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PA-Anesthesiology

PA-Anesthesiology

Stay up to date on the latest medical knowledge with this PA-Anesthesiology activity. In this online self-assessment activity, you'll read our reference articles and test your knowledge with 399 activities in PA-Anesthesiology for 373.5 total CME hours.


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1 Year Unlimited Physician MD/DO/PA CME

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Access to all the Physician MD/DO/PA CME activities in all specialties.

Featured Article Activities

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Hemothorax

Hemothorax is a collection of blood in the space between the visceral and parietal pleura (pleural space). The clinical ...
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Hours: 1.25

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Carotid Artery Surgery

Symptoms of extracranial carotid disease are usually caused by embolization. Arterial emboli account for approximately 2 ...
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Hours: 0.75

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Epidural Anesthesia

Epidural anesthesia is a technique that may be used as a primary surgical anesthetic or as a resource for postoperative ...
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Rating: 4.00
Hours: 1

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Adverse Events

Adverse events (AE) occur frequently in our medical system and at least one in ten patients are affected. An AE is a har ...
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Hours: 1

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Thrombocytopenia

Thrombocytopenia is a platelet count below the lower limit of normal, i.e., 150000/microliter (for adults). This activit ...
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Hours: 1.25

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Direct Laryngoscopy

Direct laryngoscopy allows visualization of the larynx. It is used during general anesthesia, for surgical procedures of ...
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Hours: 0.75

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PA-Anesthesiology Activities

