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Anesthesiology

Anesthesiology

Stay up to date on the latest medical knowledge with this Anesthesiology activity. In this online self-assessment activity, you'll read our reference articles and test your knowledge with 576 activities in Anesthesiology for 532.75 total CME hours.


6 Month Unlimited Physician MD/DO/PA CME

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1 Year Unlimited Physician MD/DO/PA CME

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Access to all the Physician MD/DO/PA CME activities in all specialties.

Featured Article Activities

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Central Venous Catheter

Central venous catheter insertion is a common and often, necessary procedure for the care of critically ill patients. Ce ...
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Hours: 1

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Diabetes Intraoperative Management

According to CDC data, the incidence of diabetes in the United States in the year 2015 was 30.3 million and predicted to ...
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Hours: 0.75

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Anesthesia Monitoring Of Mixed Venous Saturation

While oxygen saturation refers to the percentage of hemoglobin bound to oxygen within red blood cells, mixed venous oxyg ...
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Hours: 0.75

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Arterial Gas Embolism

Arterial gas embolism is a rare, life-threatening entity, which requires prompt recognition and early intervention. Fail ...
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Hours: 0.75

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Nicotinic Ganglionic Blocker

Mecamylamine is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension. It is in the nicotinic ganglion block ...
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Hours: 0.75

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Carotid Artery Stenting

Traditionally, carotid endarterectomy (CEA) has been the primary method of treating high-grade asymptomatic and symptoma ...
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Hours: 0.75

