 percent of infants with CF. The inspissated ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Medial Medullary Syndrome Medial medullary syndrome is a form of stroke that affects the medial medulla of the brain. It is usually caused by atherothrombotic occlusion of para ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome (MTSS) is a common overuse injuries of the lower extremity, often seen in athletes and military personnel. It involves e ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mediastinal Carcinoid Tumors Mediastinal carcinoid tumors are extremely rare malignancies with aggressive behavior and a grim prognosis. These malignancies often go undetected unt ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mediastinal Trauma The mediastinum is contained within the thoracic cavity and has a high concentration of major vascular and visceral structures. Traumatic injury to an ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mediastinoscopy Mediastinoscopy is a thoracic surgical procedure performed with a mediastinoscope to examine the mediastinum— the space in the thoracic cavity between ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Medication Overuse Induced Headache Medication overuse headache (MOH) is thought to occur when medications intended to relieve headaches are consumed too frequently. Causal agents are va ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Medullary Sponge Kidney Medullary sponge kidney is a benign congenital abnormality that was first described in 1939. Anatomically it is characterized by cystic dilatation of ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Medullary Thyroid Cancer Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is a tumor arising from the parafollicular cells, or C cells, of the thyroid gland. Medullary thyroid cancer produces c ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Meigs Syndrome Meigs syndrome is an uncommon presentation, where a benign ovarian tumor present along with ascites and pleural effusion. About 1 % of ovarian tumors ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Melas Syndrome Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) is a mitochondrial disease primarily affecting the nervous system an ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Meningioma Meningioma is a known benign central nervous system tumor commonly arising from the meninges of the brain and spinal cord. The rate of recurrence and ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Menstrual Related Headache Menstrual related headaches (MRH) are a common class of headaches that occur in women related to a decline in estrogen during the menstrual cycle. To ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mesenteric Artery Ischemia Intestinal ischemia can affect the small intestine or the colon. Whereas, colonic ischemia refers to ischemia that affects the colon, mesenteric ische ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mesenteric Artery Thrombosis Mesenteric artery thrombosis (MAT) is a condition involving occlusion of the arterial vascular supply of the intestinal system. It is a severe and pot ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mesenteric Vasculitis Mesenteric vasculitis can present in a variety of vasculitic disorders and some systemic, systemic diseases. The diagnosis of this condition can be ve ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mesenteric Venous Thrombosis Mesenteric venous thrombosis is caused by impairment of venous return of the bowel due to local blood coagulation. Primary mesenteric venous thrombosi ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Metacarpal Fracture The metacarpals form the osseous base of the complex lever system of flexor and extensor tendons of the hand. Understandably, fractures of the metaca ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Metacarpal Hand Fracture Hand fractures are common in the general population with relative propensity seen in contact-sport athletes (e.g., boxers, football players) and manua ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Metastatic Melanoma Melanoma is the third most common cutaneous malignancy after basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Melanoma is the fifth most common malig ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Methanol Toxicity Methanol (CH3OH) is a toxic alcohol that is found in various household and industrial agents. Methanol exposure can be extremely dangerous, with signi ... Read the Article 1.5 23 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Methotrexate Methotrexate (MTX) is an anti-metabolite most commonly used in chemotherapy and also as an immunosuppressant in auto-immune diseases. This activity d ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Middle Ear Cholesteatoma There are two major types of middle ear cholesteatomas, congenital and acquired. Congenital cholesteatomas are derived from remnants of epithelium tha ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Midgut Malrotation Midgut malrotation is a defect in the normal embryonic rotation of the gut, which causes an abdominal obstruction that presents acutely or with chroni ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mid-Ventricular Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy Mid-ventricular Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a rare, reversible myocardial injury that presents with distinctive regional wall abnormalities of the lef ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Millard Gubler Syndrome Millard-Gubler syndrome (MGS), also known as facial abducens hemiplegia syndrome or ventral pontine syndrome, is one of the classical crossed brainste ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mirizzi Syndrome Mirizzi syndrome is a rare condition caused by the obstruction of the common bile duct or common hepatic duct by external compression from multiple im ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mitral Stenosis Mitral stenosis (MS) is a form of valvular heart disease characterized by narrowing of the mitral valve orifice. The most common cause of mitral steno ... Read the Article 2 34 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mitral Valve Insufficiency This review article discusses clinical aspects of mitral regurgitation (MR), in terms of etiology, epidemiology, diagnosis, management, and treatment ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Monoclonal Gammopathy Of Undetermined Significance Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is an asymptomatic preneoplastic plasma cell disorder that is characterized by serum M-prot ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mononucleosis Mononucleosis classically presents with fever, lymphadenopathy, and tonsillar pharyngitis. The term infectious mononucleosis was first used in the 192 ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Monteggia Fractures The forearm is a vital structure in the human body that is essential for completing activities of daily living. It is designed to help maximize versat ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Morgagni Hernia Morgagni hernia are rare congenital diaphragmatic defects that can lead to bowel obstruction and incarceration if not repaired. Surgery can be perform ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Moyamoya Disease Moyamoya disease (MMD) is an isolated chronic, usually bilateral, vasculopathy of undetermined etiology characterized by progressive narrowing of the ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
MR Angiogram Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) encompasses several imaging techniques based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) developed for studying the arter ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mucinous Breast Carcinoma Mucinous carcinoma of the breast is a relatively rare subtype of breast cancer accounting for about 2% of all breast carcinomas. According to the late ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mucinous Cystic Pancreatic Neoplasms Mucinous cystic pancreatic neoplasms (MCPN) are rare tumors of the pancreas, which mostly occur in middle-aged females. The survival rate for this dis ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mucormycosis Mucormycosis results from a variety of fungi that may be typically innocuous environmental fungi and primarily affects immunocompromised patients. Fo ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 Multiple endocrine neoplasia Type 1 (MEN1), also known as Wermer syndrome, is a rare hereditary endocrine tumor syndrome. The most common tumors seen ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Multiple Myeloma Multiple myeloma (MM) is a clonal plasma cell proliferative disorder characterized by the abnormal increase of monoclonal paraprotein leading to evide ... Read the Article 1.5 23 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Multiple Sclerosis Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by chronic inflammation, demyelination, gliosis, an ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mural Thrombi Mural thrombi are thrombi that attach to the wall of a blood vessel and cardiac chamber. Mural thrombus occurrence in a normal or minimally atheroscle ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Muscular Hematoma Muscular Hematomas are a common source of extravasated blood from within a muscle group, most commonly occurring in the abdominal waist. Muscular hema ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mycotic Aneurysm A mycotic aneurysm is an