Title Description Hours Questions
3-3-2 Rule The airway is one of the most critical elements of patient safety, and difficult intubations commonly cause morbidity and mortality. To decrease morbi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ablative Nerve Block Ablation procedures have been used to treat chronic back pain and sciatica of unknown etiology as an alternative to surgical severing the dorsal rami. ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abnormal Respirations There are multiple types of normal and abnormal respiration. They include apnea, eupnea, orthopnea, dyspnea, hyperpnea, hyperventilation, hypoventilat ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Coronary Syndrome Acute coronary syndrome refers to a group of diseases in which blood flow to the heart is decreases. Some examples include ST-elevation myocardial inf ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Laryngitis Laryngitis refers to inflammation of the larynx. This is often due to an acute viral infection, which is typically a mild and self-limiting condition ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Pneumothorax Evaluation and Treatment A pneumothorax is an accumulation of gas in the pleural space (the space between the visceral and parietal pleura of the chest cavity), which can imp ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Pulmonary Embolism Acute pulmonary embolism is a common clinical condition with a variable clinical presentation, making its diagnosis challenging. This activity outline ... Read the Article 2 30 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening that is characterized by poor oxygenation and non-compliant or "stiff" lungs. The dis ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Transplantation Rejection Acute transplant rejection occurs days to months after a transplant when the immune system identifies a grafted organ as foreign and attacks it. Acute ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Addison Disease Though Addison disease is a relatively rare condition, it can have devastating consequences if not diagnosed and managed appropriately. Often the insi ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adenosine Adenosine has uses as both a diagnostic or therapeutic agent. As a diagnostic agent, adenosine can be utilized in myocardial perfusion stress imaging ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adult Dehydration Dehydration is a common condition that affects patients of all ages. Dehydration may complicate other medical problems and may cause significant illne ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adverse Events Adverse events (AE) occur frequently in our medical system and at least one in ten patients are affected. An AE is a harmful and negative outcome that ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Air Leak An air leak is the leakage of air from an air-containing cavity into spaces that under normal circumstances do not contain air. The term air leak synd ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Airway Assessment A thorough, but brief, airway assessment is essential for the proper management of patients requiring advanced airway management. Indications for the ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Airway Management Interprofessional team members must be familiar with the important anatomical, physiological, and pathological features related to the airway and have ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Airway Monitoring Airway monitoring involves assessing both a patient’s ventilatory function and their ability to perform adequate gas exchange. Determining a patient’s ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Airway Obstruction Airway obstruction secondary to a foreign body is often easily treated, as the foreign body can be removed, and the patency of the airway restored. Ho ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alcohol Sanitizer Compliance with hand hygiene recommendations is critical to reducing colonization and infection, specifically among healthcare workers (HCW). This wil ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alcoholic Ketoacidosis Alcoholic ketoacidosis (AKA) is a condition seen commonly in patients with alcohol use disorder or after a bout of heavy drinking. It is a clinical di ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alkalosis Alkalosis is an abnormal pathophysiological condition characterized by the buildup of excess base or alkali in the body. It results in an abnormally h ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
American Society of Anesthesiologists Classification The American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status classification system was developed to offer clinicians a simple categorization of a p ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aminocaproic Acid Aminocaproic acid, an antifibrinolytic agent, is a medication used in the management and treatment of acute bleeding disorders. This activity outlines ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anesthesia Inhalation Agents Cardiovascular Effects Many providers lack a thorough knowledge of the effects of inhaled anesthetics on the cardiovascular system. This can lead to significant intra-operat ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anesthesia Monitoring Of Mixed Venous Saturation While oxygen saturation refers to the percentage of hemoglobin bound to oxygen within red blood cells, mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) refers to ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anesthesia Vaporizers Anesthetic vaporizers are an essential piece of the anesthesia equipment. This activity reviews the modern anesthetic vaporizer classification, the ph ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anesthetic Gases Anesthetic gases (nitrous oxide, halothane, isoflurane, desflurane, sevoflurane), also known as inhaled anesthetics, are administered as primary thera ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angiotensin II Angiotensin is a peptide endocrine hormone and an important part of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, an inter-related endocrine system import ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anticholinergic Medications Anticholinergic medications are used in the management and treatment of a wide range of diseases. This activity illustrates the indications, action, ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antiemetic Medications Nausea is a commonly encountered symptom in healthcare, one that is difficult for any patient. Causes may be as simple as the body's defense against a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antiepileptic Drug Monitoring Antiepileptic drug-level monitoring has been a common clinical practice since the advent of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). The practice of maintaining AE ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Dissection While uncommon, acute aortic dissection is an infrequent but catastrophic disorder. Patients present with tearing chest pain that radiates to the back ... Read the Article 1.75 27 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortocaval Compression Syndrome Aortocaval compression syndrome is also known as a supine hypotensive syndrome. It typically occurs in pregnant females, usually after 20 weeks of ges ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Apixaban Apixaban is a novel oral anticoagulant (NOAC) that was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2012 for use in patients with non-valv ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Appendicitis Appendicitis is the inflammation of the vermiform appendix. It typically presents acutely, within 24 hours of onset, but can also present as a more ch ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arterial Pressure Monitoring Arterial pressure monitoring is a form of invasive blood pressure monitoring and is done through the cannulation of a peripheral artery. This form of ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Artery Cannulation Arterial cannulation is a procedure frequently performed in acute and critical care settings. It serves as an invasive means to more accurately measur ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ascariasis Ascaris lumbricoides, the causative agent of ascariasis, is the most common parasitic worm in humans. Ascariasis can be asymptomatic causing only maln ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aspiration Pneumonia The infectious pulmonary process that occurs after abnormal entry of fluids into the lower respiratory tract is termed aspiration pneumonia. The aspir ... Read the Article 1.25 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Asthma Anesthesia Asthma is characterized by variable and often reversible airway obstruction with bronchial hyperreactivity. An estimated 8.4% of people in the US have ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Asystole Asystole, colloquially referred to as flatline, represents the cessation of electrical and mechanical activity of the heart. Asystole typically occurs ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atelectasis The word "atelectasis" is Greek in origin; It is a combination of the Greek words atelez (Ateles) and ektasiz (ektasis) meaning "imperfect" and "expan ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atracurium Atracurium is indicated as an addition to general anesthesia to facilitate endotracheal intubation and provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surge ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrial Fibrillation Atrial fibrillation is the most common type of cardiac arrhythmia. It is the leading cardiac cause of stroke. Risk factors for atrial fibrillation inc ... Read the Article 2 31 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrial Flutter Atrial flutter, a supraventricular arrhythmia, is one of the most common rhythm disturbances of the heart. It is characterized by a fast atrial rate w ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrioventricular Block Second-Degree A delay in conduction between the atria and ventricles results in an atrioventricular conduction block. This is indicated by a prolongation of the PR ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atropine Atropine or atropine sulfate carries FDA indications for anti-sialagogue/anti-vagal effect, organophosphate/muscarinic poisoning, and bradycardia. Atr ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Axillary Block The axillary approach to the brachial plexus nerve block was first described by Dr. Halstead et al. in 1884. Before the prevalence of ultrasound, this ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bag Mask Ventilation Bag valve mask ventilation is a difficult skill to master. This activity explains how to improve this skill. This activity describes the technique of ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Barotrauma And Mechanical Ventilation Pulmonary barotrauma is a potentially life-threatening complication in patients on mechanical ventilation. It is important to recognize and quickly ac ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Benzodiazepine Toxicity Since the 1960s, with the development of chlordiazepoxide (Librium) and shortly thereafter diazepam (Valium), benzodiazepines quickly became mainstrea ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bier Block The Bier block, also known as intravenous local anesthesia (IVRA), is a safe, effective, and cost-efficient way to provide short-term anesthesia and a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bispectral Index Monitoring the depth of anesthesia is very important during any procedure, as anesthesia that's too deep can cause hemodynamic changes. Anesthesia th ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blood Transfusion Blood transfusions are a relatively common medical procedure and while typically safe, there are multiple complications that practitioners need to be ... Read the Article 1.25 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bone Marrow Aspiration And Biopsy Bone marrow aspiration and biopsies are often performed both in the inpatient and outpatient settings for the diagnosis of a multitude of hematologic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brachial Plexus Block Techniques Blockade of the brachial plexus is an effective method for providing anesthesia to the upper limb from the shoulder to the fingertips. There are multi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brain Herniation Brain herniation, also called brain code, requires early diagnosis and prompt management in order to prevent irreversible pathological cascades that e ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brain Trauma Brain trauma or traumatic brain injury (TBI) results from a blow, bump, jolt, or penetrating injury to the head that disrupts the normal function of t ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Bronchoalveolar Lavage or BAL is a minimally invasive procedure that involves instillation of sterile normal saline into a subsegment of the lung, fol ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bupivacaine Bupivacaine is a potent local anesthetic with unique characteristics from the amide group of local anesthetics. Local anesthetics are used in regional ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Burn Evaluation And Management Burns are injuries of the skin involving the two layers: the thin, outer epidermis and the thicker, deeper dermis. 86% of burns are caused by thermal ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Burn Fluid Management In the United States, approximately 500,000 people seek care for burn injuries each year. For civilians, these injuries are typically sustained in hou ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Burn Resuscitation And Management Severe burns cause not only significant injury at the local burn site but also a systemic response throughout the body. Inflammatory and vasoactive m ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