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Anesthesiology Activities

Title Description Hours Questions
3-3-2 Rule The airway is one of the most critical elements of patient safety, and difficult intubations commonly cause morbidity and mortality. To decrease morbi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abciximab Abciximab is widely used in interventional cardiology for the treatment of unstable angina and as an adjunct therapy following percutaneous coronary i ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Rupture Abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture represents a catastrophic emergency and if not recognized and appropriately treated, carries significant morbidity a ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominal Aortic Repair Abdominal aortic repair is a major surgical procedure done to treat an aortic aneurysm. Elective surgery on an abdominal aortic aneurysm is indicated ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominal Compartment Syndrome Abdominal compartment syndrome occurs when the pressure in the abdominal cavity elevates beyond 20 mmHg. It is associated with multiorgan dysfunction. ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominoplasty The abdominoplasty, commonly referred to as a "tummy tuck", is a procedure to reduce excess skin and fat around the abdomen and strengthen the abdomin ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ablative Laser Resurfacing This activity outlines and describes ablative laser options and their current therapeutic uses in skin resurfacing. The differences between fractional ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ablative Nerve Block Ablation procedures have been used to treat chronic back pain and sciatica of unknown etiology as an alternative to surgical severing the dorsal rami. ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acupuncture Acupuncture is a system of medical treatment and ideology that is based on the principle of applying small needles or pressure to specific points in t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Cholecystitis Acute cholecystitis is inflammation of the gallbladder that occurs due to occlusion of the cystic duct or impaired emptying of the gallbladder. Often ... Read the Article 1.5 22 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Pneumothorax Evaluation and Treatment A pneumothorax is an accumulation of gas in the pleural space (the space between the visceral and parietal pleura of the chest cavity), which can imp ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Pulmonary Embolism Acute pulmonary embolism is a common clinical condition with a variable clinical presentation, making its diagnosis challenging. This activity outline ... Read the Article 2 30 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening that is characterized by poor oxygenation and non-compliant or "stiff" lungs. The dis ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adaptive Support Ventilation Adaptive support ventilation (ASV) is a type of mechanical ventilation, which is a relatively newer mode of closed-loop ventilation. Other modes of me ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adenosine Adenosine has uses as both a diagnostic or therapeutic agent. As a diagnostic agent, adenosine can be utilized in myocardial perfusion stress imaging ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adrenal Crisis Adrenal crisis is an acute life-threatening condition precipitated by an internal or external process in the setting of known or unknown adrenal insuf ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adrenalectomy Adrenalectomy is performed to adrenal tumors that secret excess hormone and for those that are concerning for malignancy. There are many approached to ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adrenergic Drugs Adrenergic drugs are a broad class of medications that bind to adrenergic receptors throughout the body. These receptors include: alpha-1, alpha-2, be ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adverse Events Adverse events (AE) occur frequently in our medical system and at least one in ten patients are affected. An AE is a harmful and negative outcome that ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Air Leak An air leak is the leakage of air from an air-containing cavity into spaces that under normal circumstances do not contain air. The term air leak synd ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Airway Assessment A thorough, but brief, airway assessment is essential for the proper management of patients requiring advanced airway management. Indications for the ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Airway Glottic Insufficiency Glottic insufficiency is characterized by incomplete closure of the vocal folds with phonation, which causes an increased risk of aspiration. Glottic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Airway Management Interprofessional team members must be familiar with the important anatomical, physiological, and pathological features related to the airway and have ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Airway Monitoring Airway monitoring involves assessing both a patient’s ventilatory function and their ability to perform adequate gas exchange. Determining a patient’s ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Airway Suctioning Airway suctioning is a procedure routinely performed in the inpatient and outpatient settings. It is important to maintain patency of the natural or a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alcohol Related Psychosis Psychosis associated with alcohol can occur with acute intoxication, alcohol withdrawal, and chronic alcoholism. Alcohol-related psychosis is also kno ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alcoholic Ketoacidosis Alcoholic ketoacidosis (AKA) is a condition seen commonly in patients with alcohol use disorder or after a bout of heavy drinking. It is a clinical di ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alfentanil Alfentanil is a short-acting opioid analgesic commonly compared to fentanyl, a medication that is ubiquitous in the hospital setting along with remife ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alkalosis Alkalosis is an abnormal pathophysiological condition characterized by the buildup of excess base or alkali in the body. It results in an abnormally h ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Allen Test The Allen test (AT) is used to assess collateral blood flow to the hands. The radial artery is easily palpable. The need for this test arises from the ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
American Society of Anesthesiologists Classification The American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status classification system was developed to offer clinicians a simple categorization of a p ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aminocaproic Acid Aminocaproic acid, an antifibrinolytic agent, is a medication used in the management and treatment of acute bleeding disorders. This activity outlines ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anesthesia Inhalation Agents Cardiovascular Effects Many providers lack a thorough knowledge of the effects of inhaled anesthetics on the cardiovascular system. This can lead to significant intra-operat ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anesthesia Monitoring Of Mixed Venous Saturation While oxygen saturation refers to the percentage of hemoglobin bound to oxygen within red blood cells, mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) refers to ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anesthesia Vaporizers Anesthetic vaporizers are an essential piece of the anesthesia equipment. This activity reviews the modern anesthetic vaporizer classification, the ph ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anesthetic Gases Anesthetic gases (nitrous oxide, halothane, isoflurane, desflurane, sevoflurane), also known as inhaled anesthetics, are administered as primary thera ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angiotensin