infection of vessel wall which can be bacterial, fungal, or viral in origin; they are a rare but severe complication of syste ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Myelomeningocele Neural tube defects are a spectrum of congenital anomalies that includes cranial defects and open or closed spinal dysraphism. Open spinal dysraphism ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Myopericarditis The terms pericarditis refers to inflammation of the pericardium and myocarditis. Both can occur together in clinical practice, and hence the term myo ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Myxedema Myxedema coma is a rare fatal condition as a result of long-standing hypothyroidism with loss of the adaptive mechanism to maintain homeostasis. Hypot ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nabothian Cyst Nabothian cysts (also called mucinous retention cysts or epithelial cysts) are common and benign gynecological condition located at the uterine cervix ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nail Clubbing Clubbing of the nails is soft tissue swelling of the terminal phalanx resulting in flattening of the angle that exists between the nail bed and the na ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nail Patella Syndrome Nail patella syndrome (NPS) is a rare multisystemic disease with a classic clinical tetrad of fingernail dysplasia, hypoplasia or absence of the patel ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nasal Fracture Fractures of the naso-orbital-ethmoid (NOE) complex resulting from high impact trauma to the face can have significant ramifications due to the NOE co ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma Nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a rare highly vascular tumor within the posterior nasal cavity found almost exclusively in adolescent boys. This activi ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nasopharyngeal Cancer The nasopharynx is a small, tubular structure above the soft palate that connects the nose to the oropharynx. Cancers that arise from this area are us ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), previously known as lymphoepithelioma, is a malignancy arising from the epithelium of the nasopharynx. Endemic to Chin ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neck Abscess Neck abscesses in the deep neck tissues are difficult to diagnose, localize, access, and manage. The anatomy of the neck is complex and contains sever ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neck Trauma The management of neck trauma can be challenging and sometimes overwhelming, as this anatomical region contains many vital structures. These structure ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neonatal Evaluation The initial examination within the first 24 hours of birth is critical in determining the general well-being of newborns, but also to identify any red ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome is a frequent cause of increased morbidity and mortality in neonates. Understanding the pathophysiology, clinic ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nephrolithiasis Nephrolithiasis is the term employed for kidney stones, also known as renal calculi, and they are crystal concretions formed typically in the kidney. ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neural Tube Disorders Neural tube defects are the most common severe central nervous system anomalies only second to cardiovascular abnormalities resulting in congenital mo ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neurilemmoma The vast majority of tumors of the peripheral nervous system arise from the cells of Schwann, rather than from the nerve cells themselves. Schwann cel ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neurofibromatosis Type 1 Neurofibromatosis-1 (NF-1) or Von Recklinghausen's disease is one of the inheritable neurocutaneous disorders manifested by developmental changes in t ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neurofibromatosis Type 2 Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the development of multiple tumors involving the central nervous sys ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neurogenic Pulmonary Edema Neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) is a clinical condition arises as acute respiratory distress taking place in conjunction with severe neurological dam ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neurological Sequelae Of Endocarditis Endocarditis is inflammation or infection of the endocardium, the inner lining of cardiac valves and cardiac muscle. It most commonly results from bac ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neuropathic Ulcer Neuropathic ulcers occur when a patient with poor neurological function of the peripheral nervous system has pressure points that cause ulceration thr ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neutropenic Enterocolitis Neutropenic colitis is a life-threatening condition usually seen in patients who are severely myelosuppressed. Although the exact pathogenesis is not ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nevus Flammeus Nevus flammeus or port-wine stain is a capillary malformation usually presenting as a unilateral pink or red patch anywhere on the body of a newborn. ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nightstick Fracture Nightstick fractures are a relatively rare injury presenting in patients of all ages that can result in discomfort, weakness, and loss of function. T ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nissen Fundoplication Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a common illness that impacts many people in the modern era. It is recognized worldwide but has been shown to have ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Non Small Cell Lung Cancer Lung cancer is a diagnosis that has become a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Non-small cell lung cancer includes the subsets of adenocarcinom ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Non ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) can be divided into subgroups of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-ST-segment elevation myocardial ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a broad term used to cover a spectrum of conditions which are characterized by evidence of hepatic steato ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Non-arteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy occurs due to decreased blood supply to the optic nerve head. It is divided into a) Arteritic anterior ischemic opt ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonitis Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) is one class of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP). NSIP is chronic interstitial pneumonia with the hom ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nontoxic Goiter Goiter is the enlargement of the thyroid gland. Nontoxic goiter is thyroid gland enlargement with no disturbance in the thyroid function. It is not du ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Normal pressure hydrocephalus characteristically presents with progressive gait impairment, cognitive deficits, and urinary urgency and/or incontinenc ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Normocalcemic Hyperparathyroidism Normocalcemic hyperparathyroidism (nHPT) is a condition characterized by normal serum calcium in the face of elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH). It ca ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nucleus Pulposus Herniation This activity describes the etiology, epidemiology, clinical presentation and treatment of a nucleus pulposus herniation, which is a condition charact ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nutcracker Syndrome Nutcracker syndrome is a venous compression syndrome involving the left renal vein. It is an uncommon, although possibly underdiagnosed, condition tha ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Obstetric Ultrasound Ultrasound is a noninvasive diagnostic modality that can quickly confirm an intrauterine pregnancy at the bedside, significantly shortening the length ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Obstructive Uropathy Obstructive uropathy is a hindrance to normal urinary flow that can be caused by a variety of structural and functional etiologies. This is a common a ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ocular Cellulitis Orbital cellulitis is an inflammation of the contents of the orbit posterior to the orbital septum. The inflammation occurs secondary to an infection ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ocular Ultrasound Ocular ultrasound has many potential benefits in the evaluation of patients with acute vision loss, ocular trauma, headache or concern for increased i ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Odontoid Fractures The odontoid process, or dens, is a superior projecting bony element from the second cervical vertebrae (C2, or the axis). The first cervical vertebra ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Omentum Tumors The omentum is made up of cells that are mesothelial in origin. The omentum exhibits angiogenic, fibrotic, stem cells, and immune activities responsib ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ommaya Reservoir Ommaya reservoir is a ventricular access device with an intraventricular catheter system for the purpose of chronic access to the intrathecal space. O ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Optic