C1 Fractures The craniocervical junction is comprised of C1 (atlas) and C2 (axis). The occipito-atlantal and atlantoaxial articulations provide 50% of the flexion ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Calcium Gluconate Calcium gluconate is a medication used in the management of hypocalcemia, cardiac arrest and cardiotoxicity due to hyperkalemia or hypermagnesemia. It ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Capnography And Pulse Oximetry Pulse oximetry is a noninvasive measure of oxygen saturation. Capnography is a method of monitoring the concentration or partial pressure of carbon di ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carbon Dioxide Embolism Laparoscopic surgery has gained increasing popularity in clinical practice. As part of laparoscopic surgeries, gas insufflation is usually adopted to ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Arrest As defined by the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology, "(sudden) cardiac arrest is the sudden cessation of cardiac activ ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Risk Stratification Cardiac Risk Stratification is an essential evaluation among health professionals. In today's world, cardiovascular disease is the number one cause o ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Tamponade Cardiac tamponade is a medical emergency that takes place when abnormal amounts of fluid accumulate in the pericardial sac compressing the heart and l ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema Pulmonary edema refers to the accumulation of excessive fluid in the alveolar walls and alveolar spaces of the lungs. It can be a life-threatening con ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiogenic Shock Cardiogenic shock is a primary cardiac disorder characterized by a low cardiac output state of circulatory failure that results in end-organ hypoperfu ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardioplegia Cardioplegia serves to intentionally and temporarily arrest the heart for myocardial protection during cardiac surgery. This activity describes cardio ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiopulmonary Bypass Cardiopulmonary bypass has become the standard of care for many cardiac procedures. The procedure is relatively safe if the duration of surgery is not ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotid Artery Surgery Symptoms of extracranial carotid disease are usually caused by embolization. Arterial emboli account for approximately 25 percent of strokes in Europe ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotid Endarterectomy Atherosclerosis can lead to a build-up of plaque in the carotid artery, causing narrowing and carotid artery disease, which increases the risk for cer ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Caudal Anesthesia A caudal block is a type of central neuraxial block, most commonly used in pediatrics to provide analgesia for surgeries up to the umbilicus, and in a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Caustic Ingestions Caustic ingestion is the term given to describe the ingestion of an extremely toxic substance such as lye. Caustic ingestions are serious medical emer ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Celiac Plexus Block First described as a method of providing surgical anesthesia to the upper abdomen, the celiac plexus block (CPB) has been utilized in practice for nea ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central Line Management Central venous access is required for many hospitalized patient. Placement of central line catheters is done for many reasons, including inadequate pe ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central Line Placement A central line is a large-bore central venous catheter that is typically placed using a sterile technique unless a patient is unstable, in which case ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebral Aneurysm Cerebral aneurysms are defined as dilations that occur at weak points along the arterial circulation within the brain. The majority of cerebral aneury ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Injury Cervical spine injuries, although uncommon, can result in significant and long-term disability. The cervical spine encompasses seven vertebrae and ser ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Plexus Block Superficial cervical plexus block is an easy block that can be performed either using a landmark-based technique or using the ultrasound-based techniq ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chest Tube A chest tube, also known as a thoracostomy tube, is a flexible tube that can be inserted through the chest wall and into the pleural space. This activ ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Pancreatitis Chronic pancreatitis is a progressive inflammatory disorder that leads to irreversible destruction of exocrine and endocrine pancreatic parenchyma cau ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Renal Failure Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined as the presence of kidney damage or an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) less than 60 ml/min per 1.7 ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Circumcision Male circumcision is the surgical removal of the prepuce, or foreskin, that covers the glans of the penis. Over the past decades, cultural changes and ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cisatracurium Cisatracurium besylate is an intermediate-acting, non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking drug (NMBD). Cisatracurium has a benzylisoquinolinium struct ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clear Liquid Diet A clear liquid diet is a specific dietary plan that only includes liquids that are fully transparent at room temperature. Some items that may be allow ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clonidine Clonidine is an antihypertensive medication that acts on alpha-adrenergic and imidazoline receptors agonists. Clonidine is an antihypertensive drug th ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a neuropathic pain disorder defined by the presence of distinct clinical features including allodynia, hypera ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congestive Heart Failure And Pulmonary Edema Heart failure is a growing public health problem and is now the most common cause of hospitalizations in the U.S. among patients 65 years and older. T ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Conjugated Hyperbilirubinemia Conjugated hyperbilirubinemia is usually secondary to hepatocellular disease or cholestasis (intrahepatic and extra-hepatic ). Early workup and diagno ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a type of positive airway pressure that is used to deliver a set pressure to the airways that is maintai ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cordotomy Cordotomy is the name of a surgical procedure aimed at destroying the pain-conducting tracts of the spinal cord. The cordotomy to be effective at decr ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Crystalloid Fluids Crystalloid fluids are a subset of intravenous solutions that find frequent use in the clinical setting. Crystalloid fluids are the first-line choice ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cushing Syndrome Cushing syndrome is caused by prolonged exposure to high circulating levels of cortisol. The most common cause of cushingoid features is iatrogenic co ... Read the Article 1.75 25 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dantrolene Dantrolene sodium is a postsynaptic muscle relaxant with multiple indications in the fields of anesthesiology and neurology. While there are many indi ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Decerebrate And Decorticate Posturing Decorticate and decerebrate posturing are abnormal posturing responses typically to noxious stimuli. They involve stereotypical movements of the trunk ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Deep Peroneal Nerve Block The deep peroneal nerve is one of 5 nerves that are often blocked or anesthetized to perform ankle surgery. It can be performed as a regional block an ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Depolarizing Neuromuscular Blocking Drugs Neuromuscular blocking agents are commonly used to paralyze patients requiring intubation whether in an emergency as a life-saving intervention or for ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Desflurane The FDA-approved indications for desflurane are induction or maintenance of anesthesia in adults. It may also be used for maintenance of anesthesia in ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dexmedetomidine The FDA-approved indications for dexmedetomidine are sedation of intubated and mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit (ICU), and ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetes Insipidus Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a disease process that results in either decreased release of or response to antidiuretic hormone (ADH, also known as vasop ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetes Intraoperative Management According to CDC data, the incidence of diabetes in the United States in the year 2015 was 30.3 million and predicted to increase yearly with an alrea ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Difficult Airway The difficult airway algorithm has been outlined by the American Society of Anesthesiology and provides a basic pathway for difficult intubation. It i ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Digital Nerve Block Digital nerve block is a simple procedure that can be performed to provide immediate anesthesia for a multitude of injuries and procedures, such as fr ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Digoxin Toxicity Digoxin is a cardiac glycoside derived from the foxglove plant (digitalis species). It has inotropic effects and is utilized in the management of syst ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diphenhydramine Diphenhydramine, which is available as an over-the-counter medication, is a first-generation antihistamine that is used in a variety of conditions to ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Direct Laryngoscopy Direct laryngoscopy allows visualization of the larynx. It is used during general anesthesia, for surgical procedures of the larynx, and during resusc ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Distributive Shock As is true of the four broad classifications of shock, distributive shock, also known as vasodilatory shock, causes inadequate tissue perfusion. In di ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dobutamine The FDA approveD dobutamine for short-term use in patients with decreased contractility due to heart failure or cardiac surgical procedures leading to ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dorsal Penile Nerve Block The dorsal penile nerve block is an effective technique for gaining regional anesthesia of the penis with small volumes of a local anesthetic. The tec ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Double Lumen Endobronchial Tubes A double-lumen tube (DLT) is an endotracheal tube designed to isolate the lungs anatomically and physiologically. Double-lumen tubes (DLTs) are the mo ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Drowning Drowning is defined as a process of experiencing respiratory impairment from submersion/immersion in a liquid medium. To delineate the incident's outc ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ear Nerve Block Patients frequently present to the emergency department with a variety of external ear complaints ranging from traumatic injuries (lacerations and avu ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Egophony In the era of technological advances, a thorough examination of the respiratory system retains its importance in diagnosing disorders of the respirato ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Electrocardiogram Electrocardiogram (abbreviated as EKG or ECG) represents a recording of the electrical activity of the heart. Willem Einthoven first invented it in 1 ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Electroconvulsive Therapy In a patient under intravenous sedation or general anesthesia, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) uses an electric current to create a generalized cerebr ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Electrosurgery Electrosurgery is a technique often used in surgery to control bleeding and to rapidly dissect soft tissue in surgery. The electrical resistance of th ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Elevated Hemidiaphragm Elevated hemidiaphragm occurs most commonly from direct or indirect injury to the phrenic nerve. It is often found as an incidental finding on diagnos ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Emergency Room Thoracotomy An emergency room thoracotomy is performed in selected cases of direct thoracic injury concurrently with ACLS/ATLS resuscitation. Survival rates are l ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