II Angiotensin is a peptide endocrine hormone and an important part of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, an inter-related endocrine system import ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anisocoria Anisocoria is a condition characterized by unequal pupil size. The etiology of anisocoria is complex, ranging from benign to potentially life-threaten ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anoxia Hypoxia is a state in which oxygen is not available in sufficient amounts at tissue level to maintain adequate homeostasis; this can result from inade ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anterior Cord Syndrome Anterior cord syndrome is an incomplete cord syndrome that predominantly affects the anterior 2/3 of the spinal cord, characteristically resulting in ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anterior Mediastinal Mass The most common anterior mediastinal masses in the adult population are thymoma, teratoma, thyroid goiter, and lymphoma. This activity describes the e ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antiemetic Medications Nausea is a commonly encountered symptom in healthcare, one that is difficult for any patient. Causes may be as simple as the body's defense against a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antiepileptic Drug Monitoring Antiepileptic drug-level monitoring has been a common clinical practice since the advent of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). The practice of maintaining AE ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antisialagogues Antisialagogues are medications often used in the management and treatment of patients with noisy breathing near the end of life. These medications ar ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Dissection While uncommon, acute aortic dissection is an infrequent but catastrophic disorder. Patients present with tearing chest pain that radiates to the back ... Read the Article 1.75 27 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Regurgitation Aortic regurgitation is the inadequate closure of the aortic valve during diastole that results in reverse blood flow through the aortic valve. This c ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Transection Aortic transection is an injury encountered with blunt thoracic trauma with substantial morbidity and mortality. Many patients with aortic transection ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortocaval Compression Syndrome Aortocaval compression syndrome is also known as a supine hypotensive syndrome. It typically occurs in pregnant females, usually after 20 weeks of ges ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Appendicitis Appendicitis is the inflammation of the vermiform appendix. It typically presents acutely, within 24 hours of onset, but can also present as a more ch ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aprepitant Aprepitant is a medication used in the management and treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) and postoperative nausea and vomiti ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arachnoiditis Arachnoiditis is a persistent inflammation of the arachnoid mater as well as subarachnoid space due to mechanical, chemical, and infectious injuries. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arterial Gas Embolism Arterial gas embolism is a rare, life-threatening entity, which requires prompt recognition and early intervention. Failure to diagnose, and initiate ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arterial Lines Arterial catheterization is a procedure that is common to the intensive care and the operating room settings. It involves placement of a catheter into ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arterial Pressure Monitoring Arterial pressure monitoring is a form of invasive blood pressure monitoring and is done through the cannulation of a peripheral artery. This form of ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Artery Cannulation Arterial cannulation is a procedure frequently performed in acute and critical care settings. It serves as an invasive means to more accurately measur ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arytenoid Subluxation Arytenoid subluxation or dislocation is a rare laryngeal injury that occurs as a result of airway instrumentation or direct trauma to the cricoaryteno ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ascariasis Ascaris lumbricoides, the causative agent of ascariasis, is the most common parasitic worm in humans. Ascariasis can be asymptomatic causing only maln ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aspiration Pneumonia The infectious pulmonary process that occurs after abnormal entry of fluids into the lower respiratory tract is termed aspiration pneumonia. The aspir ... Read the Article 1.25 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aspiration Risk Aspiration is common, even in healthy patients. Aspiration can have significant morbidity and mortality in certain circumstances. It is categorized ba ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Asthma Anesthesia Asthma is characterized by variable and often reversible airway obstruction with bronchial hyperreactivity. An estimated 8.4% of people in the US have ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Asystole Asystole, colloquially referred to as flatline, represents the cessation of electrical and mechanical activity of the heart. Asystole typically occurs ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atelectasis The word "atelectasis" is Greek in origin; It is a combination of the Greek words atelez (Ateles) and ektasiz (ektasis) meaning "imperfect" and "expan ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atracurium Atracurium is indicated as an addition to general anesthesia to facilitate endotracheal intubation and provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surge ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrial Fibrillation Atrial fibrillation is the most common type of cardiac arrhythmia. It is the leading cardiac cause of stroke. Risk factors for atrial fibrillation inc ... Read the Article 2 31 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrial Flutter Atrial flutter, a supraventricular arrhythmia, is one of the most common rhythm disturbances of the heart. It is characterized by a fast atrial rate w ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrioventricular Dissociation Atrioventricular dissociation is a cardiac conduction defect where the atria and ventricles beat independently of each other. It can occur due to vari ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Autotransfusion Autotransfusion has not always been a safe procedure. The first known documented procedure of autotransfusion was performed in 1818 by Dr. James Blund ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Axillary Block The axillary approach to the brachial plexus nerve block was first described by Dr. Halstead et al. in 1884. Before the prevalence of ultrasound, this ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Baclofen Baclofen is used to treat muscle spasticity; it is FDA-approved for the management of reversible spasticity, particularly for the relief of flexor spa ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bag Mask Ventilation Bag valve mask ventilation is a difficult skill to master. This activity explains how to improve this skill. This activity describes the technique of ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Barbiturate Toxicity Barbiturates are a class of sedative-hypnotic drugs. They are commonly used as antiepileptics (phenobarbital) and for the induction of general anesthe ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Barbiturates Barbiturates are a group of sedative-hypnotic medications used for the treatment of seizure disorder, neonatal withdrawal, insomnia, preoperative anxi ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Barotrauma And Mechanical Ventilation Pulmonary barotrauma is a potentially life-threatening complication