Nerve Decompression Optic nerve sheath decompression, more commonly known as optic nerve sheath fenestration (ONSF), is a surgical procedure performed to decompress the o ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Optic Nerve Glioma Optic pathway gliomas are benign CNS tumors that primarily affect children. Although typically slow growing, the location of these tumors makes resect ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Optic Nerve Sheath Ultrasound Point of care optic nerve sheath ultrasound (ONSUS) is a bedside practice that can be used to evaluate for increased intracranial pressure. This activ ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Optic Neuritis This activity describes the evaluation and management of optic neuritis and details the role of the interprofessional team in managing patients with t ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Oral Cutaneous Fistula Oral cutaneous fistulas (OCF) are an infrequent condition in which there is a pathologic communication between the oral cavity and the skin. Chronic d ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Orbital Floor Fracture Fractures of the orbital floor and the medial orbital wall (blowout fractures) are common midface injuries. Orbital fractures have a distinct trauma m ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, commonly known as throat cancer or tonsil cancer, is a type of head and neck cancer that refers to the cancer o ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Os Odontoideum This activity discusses os odontoideum, a rare cervical entity characterized by a failure in the normal development of the odontoid process resulting ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Os Peroneum Os peroneum is one of several accessory ossicles of the foot and ankle, located lateral to the cuboid within the distal peroneus longus tendon. Painfu ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Osgood Schlatter Disease Osgood Schlatter disease, also known as osteochondrosis, tibial tubercle apophysitis, or traction apophysitis of the tibial tubercle, is a common caus ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Osler-Weber-Rendu Disease Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is also known as Osler–Weber–Rendu disease. It is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by multiple ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Osteitis Condensans Ilii This activity outlines the evaluation and management of osteitis condensans ilii and reviews the role of the healthcare team in evaluating patients fo ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Osteitis Fibrosa Cystica Osteitis fibrosa cystica (OFC) is a skeletal disorder caused by an overproduction of parathyroid hormone from the overactive parathyroid glands. Ostei ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Osteitis Pubis Osteitis pubis (OP) is a noninfectious, chronic inflammatory state of the pubic symphysis and surrounding soft tissues with multiple etiologies, all r ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis in the world. It can be classified into two categories: primary osteoarthritis and secondary ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Osteoblastoma Osteoblastoma is an uncommon benign bone-forming neoplasm that accounts for about 1% of all primary bone tumors. It commonly arises in the posterior e ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Osteochondritis Dissecans Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD), also known as an osteochondral lesion, is not a fully understood process, though it is believed to be multi-factorial ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Osteochondroma Osteochondromas are common benign osseous surface lesions generally arising from the metaphysis of long bones. The lesions are most commonly asymptoma ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Osteofibrous Dysplasia Osteofibrous dysplasia (OFD) is a rare disease. It is considered a benign non-neoplastic condition of unknown cause, characterized by a fibrovascular ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Osteogenic Sarcoma Osteogenic sarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumor with an annual incidence of 900 cases in the United States. This activity reviews t ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Osteoid Osteoma An osteoid osteoma is a benign bone-forming tumor that has no potential to become malignant. It classically causes severe pain at night and is relieve ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Osteomalacia Vitamin D deficiency accounts for the most common nutritional deficiency among children and adults. Osteomalacia describes a disorder of “bone softeni ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Osteomyelitis Osteomyelitis is a serious infection of the bone that can be either acute or chronic. It is an inflammatory process involving the bone and its structu ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Osteopenia Osteopenia describes a decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) below normal reference values, yet not low enough to meet the diagnostic criteria for os ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Osteopetrosis The name osteopetrosis encompasses a group of hereditary metabolic bone diseases, all of which detrimentally affect bone growth and remodeling leading ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Osteoporosis in Spinal Cord Injuries Osteoporosis is a condition describing a spectrum of overall compromised skeletal microarchitecture with clinical manifestations related to decreasing ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Osteoradionecrosis Treatment of malignancies with ionizing radiation has saved countless lives in the past 50 years. However, a small percentage of patients treated with ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Osteosarcoma Osteosarcoma is a malignant osseous neoplasm. It is the most common primary bone cancer of childhood. Less frequently, it occurs in adults where it re ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ovarian Cystadenoma Epithelial neoplasms of the ovary account for 60 percent of all ovarian tumors and 40 percent of benign tumors. They are classified as benign, borderl ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Paget Disease Paget disease is a skeletal growth disorder in which abnormalities such as unusual bone growth can occur in several multifactoral ways. This is often ... Read the Article 1.5 22 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Paget Schroetter Syndrome Paget Schroetter syndrome (PSS) is effort-induced thrombosis of the axillary and subclavian veins associated with compression of the subclavian vein a ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pancoast Syndrome Superior pulmonary sulcus tumors, also called Pancoast tumors, arise from the apical pleuropulmonary groove located superior to the first rib. When th ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pancreatic Ascites Pancreatic ascites is a somewhat rare entity that results from a pancreatic duct injury, leading to persistent leakage of pancreatic secretions into t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pancreatic Cancer Pancreatic cancer refers to the carcinoma arising from the pancreatic duct cells, pancreatic ductal carcinoma. It is the fourth leading cause of cance ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pancreatic Cysts Pancreatic cysts are often detected in patients undergoing imaging with either computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for unrela ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pancreatic Islet Cell Cancer Islet cell cancer of the pancreas is a type of cancer of neuroendocrine origin. Since there are different types of islet cells, the presentation furth ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pancreatic Pseudoaneurysm A pancreatic pseudoaneurysm is an uncommon clinical entity. However, it is important to recognize this condition early as it can result in life-threat ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pancreatic Pseudocyst A pancreatic pseudocyst is an encapsulated collection of homogenous fluid with little or no necrotic tissue located near the pancreas. It often presen ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pancreatic Serous Cystadenoma Pancreatic serous cystadenomas are mostly benign lesions. Their incidence has increased recently due to the improvements in imaging techniques nowaday ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pancreatic Trauma Pancreatic trauma is a rare but potentially catastrophic injury that can be very difficult to diagnose. Conventional imaging modalities miss subtle fi ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pancreatitis Acute pancreatitis is an acute response to injury of the pancreas. Chronic pancreatitis can result in permanent damage to the structure and endocrine ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Papillary Fibroelastoma Papillary fibroelastomas are one of the most common types of primary cardiac tumors. They are increasingly recognized as the spatial resolution of ima ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is an epithelial malignancy showing evidence of follicular cell differentiation and a set of distinctive nuclear fea ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Paradoxical Embolism Paradoxical embolism is an uncommon cause for acute arterial occlusion. Paradoxical Embolism (PDE) occurs when a thrombus