EMS Field Intubation Field intubation is the placement of an advanced airway or endotracheal tube (ET) by emergency medical services (EMS) personnel outside the hospital s ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
EMS Pneumothorax The majority of emergency medical service (EMS) providers in the United States have protocols for rapid assessment and treatment of pneumothorax. Ther ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Endotracheal Tube In its simplest form, the endotracheal tube is a tube constructed of polyvinyl chloride that is placed between the vocal cords through the trachea. It ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Endotracheal Tube Intubation Techniques Endotracheal intubation is an essential resuscitative procedure in the emergency setting. Direct and video laryngoscopy are the two most common approa ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Enflurane Enflurane is a medication used in the induction and maintenance of general anesthetics. It is in the inhaled anesthetics class of drugs. This activit ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Enteric Feedings Enteral nutrition is nutrition delivered using the gut. This can refer to oral, gastric, or postpyloric feeds. There are many indications requiring a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ephedrine Ephedrine is a medication used in the management and treatment of clinically significant hypotension. It is in the sympathomimetic class of medication ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidural This activity reviews epidural analgesia and anesthesia and highlights used medications, indications, contraindications, uses, and techniques. It ment ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidural Anesthesia Epidural anesthesia is a technique that may be used as a primary surgical anesthetic or as a resource for postoperative pain management. It is safe an ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidural Blood Patch An epidural blood patch (EBP) is a procedure in which a small volume of autologous blood is injected into a patient's epidural space to stop a leak of ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidural Catheter Epidural catheters are widely used in the surgical, obstetric, and chronic pain settings as they serve as an excellent adjunct or alternative to gener ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidural Morphine Epidural morphine is a medication used for analgesia, as an adjunct to general anesthesia, or as a sole technique for surgical anesthesia. Morphine wa ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidural Steroid Injections Epidural steroid injections have been utilized for pain relief since 1952. When indicated, they are an invaluable non-surgical treatment for low-back ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidural Steroids Epidural steroids injections (ESI) have been utilized for the treatment of pain due to lumbar disc injuries since the 1950s. They are frequently used ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epiglottitis Epiglottitis is an inflammatory condition of the epiglottis and/or nearby structures including the arytenoids, aryepiglottic folds, and vallecula. Epi ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epinephrine Epinephrine is one of the most commonly used agents in a variety of settings as it functions as medication and hormone. It is currently FDA-approved f ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Etomidate Etomidate is an ultrashort-acting, non-barbiturate hypnotic intravenous anesthetic agent. It is administered only by intravenous route. Etomidate has ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Evaluation And Management of Perioperative Hypertension This activity reviews the role of the interprofessional team involved in the perioperative care of patients with hypertension (HTN). These providers i ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Extubation Extubation is the removal of an endotracheal tube (ETT), which is the last step in liberating a patient from the mechanical ventilator. To discuss the ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Facet Arthritis Facet joints are formed by the articulations of the superior and inferior articular processes of adjacent vertebrae. Except for the atlantooccipital a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Femoral Nerve Block Peripheral nerve blocks inhibit the propagation of impulses in nerve terminals to inhibit the perception of pain by the cerebral cortex. Local anesthe ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Femoral Vein Central Venous Access Venous access can be obtained through the cannulation of peripheral veins, such as the antecubital vein or saphenous vein, or central veins, such as t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Flail Chest Flail chest is a traumatic condition of the thorax. It may occur when 3 or more ribs are broken in at least 2 places. It is considered a clinical di ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Flumazenil Flumazenil is a benzodiazepine antagonist. The primary FDA-approved clinical uses for flumazenil include reversal agent for benzodiazepine overdose an ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fosphenytoin Fosphenytoin is a medication used in the management and prevention of seizures. It is a water-soluble phenytoin prodrug with the capability to be used ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gaseous Anesthetics Anesthesiologists have several tools for diminishing pain, awareness, movement, and the hemodynamic derangements of stress in the surgical patient. G ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastrointestinal Bleeding Gastrointestinal bleeding can fall into two broad categories: upper and lower sources of bleeding. The anatomic landmark that separates upper and low ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
General Anesthesia for Surgeons The primary goal of general anesthesia is rendering a patient unconscious and unable to feel painful stimuli while controlling autonomic reflexes. The ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glasgow Coma Scale The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is used to objectively describe the extent of impaired consciousness in all types of acute medical and trauma patients. T ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Globe Rupture Globe rupture is a vision-threatening emergency. It is essential that clinicians have a high index of suspicion for globe rupture when treating patien ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glottic Stenosis Glottic stenosis describes a narrowing of the portion of the larynx containing the vocal cords and glottic opening, otherwise known as the glottis. Gl ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glycopyrrolate Glycopyrrolate, also known as glycopyrronium, is an anticholinergic drug. Glycopyrrolate has been widely used as a preoperative medication to inhibit ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Guillain Barre Syndrome Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is a rare but serious post-infectious immune-mediated neuropathy. It results from the autoimmune destruction of nerves i ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Halothane Toxicity Halothane is a medication previously used for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia. After its large impact on medicine and anesthesia speci ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hand Hygiene Handwashing practices in the patient care setting began in the early 19th century. The practice evolved over the years with evidential proof of its va ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemolytic Transfusion Reaction Hemolytic transfusion reactions are one possible complication from transfusions. Hemolysis is the rupture of red blood cells, and can occur intravascu ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemothorax Hemothorax is a collection of blood in the space between the visceral and parietal pleura (pleural space). The clinical findings in such patients incl ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Heroin Heroin, also known as diacetylmorphine, is derived from the opium poppy plant. Professionals initially touted morphine as a substitute with less misus ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
High Frequency Ventilation High-frequency ventilation (HFV) is a type of ventilation that is utilized when conventional ventilation fails. It is a technique where the set respir ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Evaluation and Treatment Of Cyanide Toxicity Cyanide toxicity occurs commonly in patients with smoke inhalation who have been removed from burning structures. Cyanide forms as a result of incomp ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypercalcemia Calcium is the most abundant cation found in the human body and plays an integral role in neural transmission, enzyme activity, myocardial function, c ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypercarbia Hypercarbia is defined by an increase in carbon dioxide in the bloodstream. Carbon dioxide is a metabolic end-product of normal metabolism, with incre ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperkalemia Hyperkalemia is defined as a serum or plasma potassium level above the upper limits of normal, usually greater than 5.0 mEq/L to 5.5 mEq/L. While mild ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypertensive Emergency A hypertensive emergency is an acute, marked elevation in blood pressure that is associated with signs of target-organ damage. These can include pulmo ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperthyroidism The thyroid gland is a bilobed structure located in the anterior aspect of the trachea between the cricoid cartilage and the suprasternal notch. Each ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypocalcemia Disorders of calcium metabolism are frequently encountered. Though hypocalcemia is encountered as frequently as hypercalcemia, it can be potentially l ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypocarbia Hypocarbia, also known as hypocapnia, is a decrease in alveolar and blood carbon dioxide (CO2) levels below the normal reference range of 35 mm Hg. CO ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypotension Hypotension is a decrease in systemic blood pressure below accepted low values. While there is not an accepted standard hypotensive value, pressures l ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypothermia Accidental hypothermia occurs when the body dissipates more heat than it absorbs or creates, leaving the body unable to generate sufficient heat to ma ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypovolemic Shock Patients with hypovolemic shock have severe hypovolemia with decreased peripheral perfusion. If left untreated, these patients