in patients on mechanical ventilation. It is important to recognize and quickly ac ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Basilar Skull Fractures Basilar skull fractures, usually caused by substantial blunt force trauma, involve at least one of the bones that compose the base of the skull. Basil ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Benzodiazepine Toxicity Since the 1960s, with the development of chlordiazepoxide (Librium) and shortly thereafter diazepam (Valium), benzodiazepines quickly became mainstrea ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bernard Soulier Syndrome Bernard-Soulier syndrome is a rare inherited blood clotting disorder that is characterized by unusually giant platelet cells, thrombocytopenia, and pr ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Beta Blockers Beta-blockers, as a class of drugs, are primarily used to treat cardiovascular diseases and other conditions. Beta-blockers are indicated and have FDA ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bier Block The Bier block, also known as intravenous local anesthesia (IVRA), is a safe, effective, and cost-efficient way to provide short-term anesthesia and a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bilateral Vocal Cord Paralysis Vocal cord paralysis refers to the immobility of a vocal cord, which can be due to pathology of the vocal ford (also known as the vocal fold) itself, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bispectral Index Monitoring the depth of anesthesia is very important during any procedure, as anesthesia that's too deep can cause hemodynamic changes. Anesthesia th ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bleeding Disorders Hereditary bleeding disorders occur due to the absence or deficiency of specific clotting proteins. The three most common hereditary bleeding disorder ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blood Gas Temperature Correction Blood gas temperature correction is an important process to implement when assessing blood gas laboratory values. The laws of physics concerning gas s ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blood Transfusion Blood transfusions are a relatively common medical procedure and while typically safe, there are multiple complications that practitioners need to be ... Read the Article 1.25 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blunt Abdominal Trauma Abdominal trauma caused by blunt force is a common presentation in the emergency room seen in adults and children. The chief cause of blunt abdominal ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bone Marrow Aspiration And Biopsy Bone marrow aspiration and biopsies are often performed both in the inpatient and outpatient settings for the diagnosis of a multitude of hematologic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bowel Perforation Bowel perforation results from insult or injury to the mucosa of the bowel wall caused due to a violation of the closed system. Bowel perforation can ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brachial Plexus Block Techniques Blockade of the brachial plexus is an effective method for providing anesthesia to the upper limb from the shoulder to the fingertips. There are multi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brain Herniation Brain herniation, also called brain code, requires early diagnosis and prompt management in order to prevent irreversible pathological cascades that e ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brain Trauma Brain trauma or traumatic brain injury (TBI) results from a blow, bump, jolt, or penetrating injury to the head that disrupts the normal function of t ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bronchopleural Fistula Bronchopleural fistula (BPF) is a sinus tract between the main stem, lobar, or segmental bronchus and the pleural space. Treatment for BPF ranges from ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bronchoscopy A bronchoscopy is an essential tool for clinicians and health care providers treating patients with lung diseases. Since its introduction to clinical ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bupivacaine Bupivacaine is a potent local anesthetic with unique characteristics from the amide group of local anesthetics. Local anesthetics are used in regional ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Burn Evaluation And Management Burns are injuries of the skin involving the two layers: the thin, outer epidermis and the thicker, deeper dermis. 86% of burns are caused by thermal ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Burn Fluid Management In the United States, approximately 500,000 people seek care for burn injuries each year. For civilians, these injuries are typically sustained in hou ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Burn Resuscitation And Management Severe burns cause not only significant injury at the local burn site but also a systemic response throughout the body. Inflammatory and vasoactive m ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
C1 Fractures The craniocervical junction is comprised of C1 (atlas) and C2 (axis). The occipito-atlantal and atlantoaxial articulations provide 50% of the flexion ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carbon Dioxide Embolism Laparoscopic surgery has gained increasing popularity in clinical practice. As part of laparoscopic surgeries, gas insufflation is usually adopted to ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carbon Dioxide Narcosis Carbon dioxide (CO2) narcosis is a condition that develops when excessive CO2 is present in the bloodstream, leading to a depressed level of conscious ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Arrest As defined by the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology, "(sudden) cardiac arrest is the sudden cessation of cardiac activ ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Risk Assessment This activity reviews the presurgical cardiac risk assessment and highlights the role of the interprofessional team in optimizing presurgical fitness ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Risk Stratification Cardiac Risk Stratification is an essential evaluation among health professionals. In today's world, cardiovascular disease is the number one cause o ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Tamponade Cardiac tamponade is a medical emergency that takes place when abnormal amounts of fluid accumulate in the pericardial sac compressing the heart and l ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema Pulmonary edema refers to the accumulation of excessive fluid in the alveolar walls and alveolar spaces of the lungs. It can be a life-threatening con ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiogenic Shock Cardiogenic shock is a primary cardiac disorder characterized by a low cardiac output state of circulatory failure that results in end-organ hypoperfu ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardioplegia Cardioplegia serves to intentionally and temporarily arrest the heart for myocardial protection during cardiac surgery. This activity describes cardio ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiopulmonary Bypass Cardiopulmonary bypass has become the standard of care for many cardiac procedures. The procedure is relatively safe if the duration of surgery is not ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is a diagnostic modality used to evaluate a patient's functional capacity. The test can provide a wealth of kn ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotid Artery Stenting Traditionally, carotid endarterectomy (CEA) has been the primary method of treating high-grade asymptomatic and symptomatic carotid artery stenosis. A ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotid Artery Surgery Symptoms of extracranial carotid disease are usually caused by embolization. Arterial emboli account for approximately 25 percent of strokes in Europe ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotid Endarterectomy Atherosclerosis can lead to a build-up of plaque