crosses an intracardiac def ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Paraganglioma Paragangliomas are benign tumors, and a small percentage may become malignant and metastasize; hence, early identification leading to complete surgica ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Parainfluenza Virus The human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) is an enveloped, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the family of Paramyxoviridae. HPIV ca ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Parapneumonic Pleural Effusions And Empyema Thoracis A parapneumonic effusion refers to the accumulation of exudative pleural fluid associated with an ipsilateral lung infection, mainly pneumonia. Parapn ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Parathyroid Adenoma A parathyroid adenoma is part of a spectrum of parathyroid disease that also includes parathyroid hyperplasia and parathyroid carcinoma. History of ra ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Parathyroid Cancer Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare, malignant neoplasm originating from the parathyroid gland. The clinical presentation can mimic primary parathyroid ad ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Parkinson Disease Parkinson disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that mostly presents in later life with generalized slowing of movements (bradykinesia) and at least ... Read the Article 1.75 28 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pars Interarticularis Defect Pars interarticularis defects also referred to as spondylolysis, are a common cause of axial back pain in adolescents, especially young athletes. The ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pars Interarticularis Injury Pars interarticularis injury, a condition characterized by a fracture in the pars isthmus, is a common cause of low back pain, mainly among young athl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Partial And Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection Total and partial anomalous venous connection comprises a wide spectrum of congenital cardiovascular malformations where one or more pulmonary veins r ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Patella Dislocation Acute patellar dislocations typically occur as a result of trauma, usually a non-contact twisting injury to the knee, or from a direct blow to the med ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Patent Ductus Arteriosus The ductus arteriosus is a fetal vessel that allows the oxygenated blood from the placenta to bypass the fetal lungs in utero. At birth, a newborn inh ... Read the Article 1.5 24 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Patent Foramen Ovale Patent foramen ovale (PFO) occurs when a remnant of normal fetal anatomy abnormally persists into adulthood. It represents a benign finding in the new ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pectus Carinatum Pectus carinatum is a structural deformity of the chest wall that affects nearly 1 in 1000 teens, and early identification allows for more noninvasive ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pediatric Abusive Head Trauma Pediatric abusive head trauma (AHT), or shaken baby syndrome, most often involves shaking, blunt impact, or a combination of both in infants and young ... Read the Article 1.75 22 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pediatric Asthma Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways, characterized by recurrent episodes of airflow obstruction resulting from edema, bronchospasm ... Read the Article 1.5 22 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pediatric Bronchospasm Bronchospasm involves the constriction of the smooth muscle layers of the small airways. If left untreated, bronchospasm can progress to respiratory d ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pediatric Cerebral Aneurysm Similar to their adult counterparts, pediatric cerebral aneurysms are associated with a variety of systemic and intracranial disorders. The most comm ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pediatric Craniopharyngioma Pediatric craniopharyngioma could be considered one of the most complex neurosurgical pathologies in the pediatric population. The tumor's proximity t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pediatric Foreign Body Ingestion Children commonly swallow foreign bodies. Coins are the most commonly swallowed foreign body that comes to medical attention in the USA; in other coun ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pediatric Head Trauma Blunt traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a disruption in the normal function of the brain caused by a mechanical impact to the head. TBI ranges from mild ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pediatric Lateral Humeral Condyle Fractures This activity reviews the injury mechanism, presentation, evaluation, management, and post-operative care of pediatric lateral humeral condyle fractur ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pediatric Physeal Injuries Overview This activity describes the evaluation and management of physeal injuries in the pediatric population. It explains the role of the interprofessional t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pediatric Spine Trauma A spinal cord injury is a potentially crippling injury which often results in severe and permanent disability. Quite often when encountering multi-sys ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pediatric Torus Buckle Fracture Buckle fractures are incredibly common injuries that present to the emergency department, which are invariably always managed conservatively, and do n ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Peliosis Hepatis Peliosis hepatis is a rare vascular condition that often goes unrecognized. Generally seen in adults of any age, it can also present in children with ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pelvic Fracture A pelvic fracture involves damage to the hip bones, sacrum, or coccyx - the bony structures forming the pelvic ring. Due to the inherent structural an ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pelvic Trauma Pelvic injuries are the result of high energy trauma; they frequently have associated injuries. The injuries can be life-threatening and lead to life- ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pelvic Ultrasound The ultrasound is a critical modality for the evaluation of the contents of the female pelvis. It allows ready and portable imaging of the uterus, ova ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Penetrating Chest Trauma Chest trauma has quickly risen to be the second most common traumatic injury in non-intentional trauma. Trauma to the chest is also associated with th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Penetrating Groin Trauma Penetrating groin trauma is an infrequent yet complex injury that requires quick identification, evaluation, and treatment in the emergency department ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Penetrating Head Trauma Penetrating brain injury (PBI) is a significant cause of mortality in young individuals. PBI encompasses all traumatic brain injuries other than blunt ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Penile Cancer Penile cancer is an uncommon malignancy, but when diagnosed is psychologically devastating to the patient and can pose a difficult challenge to the tr ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Penis Fracture Penis fracture is an uncommon but severe injury. Often the direct result of penile trauma during intercourse penis fractures has a deleterious effect ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Peptic Ulcer Disease Peptic ulcer disease is characterized by discontinuation in the inner lining of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract because of gastric acid secretion or p ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Percutaneous Abscess Drainage A commonly utilized procedure in most radiology practices is placing a drain or catheter percutaneously under imaging guidance. Usually, the developme ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Percutaneous Central Catheter The ability to obtain venous access in the inpatient and outpatient setting is one of the most fundamental, yet, crucial components for a large number ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Percutaneous Cholangiography Patients presenting with obstructive biliary pathology can be challenging to evaluate with noninvasive imaging. Percutaneous cholangiography, in conju ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Percutaneous Gastrostomy And Jejunostomy Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) and percutaneous endoscopic gastro-jejunal (PEG-J) tubes are common procedures in the management of patients ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Percutaneous Nephrostomy This activity reviews salient details regarding accessing the renal collecting system via a puncture through the lumbar region of the back (percutaneo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation Of Liver Tumors The liver is a common location for both primary and metastatic malignancies, which often result in significant morbidity and mortality. Traditional su ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Percutaneous Transhepatic Cholangiogram This activity reviews salient details regarding bile duct access via needle puncture through the body wall and liver via percutaneous