can develop ischemic in ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Iatrogenic Pneumothorax Pneumothorax is gas in the pleural space. This condition can present in one of three ways: spontaneous (primary), secondary, and traumatic. This activ ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a lung disorder where there is scarring of the lungs from an unknown cause. It is usually a progressive disease ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Inferior Vena Cava Filter Inferior vena cava filters (IVC filters) are indicated as a treatment to prevent pulmonary embolism in a select group of patients that have venous thr ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Infraclavicular Nerve Block The infraclavicular block is a regional anesthetic technique developed to avoid the side effects and complications of supraclavicular blocks, particul ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Inhalation Injury Inhalation injury is a broad term that includes pulmonary exposure to a wide range of chemicals in various forms including smoke, gases, vapors, or fu ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Inhalational Anesthetic Inhalation anesthetics (nitrous oxide, halothane, isoflurane, desflurane, sevoflurane most commonly used agents in practice today) are used for induct ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Inotropes And Vasopressors Vasopressors and inotropes are medications used to create vasoconstriction or increase cardiac contractility, respectively, in patients with shock. Th ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intercostal Nerve Block An intercostal nerve block is simple to perform and useful for pain management, either as a primary intervention or as an adjunct. In particular, inte ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Internal Jugular Vein Central Venous Access If an ultrasound machine is not immediately available and central venous access via the right jugular vein is required, a simple three-finger techniqu ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Interpleural Analgesia The interpleural analgesic technique was first described by Reiestad et al. for the treatment of acute postoperative pain. It is believed that this te ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Interscalene Block An interscalene nerve block anesthetizes most of the territory innervated by the brachial plexus, sparing the inferior trunk. This block is generally ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump This activity reviews the indications and contraindications of intra-aortic balloon pump in the patients with cardiogenic shock secondary to various c ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intramuscular Injection This activity outlines and highlights the role of the interprofessional team in improving care for patients who undergo the intramuscular injection. T ... Read the Article 1.25 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring Different intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring techniques assess the function of the brain, brainstem, spinal cord, cranial nerves, and periph ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intrathecal Morphine Morphine is an opioid administered for acute and chronic pain conditions. The advantage of intrathecal (IT) morphine over intravenous (IV), oral (PO), ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intubation Endotracheal Tube Medications Mastering the skill of endotracheal intubation to secure airway plays a critical role in many settings such as pre-hospital environments, emergency ro ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Inverse Ratio Ventilation Inverse ratio ventilation (IRV) is an alternative strategy for mechanical ventilation that reverses the classical inspiratory/expiratory paradigm. Thi ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Isoflurane Isoflurane is a volatile anesthetic that is approved by the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia. ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ketamine Ketamine (ketamine hydrochloride) has been approved for use in general anesthesia either alone or in combination with other medications. It is a super ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ketamine In Acute and Chronic Pain Management Acute and chronic pain remain important health problems both in the United States and worldwide. With the rise in the prevalence of many chronic degen ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lactic Acidosis Lactic acid is produced in physiologically normal processes, and as a common finding in disease states. When increased production is comorbid with dec ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Laryngeal Mask Airway Laryngeal mask airways (LMA) are supraglottic airway devices. They may be used as a temporary method to maintain an open airway during the administrat ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Laryngotracheal Stenosis Laryngotracheal stenosis (LTS) is a narrowing of the upper airway between the larynx and the trachea with potentially devastating consequences, includ ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lidocaine Lidocaine is a local anesthetic agent that is commonly used for local and topic anesthesia, but which also has antiarrhythmic and analgesic uses and c ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lidocaine Toxicity Lidocaine is a local anesthetic drug that produces transient loss of sensory, motor, and autonomic function when the drug is injected or applied in pr ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Liver Toxicity One of the most important causes of liver dysfunction is drug-induced liver injury (DILI) which can lead to a wide spectrum of symptoms ranging from m ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lobectomy The anatomic resection of an entire lobe of a lung is called a lobectomy. It is usually done with the help of the video scope and with less than 8 cm ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Local Anesthetic Toxicity Local anesthetics are commonly used in most medical and dental practice. While adverse effects are rare, the rising prevalence of local anesthetics in ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Low Molecular Weight Heparin (LMWH) Low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs), for example, dalteparin, enoxaparin, among others, are anticoagulants. These drugs are used in the prophylaxis ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lower Extremity Blocks The lumbosacral plexus (L1 to S4 nerve roots) innervates the lower extremity. Unlike the brachial plexus in the upper extremity, the lumbosacral plexu ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lumbar Puncture The lumbar puncture is a diagnostic procedure in the diagnosis of meningitis, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and certain neurological disorders. It is also ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lumbar Sympathetic Block The autonomic nervous system consists of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions. As the name implies, the lumbar sympathetic block can be utili ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lumbar Sympatholysis Lumbar sympatholysis can be an effective treatment for individuals suffering from chronic pain in the lower extremity as a result of numerous etiologi ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lumbosacral Facet Syndrome Low back pain is one of the most common musculoskeletal complaints encountered in clinical practice. It is the leading cause of disability in the deve ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Malignant Hyperthermia Malignant Hyperthermia (MH) is a hereditary disorder of skeletal muscle that classically presents as a hypermetabolic response to halogenated anesthet ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mannitol Mannitol can be used for the reduction of intracranial pressure and brain mass, to reduce intraocular pressure if this is not achievable by other mean ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Massive Transfusion Massive transfusion is traditionally defined as transfusion of 10 units of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) within a 24 hour period. The goal of massive ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mechanical Ventilation Although mechanical ventilation can be a complex and seemingly elusive topic, expectations are that healthcare professionals who deal with critically ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Median Nerve Block Techniques A median nerve block is a simple, safe, and effective method of obtaining anesthesia to the palmar aspect of the thumb, index finger, middle finger, r ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mediastinal Trauma The mediastinum is contained within the thoracic cavity and has a high concentration of major vascular and visceral structures. Traumatic injury to an ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mediastinoscopy Mediastinoscopy is a thoracic surgical procedure performed with a mediastinoscope to examine the mediastinum— the space in the thoracic cavity between ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mental Nerve Block The mental nerve supplies sensation to the lower teeth, the skin over the chin and lower lip, and the buccal mucosa. Mental nerve blocks allow for exc ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Metabolic Acidosis Acid-base disorders are disturbances in the homeostasis of hydrogen ion concentration in the plasma. Any process that increases the serum hydrogen ion ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Methemoglobinemia Methemoglobinemia is a condition with life-threatening potential in which diminution of the oxygen-carrying capacity of circulating hemoglobin occurs ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Methohexital Methohexital is a medication used in anesthesia for sedation. It is in the barbiturate class of medications. This activity outlines the indications, a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Metoclopramide Metoclopramide has been approved by the FDA specifically to treat nausea and vomiting in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease or diabetic gas ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mitral Stenosis Mitral stenosis (MS) is a form of valvular heart disease characterized by narrowing of the mitral valve orifice. The most common cause of mitral steno ... Read the Article 2 34 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mitral Valve Repair Mitral valve repair is commonly used to treat mitral valve pathology due to mitral regurgitation. Mitral regurgitation (MR) is classified as primary o ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOI) Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a separate class from other antidepressants, treating different forms of depression as well as other nervous ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Multifocal Atrial Tachycardia Multifocal atrial tachycardia (MAT) is a supraventricular tachycardia resulting in a rapid, irregular atrial rhythm that is caused by multiple ectopic ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Myasthenia Gravis Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder affecting the neuromuscular junction. It manifests as a generalized muscle weakness which can involve the ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Myelomeningocele Neural tube defects are a spectrum of congenital anomalies that includes cranial defects and open or closed spinal dysraphism. Open spinal dysraphism ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nalbuphine Nalbuphine is FDA indicated for moderate to severe pain in which an opioid agent is required when other alternative treatments have been insufficient. ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nasal Fracture Reduction Nasal bony fractures are the most common type of facial bone fractures, representing 40 to 50 percent of cases. Nasal fractures are commonly associate ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nasopharyngeal Airway A nasopharyngeal airway device (NPA) is a hollow plastic or soft rubber tubes that a healthcare provider can utilize to assist with patient oxygenatio ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nasotracheal Intubation Nasotracheal intubation (NTI) involves passing an endotracheal tube through the naris into the nasopharynx and the trachea; most commonly after induct ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neck Trauma The management of neck trauma can be challenging and sometimes overwhelming, as this anatomical region contains many vital structures. These structure ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Needlestick Needlestick injuries are frequent occurrences in healthcare settings and can lead to serious complications. While the introduction of universal precau ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neostigmine Neostigmine is water-soluble, an ionized compound that reversibly inhibits the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. Its FDA indication is for the reversal of ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nerve Block Anesthesia The purpose of peripheral nerve blocks is to inhibit impulse transmission distally in a nerve terminal, thus terminating the pain signal perceived by ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neuraxial Neurolysis Neurolysis is the application of chemical or physical agents to a nerve to cause a temporary or permanent degeneration of targeted nerve fibers. When ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neurogenic Pulmonary Edema Neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) is a clinical condition arises as acute respiratory distress taking place in conjunction with severe neurological dam ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neurogenic Shock Neurogenic shock, also known as vasogenic shock, is a devastating consequence of spinal cord injury (SCI) that can manifest as hypotension, bradyarrhy ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neurolytic Blocks A neurolytic block is the targeted destruction of a nerve or nerve plexus. Frequently, the term neuroablation is used to also describe the physical in ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neuromuscular Blocking Agents The widespread use of neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBA) was a significant milestone in the development of anesthesia. Before the introduction of N ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nitric Oxide Nitric oxide is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypoxic respiratory failure or persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn ( ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nitrous Oxide Nitrous oxide is an odorless, colorless, non-flammable gas. While nitrous oxide is not flammable, it will support combustion to the same extent as ox ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Non ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) can be divided into subgroups of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-ST-segment elevation myocardial ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Non-depolarizing Neuromuscular Blockers Non-depolarizing neuromuscular blockers (nNMBs) are administered as primary therapy in facilitating endotracheal intubations and adjuvant therapy in t ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nondepolarizing Paralytics Non-depolarizing, neuromuscular blocking drugs (NMBDs) work by competing with acetylcholine (Ach) for binding sites on nicotinic alpha subunits. They ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Normal Saline Fluid therapy is a critical component of the clinical management of patients. It consists of colloid therapy as well as crystalloid therapy. The most ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nosocomial Pneumonia Nosocomial pneumonia or hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is defined as pneumonia that occurs 48 hours or more after hospital admission and not incuba ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Oculocardiac Reflex The oculocardiac reflex (OCR), also known as the Aschner reflex or trigeminovagal reflex (TVR), was first described in 1908 as a reduction in heart ra ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Operative Risk Millions of surgical procedures are performed in the world annually. Becoming knowledgeable about the main benefits of careful evaluation and the pote ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Opioid Opioids are medications used in the management and treatment of pain, cough, or diarrhea. This activity outlines the indications, actions, and contrai ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Opioid Addiction Opioid use disorder and opioid addiction remain at epidemic levels in the US and worldwide. Three million US citizens and 16 million individuals world ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Opioid Anesthesia Opioids have had a wide range of uses in medicine throughout history. However, they have fallen under scrutiny in recent history due to the opioid cri ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Opioid Toxicity Opioids and opiates together comprise a class of medications widely used primarily to control severe pain. If first-line agents are not effective in c ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Oral Hypoglycemic Medications The most effective management of diabetes mellitus demands an interprofessional approach involving both lifestyle modifications with diet and exercise ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Oropharyngeal Airway Acute respiratory failure is caused by a wide range of etiologies. Progression to cardiopulmonary arrest and ultimately death is likely in the absenc ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Overdrive Pacing Temporary cardiac pacing (TCP) is a type of exogenous cardiac pacing in which an external energy source that delivers electrical impulses to stimulate ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Oxygen Saturation Oxygen saturation is an essential element of patient care. Oxygen is tightly regulated within the body because hypoxemia can lead to many acute advers ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pacemaker Pacemakers are adjustable artificial electrical pulse generators that can be temporary or permanent. They frequently emit a pulse lasting between 0.5 ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pain Assessment There are multiple tools used to help assess a patient's pain. These tools can be used to assess multiple types of pain, ranging from nociceptive pain ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pancuronium Pancuronium bromide is a long-acting, bis-quaternary aminosteroid, non-depolarizing, neuromuscular blocking drug (NMBD), which was first synthesized i ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Parkland Formula Early and aggressive fluid resuscitation plays a fundamental role in the management of severe burn patients. The Parkland formula is the most widely u ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Patient Controlled Analgesia Patient-controlled analgesia is used to treat acute, chronic, postoperative, and labor pain. A variety of medications can be used for patient-controll ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pediatric Asthma Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways, characterized by recurrent episodes of airflow obstruction resulting from edema, bronchospasm ... Read the Article 1.5 22 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pediatric Bronchospasm Bronchospasm involves the constriction of the smooth muscle layers of the small airways. If left untreated, bronchospasm can progress to respiratory d ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pediatric Preoperative Management The preoperative management of anesthesia in children differs from that in adults. These differences include employing cognitive and age-appropriate l ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pediatric Tracheostomy Tracheostomy has been increasingly performed in children with complex medical conditions for the management of upper airway obstruction, prolonged ven ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Penetrating Abdominal Trauma Penetrating abdominal trauma is most commonly caused by stabbing or gunshot wound. The most commonly injured regions are the small bowel, large bowel, ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Percutaneous Central Catheter The ability to obtain venous access in the inpatient and outpatient setting is one of the most fundamental, yet, crucial components for a large number ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Perimortem Cesarean The perimortem cesarean section, as described in its name, is the surgical delivery of the fetus, performed during or near the time of death of the mo ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Perioperative Anticoagulation Management Management of perioperative anticoagulation requires an interprofessional approach to determine the duration and discontinuation of temporary interrup ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Peripheral Nerve Blocks Recent advances in surgical techniques and the development of a greater number of minimally invasive procedures have led to an increase in outpatient ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Peripheral Vascular Bypass Peripheral vascular bypass (PVB) refers to surgical revision of blood flow to restore perfusion distal to an occluded or otherwise disrupted arterial ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Phencyclidine Toxicity Phencyclidine (PCP) is a dissociative anesthetic that is a commonly used recreational drug. PCP is a crystalline powder that can be ingested orally, i ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Phenol Nerve Block It was not until 1926 that the use of phenol as a neurolytic agent was described by Doppler et al., followed by a description of intrathecal injection ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Phenylephrine The FDA-approved indication for intravenous (IV) phenylephrine hydrochloride is for increasing blood pressure in adults with clinically significant hy ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Phenytoin Phenytoin is a medication used in the management and treatment of epilepsy, generalized tonic-clonic seizures, complex partial seizures, and status ep ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Platelet Transfusion Platelet transfusion is a lifesaving procedure that is carried out to prevent bleeding or stop ongoing bleeding in patients with low platelet count or ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pneumonectomy A pneumonectomy is an invasive procedure used as a management option for patients with advanced malignant and non-malignant lung disease. Proper patie ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pneumothorax A pneumothorax is a collection of air outside the lung but within the pleural cavity. It occurs when air accumulates between the parietal and visceral ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Polytraumatized Patient Polytrauma is when a patient has sustained multiple injuries, some of which may cause significant disability and may be life-threatening. Worldwide th ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Positive End-Expiratory Pressure Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is a value that can be set up in patients receiving invasive or non-invasive mechanical ventilation. This acti ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Positive Pressure Ventilation Positive pressure ventilation describes the process of either using a mask or, more commonly, a ventilator to deliver breaths and to decrease the work ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Post Intubation Laryngeal Edema Post intubation laryngeal edema is common after endotracheal intubation and clinically manifests after extubation. Though most cases of post-intubatio ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postdural Puncture Headache Postdural puncture headache is a potential complication of a lumbar puncture, with symptoms caused by traction on pain-sensitive structures from low c ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postoperative Delirium Post-operative delirium (POD) can occur from anywhere between 10 minutes after anesthesia up until discharge from the hospital. It is commonly recogni ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postoperative Fever Postoperative fever is defined as a temperature higher than 38 C (or greater than 100.4 F) on two consecutive postoperative days or higher than 39 C ( ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postoperative Ileus Postoperative ileus is a prolonged absence of bowel function after surgical procedures, usually abdominal surgery. It is a common postoperative compli ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postoperative Nausea Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a common occurrence following anesthesia and leads to patient dissatisfaction and discomfort. In certain s ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postoperative Pain Control Postoperative pain is experienced by the vast majority of