in the carotid artery, causing narrowing and carotid artery disease, which increases the risk for cer ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Caudal Anesthesia A caudal block is a type of central neuraxial block, most commonly used in pediatrics to provide analgesia for surgeries up to the umbilicus, and in a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Celiac Plexus Block First described as a method of providing surgical anesthesia to the upper abdomen, the celiac plexus block (CPB) has been utilized in practice for nea ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central Line Central venous catheterization (CVC) is a procedure frequently required in acute or critical care resuscitation. Indications include patients with mul ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central Line Associated Blood Stream Infections A central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) is defined as a laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection not related to an infection at ano ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central Line Placement A central line is a large-bore central venous catheter that is typically placed using a sterile technique unless a patient is unstable, in which case ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central Venous Access of The Subclavian Vein In the United States, more than 5 million central venous catheters are inserted every year in both hospitalized and surgical patients. Once an indicat ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central Venous Catheter Central venous catheter insertion is a common and often, necessary procedure for the care of critically ill patients. Central venous access may be att ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebral Aneurysm Cerebral aneurysms are defined as dilations that occur at weak points along the arterial circulation within the brain. The majority of cerebral aneury ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear protein- and glucose-rich liquid in the subarachnoid space of the central nervous system. It is found in the vent ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Injury Cervical spine injuries, although uncommon, can result in significant and long-term disability. The cervical spine encompasses seven vertebrae and ser ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Plexus Block Superficial cervical plexus block is an easy block that can be performed either using a landmark-based technique or using the ultrasound-based techniq ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chest Tube A chest tube, also known as a thoracostomy tube, is a flexible tube that can be inserted through the chest wall and into the pleural space. This activ ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chlordiazepoxide Chlordiazepoxide is a long-acting benzodiazepine and is an FDA approved medication for adults with mild-moderate to severe anxiety, preoperative anxie ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chloroprocaine Chloroprocaine is an ester class local anesthetic and is indicated for neuraxial anesthesia (caudal, epidural and spinal), as well as peripheral nerve ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chromaffin Cell Cancer Pheochromocytoma is a tumor that arises from chromaffin cells present in the adrenal medulla or paraganglion cells. It can present with vague symptoms ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Chronic obstructive lung disease is a lung disease characterized by lung airflow limitation and can be from exposure to harmful substances. It is a co ... Read the Article 2 31 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Pain Over one-quarter of United States citizens suffer from chronic pain. It is among the most common complaints seen in an outpatient clinic. The failure ... Read the Article 2.5 41 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Pain Syndrome Chronic pain is a leading chief complaint in an adult ambulatory care setting. Unfortunately, chronic non-cancer pain is often poorly understood by ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Pancreatitis Chronic pancreatitis is a progressive inflammatory disorder that leads to irreversible destruction of exocrine and endocrine pancreatic parenchyma cau ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Renal Failure Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined as the presence of kidney damage or an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) less than 60 ml/min per 1.7 ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Circumcision Male circumcision is the surgical removal of the prepuce, or foreskin, that covers the glans of the penis. Over the past decades, cultural changes and ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cisatracurium Cisatracurium besylate is an intermediate-acting, non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking drug (NMBD). Cisatracurium has a benzylisoquinolinium struct ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Claw Hand Ulnar nerve palsy is the loss of sensory and motor function. This can occur after injury to any portion of the ulnar nerve. The ulnar nerve is the ter ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clear Liquid Diet A clear liquid diet is a specific dietary plan that only includes liquids that are fully transparent at room temperature. Some items that may be allow ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clonidine Clonidine is an antihypertensive medication that acts on alpha-adrenergic and imidazoline receptors agonists. Clonidine is an antihypertensive drug th ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Colitis Colitis is an increasingly common condition in which the mucosal lining of the colon becomes acutely or chronically inflamed. Patients with colitis ma ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Complex Ear Lacerations Facial lacerations are a common patient presentation, and the ear presents a unique challenge due to its structure. The ear is particularly susceptibl ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a neuropathic pain disorder defined by the presence of distinct clinical features including allodynia, hypera ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Constrictive-Effusive Pericarditis Constrictive pericarditis involves scarring and loss of elasticity of the pericardium surrounding the heart, leading to impaired filling. Effusive-con ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a type of positive airway pressure that is used to deliver a set pressure to the airways that is maintai ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cordotomy Cordotomy is the name of a surgical procedure aimed at destroying the pain-conducting tracts of the spinal cord. The cordotomy to be effective at decr ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is a major surgical operation where atheromatous blockages in a patient’s coronary arteries are bypassed with h ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Corticosteroid Induced Myopathy Corticosteroid induced myopathy is an iatrogenic myopathy caused by chronic high to moderate systemic corticosteroid use. This is a common condition w ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Craniotomy A craniotomy is a surgical procedure in which a part of the skull is temporarily removed to expose the brain and perform an intracranial procedure. Th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cricothyrotomy Today, the emergency cricothyroidotomy is the surgical rescue technique of choice for the failed airway in adults. It is considered a more straightfor ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Crouzon Syndrome Crouzon syndrome is a genetically inherited syndrome characterized by craniosynostosis (premature fusion of coronal sutures) resulting in the skull an ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cryoanalgesia This activity reviews the role of cryoanalgesia (the use of cold temperatures for analgesia) for pain control, its indications, contraindications and ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Crystalloid Fluids Crystalloid fluids are a subset of intravenous solutions that find frequent use in the clinical setting. Crystalloid fluids are the first-line choice ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Curling Ulcer Stress ulcers is a well-known clinical entity described as stress-induced gastritis or gastropathy where the gastric and sometimes esophageal or duode ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cyanosis Cyanosis is characterized by a blueish discoloration of the skin or mucous membranes. Cyanosis is frequently encountered in clinical practice, and the ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dantrolene Dantrolene sodium is a postsynaptic muscle relaxant with multiple indications in the fields of anesthesiology and neurology. While there are many indi ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Deadly Single Dose Agents Although the basics of evaluating and treating most unknown ingestants are well known, many overdoses require very specific treatment if the patient i ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Decerebrate And Decorticate Posturing Decorticate and decerebrate posturing are abnormal posturing responses typically to noxious stimuli. They involve stereotypical movements of the trunk ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Deep Peroneal Nerve Block The deep peroneal nerve is one of 5 nerves that are often blocked or anesthetized to perform ankle surgery. It can be performed as a regional block an ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Depolarizing Neuromuscular Blocking Drugs Neuromuscular blocking agents are commonly used to paralyze patients requiring intubation whether in an emergency as a life-saving intervention or for ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Desflurane The FDA-approved indications for desflurane are induction or maintenance of anesthesia in adults. It may also be used for maintenance of anesthesia in ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dexmedetomidine The FDA-approved indications for dexmedetomidine are sedation of intubated and mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit (ICU), and ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetes Insipidus Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a disease process that results in either decreased release of or response to antidiuretic hormone (ADH, also known as vasop ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetes Intraoperative Management According to CDC data, the incidence of diabetes in the United States in the year 2015 was 30.3 million and predicted to increase yearly with an alrea ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease of inadequate control of blood levels of glucose. It has many subclassifications, including type 1, type 2, maturi ... Read the Article 1.75 28 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diaphragm Disorders The diaphragm is a vital organ for mammals as it is the primary muscle for respiration. Diaphragmatic paralysis is the loss of its muscular power and ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diaphragm Rupture Diaphragmatic injuries are relatively uncommon, representing less than 1% of traumatic injuries. They are typically considered a marker of severe trau ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Difficult Airway The difficult airway algorithm has been outlined by the American Society of Anesthesiology and provides a basic pathway for difficult intubation. It i ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is a systemic condition characterized by characteristic ossification patterns that can occur in the sp ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Digital Nerve Block Digital nerve block is a simple procedure that can be performed to provide immediate anesthesia for a multitude of injuries and procedures, such as fr ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Digoxin Immune Fab Digoxin immune fab is a medication used in the management and treatment of digoxin toxicity. Most toxicity cases are seen in patients with a past medi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Digoxin Toxicity Digoxin is a cardiac glycoside derived from the foxglove plant (digitalis species). It has inotropic effects and is utilized in the management of syst ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dilated Cardiomyopathy Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a disease of the heart muscle characterized by enlargement and dilation of one or both of the ventricles along with im ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Direct Laryngoscopy Direct laryngoscopy allows visualization of the larynx. It is used during general anesthesia, for surgical procedures of the larynx, and during resusc ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Distributive Shock As is true of the four broad classifications of shock, distributive shock, also known as vasodilatory shock, causes inadequate tissue perfusion. In di ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dopamine Dopamine is a peripheral vasostimulant used to treat low blood pressure, low heart rate, and cardiac arrest. Low infusion rates (0.5 to 2 micrograms/k ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dorsal Penile Nerve Block The dorsal penile nerve block is an effective technique for gaining regional anesthesia of the penis with small volumes of a local anesthetic. The tec ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Double Lumen Endobronchial Tubes A double-lumen tube (DLT) is an endotracheal tube designed to isolate the lungs anatomically and physiologically. Double-lumen tubes (DLTs) are the mo ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Drowning Drowning is defined as a process of experiencing respiratory impairment from submersion/immersion in a liquid medium. To delineate the incident's outc ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Drug Interactions In Palliative Care Drug-drug interactions (DDI) are a significant cause of adverse drug events (ADE) in palliative care. This activity will highlight the mechanism of ac ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dystrophinopathies This activity covers a group of X-linked muscle disorders, with their most recognized pathology being Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), followed by B ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ear Nerve Block Patients frequently present to the emergency department with a variety of external ear complaints ranging from traumatic injuries (lacerations and avu ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Electroconvulsive Therapy In a patient under intravenous sedation or general anesthesia, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) uses an electric current to create a generalized cerebr ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Elevated Hemidiaphragm Elevated hemidiaphragm occurs most commonly from direct or indirect injury to the phrenic nerve. It is often found as an incidental finding on diagnos ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Emergency Room Thoracotomy An emergency room thoracotomy is performed in selected cases of direct thoracic injury concurrently with ACLS/ATLS resuscitation. Survival rates are l ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
EMS Airway Management In Adverse Conditions Managing the airway of the critically ill or injured patient is a core skill in emergency medical care. In addition to difficulties arising from physi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