transhepatic cho ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) also called percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a minimally invasive procedure to open b ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Percutaneous Vertebroplasty And Kyphoplasty Compression fractures are prone to progression over time and may facilitate the compression of adjacent vertebrae due to compensatory increases in axi ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Perianal Abscess Perianal abscesses are the most common type of anorectal abscesses. These abscesses can cause significant discomfort for patients. They are located at ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pericardial Calcification The pericardium is a rigid, avascular, fibrous sac. Its primary functions are anchoring, lubricating, and preventing overdistention of cardiac chamber ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pericardial Cyst A pericardial cyst is typically considered a congenital anomaly, with most patients diagnosed via incidental findings on routine chest imaging. Rarely ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pericardial Effusion A pericardial effusion refers to the accumulation of excess fluid in the pericardial sac surrounding the heart. In a healthy individual, the pericardi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pericholangitis The diagnostic criteria for small-duct primary sclerosing cholangitis (SDPSC) included biochemical features of chronic cholestasis with unknown etiolo ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Periodontal Abscess Periodontal abscesses are a common and painful dental emergency as a result of bacterial accumulation or foreign body impaction in periodontal pockets ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Peripartum Cardiomyopathy Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a rare cause of cardiomyopathy that occurs during late pregnancy or in the early postpartum period. It is characte ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Peripheral Arterial Disease Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a circulatory problem causing a reduced blood flow through the arteries. This typically reduces blood flow to the ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Periprosthetic Distal Femur Fracture Total knee arthroplasty provides a safe and effective treatment for patients with end-stage osteoarthritis of the knee. The combination of increased l ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Peritoneal Metastasis The term peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) generally refers to the metastatic involvement of the peritoneum. The name was first coined in 1931 by Sampson ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Periventricular Hemorrhage-Intraventricular Hemorrhage Periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage is a disease process that primarily affects the premature newborn infant born at less than 33 weeks of ges ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pernicious Anemia Pernicious anemia (PA) is megaloblastic anemia resulting from a deficiency of cobalamin (vitamin B12), which in turn is caused by a lack of intrinsic ... Read the Article 1.5 23 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Peroneal Tendon Syndromes Peroneal tendon disorders are a cause of hindfoot and lateral foot pain. There are three primary disorders of the tendons; Peroneal tendonitis, perone ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Phalanx Fracture Phalangeal fractures of the hand are a common injury that presents to the emergency department and clinic. Injuries can be located at the proximal, mi ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Phalanx Fractures of the Hand Phalanx fractures of the hand are some of the most common fractures occurring in humans. They are often noted to be in the more common of all upper ex ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Phrenic Nerve Injury The phrenic nerve is among the most important nerves in the body due to its role in respiration. The phrenic nerve provides the primary motor supply t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Phyllodes Tumor Of The Breast Phyllodes tumor of the breast is a relatively rare fibroepithelial neoplasm that presents a morphologic continuum from benign to malignant. Most phyll ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pick Disease Pick disease, also known as frontotemporal dementia, is the most common cause of dementia in patients under 60 years of age and is the third most comm ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) refers to a subtype of tenosynovial giant cell tumors that diffusely affect the soft tissue lining of joints a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pilon Fracture “Pilon,” the French word for pestle, was first used by Etienne Destot in 1911 as an analogy for the mechanical function of the distal tibia on the tal ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pituitary Adenoma Pituitary adenomas are tumors of the anterior pituitary. Most pituitary tumors are slow-growing and benign. They are classified based on size or cell ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pituitary Apoplexy Pituitary apoplexy is an infarction or hemorrhage of the pituitary gland. This condition most often involves a pre-existing pituitary adenoma. This ac ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pituitary Hyperplasia In Primary Hypothyroidism Pituitary hyperplasia is an under-recognized manifestation that can occur fairly commonly in primary hypothyroidism. Recognition of this entity is imp ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Placenta Abnormalities The placenta attaches to the uterine wall and allows metabolic exchange between the fetus and the mother. The placenta has both embryonic and maternal ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Placenta Accreta Placenta accreta spectrum (PAS) disorders are considered to be iatrogenic conditions. They are more common in women with previous cesarean deliveries. ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Placenta Previa Placenta previa is the complete or partial covering of the internal os of the cervix with the placenta. It is a major risk factor for postpartum hemor ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Placental Abruption Placental abruption is the early separation of the placenta from the lining of the uterus before the completion of the second stage of labor. It is on ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pleomorphic Adenoma Pleomorphic adenoma, the most common salivary gland tumor, is also known as benign mixed tumors (BMT's), because of its dual origin from epithelial an ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Plummer Vinson Syndrome Plummer-Vinson syndrome (PVS) is a rare condition characterized by the classic triad of dysphagia, iron-deficiency anemia, and esophageal webbing. Plu ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pneumatocele Pneumatoceles are air-filled cavitary lesions usually seen in the lung after infection, trauma, or as a part of more extensive cystic disease of the l ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pneumocephalus Pneumocephalus, also known as pneumatocele or intracranial aerocele, is defined as the presence of air in the intracranial space. Pneumocephalus can o ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pneumocystis Jiroveci Pneumonia Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia (PCP), now referred to as Pneumocystis Jirovecii Pneumonia is a fungal infection that most commonly affects the immunoc ... Read the Article 2.25 39 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pneumonectomy A pneumonectomy is an invasive procedure used as a management option for patients with advanced malignant and non-malignant lung disease. Proper patie ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pneumothorax A pneumothorax is a collection of air outside the lung but within the pleural cavity. It occurs when air accumulates between the parietal and visceral ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Poland Syndrome Poland syndrome consists of anatomic anomalies that include the absence of the sternocostal head of the pectoralis major muscle with other varied mani ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Polycystic Kidney Disease Polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is an autosomal dominant disorder. It is a multisystem and progressive disease with cysts formation and kidney enlar ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Polycystic Kidney Disease In Adults Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is a disorder in which there is an enlargement of the kidneys with multiple cyst formation. There is a de ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Polycystic Kidney Disease Of Childhood There are two inherited varieties of polycystic kidney disease (PKD): autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and autosomal recessive pol ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Polycystic Liver Disease Polycystic liver disease (PLD) is a progressive disease, but only a small subset of patients develop severe symptoms. Supportive management is recomme ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Polyhydramnios Polyhydramnios is an increase in amniotic fluid in pregnancy associated with increased maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. The severity of ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pontine