patients who undergo surgical procedures. Control of postoperative pain plays an essential r ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Premature Rupture Of Membranes Premature rupture of membranes (PROM) is the rupture of gestational membranes prior to the onset of labor. When membrane rupture occurs before 37 wee ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Premature Ventricular Contraction During a premature ventricular contraction (PVC), the heartbeat is initiated by the Purkinje fibers rather than the SA node. Given that a PVC occurs b ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Preoperative Antibiotic Prophylaxis Preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis is the administration of antibiotics before performing surgery to help decrease the risk of postoperative infectio ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pressure Support Ventilation management is an ever growing and changing the environment in which medical professionals, through positive patient outcomes can determine ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pressure Support Ventilation Pressure support ventilation (PSV) is a common ventilator setting for both invasive and non-invasive ventilation. Healthcare workers involved in the c ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Procaine Procaine is a medication used for analgesia before a procedural intervention. It is in the local anesthetics class of drugs. This activity reviews the ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Promethazine Promethazine is a medication used in the management and treatment of allergic conditions, nausea and vomiting, motion sickness, and sedation. It also ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Propofol Propofol is an intravenous anesthetic that is used for procedural sedation, during monitored anesthesia care, or as an induction agent for general ane ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Propofol Toxicity Propofol is a phenol derivative administered intravenously that is commonly used for sedation and in general anesthesia. The most common formulation ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Prothrombin Complex Concentrate Prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) comes from the process of ion-exchange chromatography from the cryoprecipitate supernatant of large plasma pools ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Provocative Discography Provocative discography is an invasive diagnostic spine procedure that involves the administration of contrast into the nucleus pulposus of an interve ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pseudocholinesterase Deficiency Pseudocholinesterase deficiency, also known as butyrylcholinesterase deficiency, refers to a rare acquired or inherited defect in the pseudocholineste ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulmonary Artery Catheterization Pulmonary artery catheterization is a diagnostic procedure in which an intravascular catheter is inserted through a central vein, such as the femoral, ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulmonary Hemorrhage Pulmonary hemorrhage, also referred to as massive hemoptysis, is a potentially life-threatening condition involving bleeding from the pulmonary or bro ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulmonary Hypertension Pulmonary hypertension encompasses a heterogeneous group of disorders with the common feature of elevated pulmonary vascular resistance. Patients ofte ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulsus Paradoxus Pulsus paradoxus refers to a systolic pressure drop greater than 10mmHg during inspiration. Pulsus paradoxus results from alterations in the mechanica ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pyloric Stenosis Pyloric stenosis, also known as infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS), is an uncommon condition in infants characterized by abnormal thickeni ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Quadratus Lumborum Block Healthcare providers have used many regional, anesthetic modalities to provide analgesia for the thorax, abdomen, and pelvis. While each of these moda ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radial Artery Cannulation Arterial lines placement is for real-time monitoring of blood pressures and arterial blood sampling in critically ill patients or those undergoing com ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ranchos Los Amigos The Rancho Los Amigos Scale (RLAS), also known as the Ranchos Scale, is a widely accepted medical scale used to describe the cognitive and behavioral ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Injury Recurrent laryngeal nerve injuries are a common cause of vocal cord paresis and resulting in voice changes or hoarseness. The etiology, history, and m ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Regional Anesthetic Blocks A regional block is a specific anesthetic technique that inhibits nerve transmission to avoid or relieve pain. This activity reviews the indications, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Respiratory Failure Respiratory failure happens when the respiratory system fails to maintain gas exchange and is classified into type 1 and type 2 according to blood gas ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Retrograde Cardioplegia To ensure the protection of the heart during cardiopulmonary bypass, administration and even distribution of cardioplegia solution to the myocardium i ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rheumatoid Arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disorder of the joints characterized by inflammatory arthritis as well as extra-articular involvement. It c ... Read the Article 1.75 25 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Right Heart Failure Heart failure is a condition in which the heart loses its ability to pump blood efficiently to the rest of the body. Right heart failure is most commo ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rocuronium Rocuronium is a non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocker which is widely used to produce muscle relaxation to help facilitate surgery and ventilation of ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ropivacaine Ropivacaine is FDA-approved for surgical anesthesia and acute pain management. It is used in an epidural block for surgery—such as cesarean sections. ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sacroiliac Joint Injection Sacroiliac (SI) joint pain is a common etiology of low back pain. Studies have shown that 10 to 27 percent of mechanical low back pain is secondary to ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Saddle Anesthetic Block Saddle block anesthesia is the mainstay method of anesthesia for numerous surgical procedures. It is the desired procedure owing to its simplicity and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Saphenous Nerve Block The saphenous nerve block is widely used in both emergency and perioperative settings for procedural anesthesia and post-procedural pain management. T ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Saphenous Vein Cutdown The establishment of venous access is essential to the treatment and resuscitation of both the medically and traumatically ill patient. Adequate venou ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Scalp Catheterization Peripheral venous access is a key need for resuscitating patients of all ages. An ideal site for venous catheterization is one that is easy to access ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sciatic Nerve Block The sciatic nerve supplies the vast majority of motor and sensory function to the lower limb. Regional anesthetic blockade of the sciatic nerve can be ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Scopolamine Scopolamine is a medication used in the management and treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and motion sickness. It is in the anticho ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Seat Belt Injuries Although seatbelts have prevented numerous deaths by reducing head injuries, they can cause damage via the transmission of force upon impact associate ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sellick Maneuver Cricoid pressure is a technique that has become part of rapid sequence intubation to prevent aspiration of gastric contents. The technique has limited ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Septic Shock Sepsis syndromes span a clinical continuum with variable prognosis. Septic shock, the most severe complication of sepsis, carries a high mortality. Se ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Serotonin Syndrome Serotonin syndrome is a potentially life-threatening condition precipitated by the use of serotonergic drugs. It may be a consequence of therapeutic m ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sevoflurane Sevoflurane is a halogenated inhalational anesthetic that is FDA approved for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia in adults and pediat ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Shock Resuscitation At its most basic definition, the term “shock” means that there is a lack of adequate tissue oxygenation throughout the body. Typically, this lack of ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Single Lung Ventilation Single lung ventilation involves ventilating one lung and letting the other collapse for providing surgical exposure in the thoracic cavity or isolati ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Skin Antiseptics Antiseptics are chemical agents applied to the skin to reduce the microbial count and reduce the risk of surgical site infections (SSIs). SSIs are def ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sodium Channel Blocker Toxicity Medications that act by sodium channel blockade have a wide variety of clinical applications. Broadly they include Vaughn Williams Class 1 antiarrhyth ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate Sodium polystyrene sulfonate is a medication used in the management and treatment of hyperkalemia. This activity outlines and reviews the indications, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Somatosensory Evoked Potentials Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) have been in use for decades as an integral method of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring for spinal, ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spinal Anesthesia Development of regional anesthesia started with the isolation of local anesthetics, the first being cocaine (the only naturally occurring local anesth ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spinal Opioids In Anesthetic Practice Spinal opioids for use in anesthesia offers several advantages to systemic pain management. This occurs mainly through the mechanism of action when pl ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spirometry Spirometry is one of the most commonly used approaches to test pulmonary function. It measures the volume of exhaled air vs. time. This activity highl ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Splenic Trauma Traumatic injuries of the spleen can be either blunt or penetrating. The management of splenic trauma has become largely non-operative, as non-operati ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Status Epilepticus Status epilepticus is a neurological emergency requiring immediate evaluation and management to prevent significant morbidity or mortality. Previously ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Stellate Ganglion Blocks Stellate ganglion block (SGB) is used for the treatment of many medical conditions including complex regional pain syndrome and peripheral vascular di ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Strychnine Toxicity Strychnine has been used for years as a medicinal remedy for a broad range of complaints. Strychnine is responsible for inhibiting postsynaptic glycin ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Subcutaneous Emphysema Subcutaneous emphysema is the de novo generation or infiltration of air underneath the dermal layers of skin. The development of subcutaneous air may ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Subglottic Stenosis Subglottic stenosis can be defined as the narrowing of the upper airway, which lies between the vocal folds and the lower border of the cricoid cartil ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Succinylcholine Chloride Succinylcholine chloride is a short-acting depolarizing neuromuscular blockade that is approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sugammadex Sugammadex is a modified gamma-cyclodextrin that is used to reverse steroidal nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking drugs rocuronium and vecuronium. ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Superficial Peroneal Nerve Block The superficial peroneal nerve (superficial fibular nerve) is a mixed nerve that carries sensory information from the anterolateral aspect of the leg ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Superior Vena Cava Syndrome Superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome is a collection of clinical signs and symptoms resulting from either partial or complete obstruction of blood flow t ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Supertrochlear Nerve Block The supratrochlear nerve block is a special procedure, which can be utilized to relieve pain in the mid-forehead region. It can provide anesthesia for ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Supraclavicular Block The supraclavicular block is a regional anesthetic technique used as an alternative or adjunct to general anesthesia or used for postoperative pain co ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Supraventricular Tachycardia Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is a dysrhythmia originating at or above the atrioventricular (AV) node and is defined by a narrow complex (QRS &lt ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Surgical Airway Suctioning Airway suctioning refers to the collective measures that are used for clearing the airway of a patient. It involves suctioning, clearing secretions, a ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sympathomimetics Sympathomimetics are a classification of medication used in the management and treatment of cardiovascular pathology, hypersensitivity, COPD, and glau ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Synchronized Intermittent Mandatory Ventilation Synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV) is a type of volume control mode of ventilation. With this mode, the ventilator will deliver a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone ADH release (SIADH) is a condition defined by the unsuppressed release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) fr ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Targeted Hypothermia Temperature Management Targeted temperature management aims to reduce mortality and improve neurological outcomes in unresponsive patients who achieve ROSC after cardiac arr ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tension Pneumothorax Pneumothorax is when air collects in between the parietal and viscera pleurae resulting in lung collapse. It can happen secondary to trauma (traumatic ... Read the Article 1.75 28 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tetracaine Tetracaine is an amino-ester class local anesthetic. It has been in use for a variety of purposes since the early 1930s, but its most common use today ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Theophylline Toxicity Around the world, theophylline (1,3-dimethylxanthine) is primarily used as a bronchodilator for patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thoracotomy Thoracotomy is described as an incision made between the ribs to access the contents of the thoracic cavity. Due to the anatomic location of the conte ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thrombocytopenia Thrombocytopenia is a platelet count below the lower limit of normal, i.e., 150000/microliter (for adults). This activity reviews the etiology, evalua ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Topical, Local, and Regional Anesthesia and Anesthetics Nerve impulse transmission occurs when voltage-gated sodium channels on the neuronal membrane open, allowing a massive influx of sodium. This causes m ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Torsade de Pointes Torsades de Pointes is a type of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia characterized on electrocardiogram by oscillatory changes in amplitude of the QRS ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tracheal Bronchus The tracheal bronchus is a congenital anomaly defined as abnormal bronchus arising anywhere from the cricoid cartilage to the carina. This activity re ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tracheal Intubation Medications Endotracheal intubation is indicated in many clinical settings, such as impending respiratory failure and when protecting the patient airway. The foll ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tracheal Rapid Sequence Intubation Rapid sequence intubation (RSI) is a technique that is used when rapid control of the airway is needed as a precaution for patients that may have a 'f ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tracheal Resection Tracheal resection is performed when tracheal stenosis is unresponsive to conservative management, such as balloon dilation and scar excision. Trachea ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tracheal Trauma Tracheal trauma may be penetrating or blunt and acute or subacute. A blow or stab wound to the neck or crush injuries to the upper chest may cause acu ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tracheostomy A tracheostomy (or tracheotomy, while there are technical differences, these terms are colloquially used interchangeably. For the purposes of this art ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tracheostomy Tube Change Tracheostomy is a procedure where an artificial airway is established surgically or percutaneously in the cervical trachea. This activity describes th ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Transabdominal Plane Block The tranversus abdominis plane (TAP) block has become one of the most common truncal blocks performed for postoperative analgesia after abdominal surg ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Transfusion Reactions Transfusion reactions are adverse events associated with the transfusion of whole blood or one of its components. They range in severity from minor to ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Transurethral Resection Of The Prostate Transurethral resection of the prostate is a procedure used in the management of bladder outlet obstruction caused by prostatic hypertrophy and prosta ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Transversus Abdominis Plane Block This activity outlines the transversus abdominis plane (TAP) blocks, relevant anatomy, as well as indications and contraindications to performing this ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Trauma Primary Survey The primary survey is designed to rapidly assess and treat life-threatening injuries. The main causes of death in trauma patients are airway obstructi ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Traumatic Brain Injury Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can result from trauma ranging from a simple blow to the head to a penetrating injury to the brain. In the United States, ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Trigger Point Injection Myofascial trigger points are focal "knots" located in a taut band of skeletal muscle first described by Dr. Janet Travell in 1942. Trigger points may ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ulnar Nerve Block Techniques An ultrasound-guided ulnar nerve block can be used to provide surgical anesthesia or analgesia to the ulnar portion of the hand including the little f ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ultrasound Guided Intravenous Access At least 150 to 200 million peripheral intravenous (PIV) catheters are placed each year in the United States, and up to 80 percent of patients receive ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ultrasound Guided Serratus Anterior Blocks Approximately 10 percent of injured patients presenting to the emergency department are found to have rib fractures. Rib fractures are associated with ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ultrasound-guided Fascia Iliaca Compartment Block Pain management is an integral part of providing care in the emergency setting. Lower extremity pain from hip fractures, burns, and other trauma is a ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ultrasound-Guided Intercostal Nerve Block The blockage of anterior branches of the intercostal nerves is a selective superficial block, with a very low incidence of complications and effective ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Unilateral Diaphragmatic Paralysis Unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis is a condition caused when one side of the diaphragm becomes weak or paralyzed. There are many possible causes for ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Upper Limb Block Anesthesia Regional anesthesia and the incorporation of peripheral nerve blocks allows for localized, targeted anesthesia for both surgical anesthesia and post-o ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vecuronium Vecuronium bromide is an FDA approved peripherally acting, monoquarternary, steroidal, non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocker with an intermediate dur ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Venous Gas Embolism A venous gas embolism is an abnormal collection of gas which forms a bubble in the systemic venous circulation, which can at as an embolus and affect ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ventilation Assist Control Mechanical ventilation is a common intervention used to treat patients with acute respiratory failure. Assist-Control ventilation is the most common s ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ventilator Complications Mechanical ventilation is an essential medical intervention in the context of critical illness. However, this intervention is associated with the risk ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ventilator Management Invasive mechanical ventilation is an intervention that is frequently used in acutely ill patients requiring either respiratory support or airway prot ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ventilator Weaning Mechanical ventilation is an established supportive treatment for patients with various forms of respiratory failure. Despite the widespread use and c ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury (VILI) Ventilator-induced lung injury is the acute lung injury inflicted or aggravated by mechanical ventilation during treatment and has the potential to ca ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ventricular Fibrillation Arrhythmias originating from the ventricular myocardium or His-Purkinje system are grouped under ventricular arrhythmia (VA). This includes a subset o ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Video-Assisted Thoracoscopy Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has revolutionized the approach to and management of many pulmonary and cardiac diseases over the past two ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Viral Hepatitis Viral hepatitis is a form of hepatitis that can be acute or chronic. It has various presentations and different outcomes, depending on the specific ca ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vitamin B1 Thiamine Deficiency Thiamine, or vitamin B1, was the first vitamin identified to be identified. It functions as a catalyst in the generation of energy through decarboxyla ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Waddell Triad Waddell’s triad represents a pediatric emergency. The triad comprises of three distinct features seen in pediatric pedestrian patients subject to blun ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Warfarin Toxicity Warfarin is a vitamin K antagonist used as an anticoagulant used for treatment and prevention of a variety of coagulopathic and thromboembolic disorde ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Water Hammer Pulse Water hammer pulse is a physical exam finding that describes a bounding, forceful pulse with a rapid upstroke and descent. It is seen in many physiolo ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wheezing Wheezing is the symptomatic manifestation of any disease process that causes airway obstruction. Wheezing is commonly experienced by people who have a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wide QRS Complex Tachycardia Wide complex tachycardia is a dysrhythmia with a long list of potential causes that ranges from various arrhythmias, structural heart abnormalities, e ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ziconotide Ziconotide is a newer, intrathecal analgesic medication used for the treatment of chronic pain. Its FDA indication is for the treatment of chronic sev ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO

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