EMS Pneumothorax The majority of emergency medical service (EMS) providers in the United States have protocols for rapid assessment and treatment of pneumothorax. Ther ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Endocarditis Infective endocarditis is a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality in children and adolescents despite new advantages in management and prophyla ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Endotracheal Tube In its simplest form, the endotracheal tube is a tube constructed of polyvinyl chloride that is placed between the vocal cords through the trachea. It ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Endotracheal Tube Intubation Techniques Endotracheal intubation is an essential resuscitative procedure in the emergency setting. Direct and video laryngoscopy are the two most common approa ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Enflurane Enflurane is a medication used in the induction and maintenance of general anesthetics. It is in the inhaled anesthetics class of drugs. This activit ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ephedrine Ephedrine is a medication used in the management and treatment of clinically significant hypotension. It is in the sympathomimetic class of medication ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidural This activity reviews epidural analgesia and anesthesia and highlights used medications, indications, contraindications, uses, and techniques. It ment ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidural Anesthesia Epidural anesthesia is a technique that may be used as a primary surgical anesthetic or as a resource for postoperative pain management. It is safe an ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidural Blood Patch An epidural blood patch (EBP) is a procedure in which a small volume of autologous blood is injected into a patient's epidural space to stop a leak of ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidural Catheter Epidural catheters are widely used in the surgical, obstetric, and chronic pain settings as they serve as an excellent adjunct or alternative to gener ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidural Hematoma An epidural hematoma (EDH) is an extra-axial collection of blood within the potential space between the outer layer of the dura mater and the inner ta ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidural Morphine Epidural morphine is a medication used for analgesia, as an adjunct to general anesthesia, or as a sole technique for surgical anesthesia. Morphine wa ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidural Steroids Epidural steroids injections (ESI) have been utilized for the treatment of pain due to lumbar disc injuries since the 1950s. They are frequently used ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epiglottitis Epiglottitis is an inflammatory condition of the epiglottis and/or nearby structures including the arytenoids, aryepiglottic folds, and vallecula. Epi ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epinephrine Epinephrine is one of the most commonly used agents in a variety of settings as it functions as medication and hormone. It is currently FDA-approved f ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Erector Spinae Plane Block Erector spinae plane block is a relatively novel approach to pain management for a variety of surgical procedures, as well as for acute and chronic pa ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is a common hematology test that measures how quickly red blood cells settle to the bottom of an elongated tu ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esmolol Esmolol (esmolol hydrochloride) is an intravenous cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic antagonist. Esmolol is used in various settings including urgent c ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophageal Varices Esophageal varices are dilated submucosal distal esophageal veins connecting the portal and systemic circulations. They form due to portal hypertensio ... Read the Article 1.25 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Etomidate Etomidate is an ultrashort-acting, non-barbiturate hypnotic intravenous anesthetic agent. It is administered only by intravenous route. Etomidate has ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Evaluation And Management of Perioperative Hypertension This activity reviews the role of the interprofessional team involved in the perioperative care of patients with hypertension (HTN). These providers i ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Extrapyramidal Symptoms Extrapyramidal side effects (EPS), commonly referred to as drug-induced movement disorders are among the most common adverse drug effects patients exp ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Extubation Extubation is the removal of an endotracheal tube (ETT), which is the last step in liberating a patient from the mechanical ventilator. To discuss the ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Facet Arthritis Facet joints are formed by the articulations of the superior and inferior articular processes of adjacent vertebrae. Except for the atlantooccipital a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Facial Burns Burn injuries are a significant health issue and are a leading cause of accidental death or injury in the U.S. Burns to the face can affect many speci ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Femoral Nerve Block Peripheral nerve blocks inhibit the propagation of impulses in nerve terminals to inhibit the perception of pain by the cerebral cortex. Local anesthe ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Femoral Vein Central Venous Access Venous access can be obtained through the cannulation of peripheral veins, such as the antecubital vein or saphenous vein, or central veins, such as t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fentanyl Transdermal Transdermal Fentanyl is a medication used in the management and treatment of chronic pain and cancer pain. It is part of the opioid class of drugs. Th ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fibrinogen Fibrinogen is a 340kDa hexameric plasma glycoprotein synthesized by the liver and is the major structural component of a clot. The type of fibrinogen ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Flail Chest Flail chest is a traumatic condition of the thorax. It may occur when 3 or more ribs are broken in at least 2 places. It is considered a clinical di ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Flumazenil Flumazenil is a benzodiazepine antagonist. The primary FDA-approved clinical uses for flumazenil include reversal agent for benzodiazepine overdose an ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fosphenytoin Fosphenytoin is a medication used in the management and prevention of seizures. It is a water-soluble phenytoin prodrug with the capability to be used ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Frontal Sinus Fractures Fractures of the frontal sinus are most commonly seen in the emergency department after motor vehicle accidents (MVA's), falls, assaults, falling obje ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
GABA Receptor Positive Allosteric Modulators GABA positive allosteric modulators are medications used in the management and treatment of seizures, sedation, anxiolytic, alcohol withdrawal, and mu ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gaseous Anesthetics Anesthesiologists have several tools for diminishing pain, awareness, movement, and the hemodynamic derangements of stress in the surgical patient. G ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastrointestinal Bleeding Gastrointestinal bleeding can fall into two broad categories: upper and lower sources of bleeding. The anatomic landmark that separates upper and low ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