Infarction Stroke is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in the world. Pontine strokes, in particular, are catastrophic. Clinical presentation o ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Popliteal Aneurysm Repair Popliteal artery aneurysms are the most common aneurysms of the peripheral artery. They are true aneurysms, and their pathogenesis is related to the m ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Popliteal Artery Aneurysm A popliteal artery aneurysm is defined as a focal dilation in the artery, with the largest diameter being more than 50% of the normal. These focal dil ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Popliteal Artery Entrapment Syndrome The rare clinical manifestation of Popliteal Artery Entrapment Syndrome (PAES) was defined approximately 40 years ago. It has a preference for young t ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Porcelain Aorta Porcelain aorta (PA) is a structural aortic wall disease characterized by extensive heavy calcification of the ascending thoracic aorta extending to t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Porcelain Gallbladder Porcelain gallbladder refers to the condition in which the inner gallbladder wall is encrusted with calcium. The wall becomes brittle, hard, and often ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Portacaval Shunt With the advent of transjugular intrahepatic shunting procedures and less invasive techniques as sclerotherapy, portacaval shunt procedures have decre ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Portal Vein Obstruction Portal vein obstruction most commonly results from thrombosis or, to a lesser extent, from malignancy. It also occurs as a complication of several met ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Portal Vein Thrombosis Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is a narrowing or blockage of the portal vein by a blood clot. Thrombosis can develop in the main body of the portal vein ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postcholecystectomy Syndrome Post-cholecystectomy syndrome (PCS) is the term used to describe the persistence of biliary colic or right upper quadrant abdominal pain with a variet ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Posterior Cerebral Artery Stroke Posterior cerebral artery (PCA) strokes can be challenging to diagnose, due to the variability in symptoms, which may be nonspecific and inconsistent ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Posterior Hip Dislocation In the United States, hip dislocations are responsible for significant morbidity and potentially mortality with deleterious consequences to the surrou ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a neurologic disorder in which a person presents with visual disturbance, seizure, headaches, a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Posterior Shoulder Dislocations The shoulder girdle is a complex articulation connecting the upper extremity to the axial skeleton. The glenohumeral joint of the shoulder is the most ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Posterior Shoulder Instability Posterior shoulder instability is a rare clinical entity that represents a spectrum of instability ranging from posterior subluxation to posterior dis ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) represents an acquired, progressive disease of the foot and ankle that is seen commonly in middle-aged pati ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postpartum Thyroiditis Postpartum thyroiditis is rather a common problem during the postpartum period. Postpartum thyroiditis has found in approximately 5% of mothers in the ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Post-Traumatic Headache Post-traumatic headaches (PTHA) is a common sequela of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and may progress to chronic and possibly debilitating conditions. ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pott Disease Pott disease, or tuberculosis of the spine, has recently shown a significant resurgence in developed nations secondary to global migration. Concurrent ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pregnancy Globally, there are more than 200 million pregnancies each year. Of these pregnancies, more than 40% are unintended. Unintended does not imply unwante ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pregnancy Dating The most important step in the initial evaluation of any pregnant patient is establishing an accurate delivery date (due date). Accurate knowledge of ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Premature Rupture Of Membranes Premature rupture of membranes (PROM) is the rupture of gestational membranes prior to the onset of labor. When membrane rupture occurs before 37 wee ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Prepatellar Bursitis A bursa is a potential space containing fluid that is present between the skin and tendon or tendon and bone. It functions to reduce friction between ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Primary Bone Cancer Primary bone cancers are rare malignant tumors originating in bone and derived from primitive mesenchymal cells. They are frequently aggressive tumors ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic and progressive cholestatic liver disorder of unknown etiology. Inflammation, fibrosis, and strictur ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Prolactinoma Prolactin-secreting tumors of the pituitary gland, also known as prolactinomas, are the most common secretory tumors of the pituitary gland, accountin ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Prostate Abscess A prostate abscess is a complication resulting from the acute infectious process of the prostate. This activity outlines the pathogenesis and evaluati ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Prostate Cancer Worldwide, prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy and the sixth leading cause of cancer death in men. In 2012, this amounted to 1,1 ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Provocative Discography Provocative discography is an invasive diagnostic spine procedure that involves the administration of contrast into the nucleus pulposus of an interve ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Proximal Biceps Tendinitis and Tendinopathy The main function of the biceps muscle is forearm supination and elbow flexion. The biceps also contribute 10 percent of the total power in shoulder a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pseudoaneurysm Pseudoaneurysms are false aneurysms that occur at the site of arterial injury. They are unlike true aneurysms as a layer of the arterial wall does no ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pseudotumor Cerebri Pseudotumor cerebri (PTC), also known by the name idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), is a disorder with increased intracranial pressure (ICP) ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Psoriatic Arthritis Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is chronic inflammatory arthritis associated with psoriasis (PsO) and found in about 20 to 30% of such patients. It shares ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformation A pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (PAVM) is a rare pulmonary condition described as a pathologic right-to-left shunt which impairs gas exchange a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformation (AVMs) Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (AVMs) is a rare clinical problem in which abnormal communications develop between a pulmonary artery and a pulmo ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulmonary Artery Catheterization Pulmonary artery catheterization is a diagnostic procedure in which an intravascular catheter is inserted through a central vein, such as the femoral, ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulmonary Artery Sling Pulmonary artery sling is a specific type of anatomical vascular anomaly that can compress nearby structures. Instead of arising from the main pulmona ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulmonary Barotrauma Pulmonary barotrauma related to self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) diving is due to lung overexpansion when a diver returns to the ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulmonary Contusion Pulmonary contusions are lung injuries commonly sustained during cases of blunt chest trauma. These traumatic lung injuries result in impaired gas exc ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulmonary Edema Pulmonary edema is defined as an abnormal accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung parenchyma. Two main types are cardiogenic and noncardiogen ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulmonary Eosinophilia Pulmonary eosinophilia (PE) is defined as infiltration of eosinophils into the lung compartments constituting airways, interstitium, and alveoli. Vari ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulmonary Hemorrhage Pulmonary hemorrhage, also referred to as massive hemoptysis, is a potentially life-threatening condition involving bleeding from the pulmonary or bro ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulmonary Infarction Pulmonary infarction (PI) is usually a complication of another primary disease state, most commonly a pulmonary embolism (PE). The broad differential ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulmonary Sequestration Pulmonary sequestration is thought to account for less than 6 percent of congenital lung malformations. In this condition, there is a nonfunctional se ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulmonary Sleeve Resection Pulmonary sleeve resection is a type of complex lung resection and reconstruction surgery typically performed for patients with locally advanced lung ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulmonic Stenosis Pulmonic stenosis is a typically benign condition in most patients. While generally non-life-threatening after the neonatal period, complications and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pyelonephritis Xanthogranulomatous Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is a rare and aggressive variant of chronic pyelonephritis. It usually occurs due to chronic nephrolithiasis and in ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pyloric Stenosis Pyloric stenosis, also known as infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS), is an uncommon condition in infants characterized by abnormal thickeni ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radiation Effects On The Fetus Cancer management during ongoing pregnancy poses a clinical challenge in itself, especially when administering radiotherapy; if indicated, it can seve ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radiation Enteritis Radiation enteritis is damage to small and/or large intestine secondary to radiation. Different terms like radiation colitis, radiation enteropathy, r ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radiation Esophagitis Radiation esophagitis is inflammation of the esophagitis due to radiation. Radiation esophagitis is typically an adverse effect that develops in indiv ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radiation Induced Coronary Artery Disease Radiation-induced coronary artery disease (RICAD) is the second most common cause of morbidity and mortality in mainly oncology patients treated with ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radiation Proctitis Radiation proctitis refers to injury or damage of the rectum secondary to radiation therapy. It is postulated that almost half of all patients with pe ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radiation Syndrome Prolonged or significant exposure to ionizing radiation can result in acute radiation syndrome (ARS). The National Council on Radiation Protection and ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radiation Therapy For Early Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer In the United States, lung cancers comprise about 14 percent of all new cancers, and lung cancer is the number one cancer killer in both men and women ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radiation Therapy For Heterotopic Ossification Prophylaxis Heterotopic ossification is the formation of mature, lamellar bone in soft tissues where bone does not normally exist. It is commonly seen following t ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radiation Therapy In The Treatment Of Keloids Keloids are benign raised scars that are formed after cutaneous insult. Normally, cutaneous injury results in wound closure and a flat scar. Some in ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radicular Back Pain Radicular back pain is a common type of low backache. The definition of acute lumbosacral radiculopathy is a diffuse disease process that affects more ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radioactive Iodine Therapy Radioactive iodine therapy is used in the management and treatment of hyperthyroidism. This activity describes the indications, actions, and contraind ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radiofrequency Ablation The use of radiofrequency ablation for intractable pain is based on the premise that the transmission of radiofrequency currents near nociceptive path ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radionuclide Cystography Abnormalities of the urinary collecting system and bladder are common, particularly in the pediatric population. Early diagnosis and treatment of comm ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radionuclide Ventriculography The radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) scan is a non-invasive way of assessing the ventricular function and intracardiac hemodynamics. It assesses th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radius and Ulnar Shaft Fractures The forearm provides the bony structure and muscular origins that allow the hand to operate in many orientations. The two bones of the forearm (the ra ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Reactive Arthritis Reactive arthritis (ReA) is inflammatory arthritis which manifests in several days to weeks after a gastrointestinal or genitourinary infection. It is ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rectal Cancer Colon and rectal cancers together are the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in the United States and the second deadliest. Rectal cancer has distin ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rectus Sheath Hematoma Rectus sheath hematoma is a relatively uncommon entity that is most often associated with abdominal wall trauma or anticoagulation. Although it is a w ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Renal Artery Stenosis Renal artery stenosis is narrowing of the one or both of renal arteries. It is the major cause of hypertension and according to some reports is the ca ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Renal Artery Thrombosis Renal artery thrombosis is a rare pathology that may be overlooked when evaluating impaired renal function. It is the formation of a blood clot in one ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Renal Biopsy This activity reviews the process of obtaining kidney tissue samples for analysis of both focal renal lesions and diffuse renal diseases via needle pu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Renal Vein Thrombosis Renal vein thrombosis (RVT), the presence of thrombus in the major renal veins or its tributaries, is a rare clinical entity. It can present acutely o ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Renovascular Hypertension Renovascular hypertension is one of the most common causes of secondary hypertension. It is mostly due to the narrowing of blood vessels in the kidney ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Retroperitoneal Bleeding Retroperitoneal bleeding occurs when blood enters into the space behind the posterior reflection of the abdominal peritoneum. With a variety of possi ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Retroperitoneal Fibrosis Retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF) is a relatively rare condition that is characterized by a chronic inflammatory and fibrosis in the retroperitoneum that ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Retroperitoneal Hematoma Retroperitoneal hematoma describes a heterogeneous condition that may arise spontaneously, as a result of trauma or iatrogenically. It is associated w ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Retropharyngeal Abscess Retropharyngeal abscesses are uncommon but potentially life-threatening diagnosis. They can occur at any age, although are most commonly found in chil ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndromes Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is a medical condition in which there is multifocal arterial constriction and dilation in the cer ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rheumatoid Arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disorder of the joints characterized by inflammatory arthritis as well as extra-articular involvement. It c ... Read the Article 1.75 25 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rhino-orbital Cerebral Mucormycosis Rhino-orbital cerebral mucormycosis in an uncommon infection caused by the angiotropic fungus belonging to the order Mucorales and has high morbidity ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rib Fracture When enough force is placed on the rib, the rib will fracture. Most isolated rib fractures can be managed expectantly. However, certain patterns of ri ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Right Aortic Arches Right aortic arch anomalies occur in approximately 0.01 to 0.1 percent of the general population. In general, these anomalies do not directly cause an ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rolando Fractures The term Rolando fracture was described for the first time in 1910 by Silvio Rolando, an Italian surgeon. The eponym is used to describe a comminuted ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rotator Cuff Tendonitis Rotator cuff tendonitis is an inflammation of the tendons that make up the rotator cuff, i.e., supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Saccular Aneurysm This activity will focus on saccular cerebral and aortic aneurysms. Most cerebral aneurysms are asymptomatic and small, and they are found incidentall ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sacroiliac Joint Injection Sacroiliac (SI) joint pain is a common etiology of low back pain. Studies have shown that 10 to 27 percent of mechanical low back pain is secondary to ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sacroiliac Joint Injury Sacroiliac joint injury is a common type of low back pain. Differentiating SI joint pain from mechanical low back pain is essential. This activity out ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Salter Harris Fractures The Salter-Harris classification system is a method used to grade fractures that occur in children and involve the growth plate, which is also known a ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disorder of unknown etiology characterized by the presence of noncaseating granulomas in organs. This condition mostly af ... Read the Article 1.75 29 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sarcoma Soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are a group neoplasms that can affect individuals at the extremes of age and can originate from any location throughout the ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Scaphoid Wrist Fracture Scaphoid fractures are the most common of the carpal fractures and tend to occur in younger, active individuals. They account for 2-7% of all fracture ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Scapholunate Advanced Collapse Scapholunate advanced collapse (SLAC) is a characteristic degenerative clinical wrist condition of progressive deformity, instability, and arthritis t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Schatzki Ring A schatzki ring is a circular membrane of mucosa and submucosa that forms at the squamocolumnar junction of the distal esophagus. Schatzki rings appea ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Schizencephaly Schizencephaly is a rare congenital neuronal migration disorder characterized by cleft lined by the heterotopic gray matter, which connects the surfac ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Schwannoma Schwannomas (also known as neuromas, neurinomas "of Verocay" and neurilemmomas) are benign, well-encapsulated, slow-growing nerve sheath tumors that a ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Seat Belt Injuries Although seatbelts have prevented numerous deaths by reducing head injuries, they can cause damage via the transmission of force upon impact associate ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Second Impact Syndrome Second impact syndrome (SIS), also known as repetitive head injury syndrome, describes a condition in which individual experiences a second head injur ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Secondary Hypertrophic Osteoarthropathy Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (HOA) is mainly caused by mainly fibrovascular proliferation and is characterized by a combination of clinical findings ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Secondary Osteonecrosis of the Knee Secondary osteonecrosis is a subtype of the disabling disease osteonecrosis, which leads to end-stage arthritis of various joints, including the knee. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Secondary Osteoporosis Osteoporosis is a bone disorder which is characterized by a decrease in bone strength, resulting from reduced bone mineral density, microarchitectural ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Seidel Test The Seidel test assesses for the presence of aqueous humor leakage from the anterior chamber. This leakage is from a defect in the cornea or sclera fr ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Seminoma Seminoma is a malignant germ cell tumor that involves most commonly the testicle or less frequently the mediastinum, the retroperitoneum, or other ext ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Septic Bursitis Bursae are fluid-filled sacs that produce small amounts of synovial fluid to reduce friction between mobile structures of the musculoskeletal system. ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Septic Thrombophlebitis Suppurative (septic) thrombophlebitis describes thrombosis in a vein that occurs in the setting of inflammation and infection. This condition is chara ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome A new and rapidly progressive respiratory syndrome termed severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was identified by the World Health Organization (WH ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sex Cord Stromal Testicular Tumor Testicular cancer is included in the list of curable cancers that have an excellent prognosis. Hence, proper diagnosis and treatment are of paramount ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sheehan Syndrome Sheehan syndrome which is also called post-partum pituitary necrosis refers to the necrosis of cells of the anterior pituitary gland following signifi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Shellfish Allergy Shellfish allergies can occur due to immunologic or non-immunological processes, and individuals may react to crustaceans, such as crab or shrimp, or ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Short Bowel Syndrome Short bowel syndrome (SBS) in adults is defined as less than 180 to 200 centimeters of remaining small bowel (normal length 275 to 850 cm) leading to ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Shoulder Arthrocentesis Technique Shoulder arthrocentesis, also known as shoulder aspiration, is an important skill for interprofessional team members. It can be used for both diagnost ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Shoulder Dislocations Overview Shoulder dislocations represent 50 percent of all major joint dislocations, with anterior dislocation being most common. The shoulder is an unstable j ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Shoulder Subluxation Shoulder subluxation is defined as partial or incomplete dislocation of the glenohumeral joint or translation between the humeral head and glenoid fos ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Silicosis Silicosis is an occupational pneumoconiosis caused by the inhalation of crystalline silica dust. This disease may present several weeks to years after ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Simple Renal Cyst A simple kidney cyst is the most common type of renal cyst. It is a fluid-filled sac that originates from the surface of the kidney. One or more simpl ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sleeve Gastrectomy In the United States, obesity has been increasing at an alarming rate over the past 50 years. In 2014, obesity and its co-morbidities accounted for 14 ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sliding Hernia While paraesophageal hernias do confer increases in morbidity and mortality, new evidence shows that asymptomatic patients should not be rushed into s ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (slipped upper femoral epiphysis), is a common hip pathology in pre-adolescents and adolescents. It occurs when the ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Small Bowel Cancer Small Bowel Cancer encompasses a series of malignant lesions that may be identified throughout the small intestine (SI). The small bowel lies between ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Small Bowel Obstruction Small bowel obstruction is a common surgical emergency due to mechanical blockage of the bowel. Though it can be caused by many pathologic processes, ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Small Cell Lung Cancer Lung cancer is the second most diagnosed cancer in the United States. It is the leading cause of cancer death in both men and women, accounting for ap ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Smith's Fracture Review A Smith fracture is a fracture of the distal radius featuring volar displacement or angulation. It typically results from a fall on the dorsum of the ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Snapping Hip Syndrome Snapping hip syndrome (dancer’s hip or coxa saltans) is a clinical condition characterized by a palpable or audible snapping sensation that is heard d ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Solid and Papillary Epithelial Neoplasm Solid pseudopapillary pancreatic neoplasms are rare pancreatic tumors accounting for 1% to 2% of exocrine pancreatic lesions. Recent surveys report a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Solitary Pulmonary Nodule A solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) is a single lung nodule measuring less than 3 cm. Even though most cases are benign, it is essential to determine th ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Somatostatinoma Somatostatinoma is a rare neuroendocrine tumor (NET) with an incidence of 1 in 40 million individuals and accounts for less than 5% of pancreatic NETs ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spigelian Hernia A spigelian hernia is a rare, abnormal protrusion of abdominal contents or peritoneum through a defect (spigelian fascia), which is comprised of the t ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spina Bifida Spina Bifida is a generalized term for the neurologic condition resulting from the failure of neural tube closure of varying degrees during fetal deve ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spinal Cord Compression Spinal cord compression can result from a myriad of both atraumatic and traumatic causes. The spinal column is vulnerable to a variety of compressive ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spinal Cord Subacute Combined Degeneration Subacute combined degeneration is a preventable, reversible medical condition that affects the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerve with devastati ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spinal Epidural Abscess Spinal epidural abscess is an infection of the central nervous system that classically presents with midline back pain, fever, and neurologic deficits ... Read the Article