General Anesthesia for Surgeons The primary goal of general anesthesia is rendering a patient unconscious and unable to feel painful stimuli while controlling autonomic reflexes. The ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizure This activity reviews generalized tonic-clonic seizures. A generalized tonic-clonic seizure, formerly known as grand mal seizure, is defined as a seiz ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glasgow Coma Scale The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is used to objectively describe the extent of impaired consciousness in all types of acute medical and trauma patients. T ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Globe Rupture Globe rupture is a vision-threatening emergency. It is essential that clinicians have a high index of suspicion for globe rupture when treating patien ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glottic Stenosis Glottic stenosis describes a narrowing of the portion of the larynx containing the vocal cords and glottic opening, otherwise known as the glottis. Gl ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glycopyrrolate Glycopyrrolate, also known as glycopyrronium, is an anticholinergic drug. Glycopyrrolate has been widely used as a preoperative medication to inhibit ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Halo Brace The halo vest immobilizer (halo brace) device is the most rigid form of external immobilization of the upper cervical spine to date. Indications for i ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Halothane Toxicity Halothane is a medication previously used for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia. After its large impact on medicine and anesthesia speci ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemolytic Transfusion Reaction Hemolytic transfusion reactions are one possible complication from transfusions. Hemolysis is the rupture of red blood cells, and can occur intravascu ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemorrhagic Shock Shock refers to the inadequate perfusion of tissues due to the imbalance between oxygen demand of tissues and the body’s ability to supply it. Classic ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemothorax Hemothorax is a collection of blood in the space between the visceral and parietal pleura (pleural space). The clinical findings in such patients incl ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Heparin Induced Thrombocytopenia Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a severe complication that can occur in patients exposed to any form or amount of heparin products. A fall i ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Heroin Heroin, also known as diacetylmorphine, is derived from the opium poppy plant. Professionals initially touted morphine as a substitute with less misus ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
High Flow Nasal Cannula Supplemental oxygen therapy is one of the more commonly prescribed interventions used by clinicians when caring for hypoxic patients acutely. This sup ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
High Frequency Ventilation High-frequency ventilation (HFV) is a type of ventilation that is utilized when conventional ventilation fails. It is a technique where the set respir ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hydralazine Hydralazine is used orally as a therapeutic agent to treat essential hypertension and intravenously to lower blood pressure urgently or emergently. FD ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Evaluation and Treatment Of Cyanide Toxicity Cyanide toxicity occurs commonly in patients with smoke inhalation who have been removed from burning structures. Cyanide forms as a result of incomp ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Related Myopia and Cataract Formation Oxygen has been shown to be harmful to many tissues in the body via the formation of oxygen free radicals through normal metabolic processes. The high ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypercalcemia Calcium is the most abundant cation found in the human body and plays an integral role in neural transmission, enzyme activity, myocardial function, c ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypercarbia Hypercarbia is defined by an increase in carbon dioxide in the bloodstream. Carbon dioxide is a metabolic end-product of normal metabolism, with incre ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperkalemia Hyperkalemia is defined as a serum or plasma potassium level above the upper limits of normal, usually greater than 5.0 mEq/L to 5.5 mEq/L. While mild ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Nonketotic Coma Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome (HHS) is a clinical condition that arises from a complication of diabetes mellitus. Type 2 diabetes accounts for a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypertensive Urgency Hypertensive urgency is a marked elevation in blood pressure without evidence of target organ damage, such as pulmonary edema, cardiac ischemia, neuro ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperthyroidism The thyroid gland is a bilobed structure located in the anterior aspect of the trachea between the cricoid cartilage and the suprasternal notch. Each ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypertonic Fluids Clinicians use hypertonic fluids to increase intravascular fluid volume. Hypertonic saline can be utilized in the treatment of hyponatremia. Hypertoni ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM), historically referred to as idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis, is a relatively common disorde ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyphema Hyphema is the accumulation of red blood cells (RBCs) in the anterior chamber of the eye. By definition, blood must be grossly visible, either on dire ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypocalcemia Disorders of calcium metabolism are frequently encountered. Though hypocalcemia is encountered as frequently as hypercalcemia, it can be potentially l ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypoparathyroidism Parathyroid hormone deficiency, also called hypoparathyroidism, results in hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and increased neuromuscular irritability. ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a type of congenital heart disease that results in the underdevelopment of the left-sided structures of the ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypotension Hypotension is a decrease in systemic blood pressure below accepted low values. While there is not an accepted standard hypotensive value, pressures l ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypothermia Accidental hypothermia occurs when the body dissipates more heat than it absorbs or creates, leaving the body unable to generate sufficient heat to ma ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypovolemic Shock Patients with hypovolemic shock have severe hypovolemia with decreased peripheral perfusion. If left untreated, these patients can develop ischemic in ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypoxic Brain Injury The brain consumes a significant amount of energy compared to its weight and size. The term "anoxia" refers to the complete lack of oxygen delivery to ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Iatrogenic Pneumothorax Pneumothorax is gas in the pleural space. This condition can present in one of three ways: spontaneous (primary), secondary, and traumatic. This activ ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a lung disorder where there is scarring of the lungs from an unknown cause. It is usually a progressive disease ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Idioventricular Rhythm Idioventricular rhythm is a slow regular ventricular rhythm with a rate of less than 50 bpm, absence of P waves, and a prolonged QRS interval. When th ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ilioinguinal Neuralgia Ilioinguinal neuralgia is a frequent cause of pain in the lower abdomen and the upper thigh and is commonly caused by entrapment or injury of the nerv ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Immediate Hypersensitivity Reactions Hypersensitivity reactions are exaggerated or inappropriate immunologic responses occuring in response to an antigen or allergen. Type I, II, and III ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Induction of Labor There are indications for late preterm, early term, late term, and post-term inductions depending on a patient's obstetrical and medical history. Obst ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Infraclavicular Nerve Block The infraclavicular block is a regional anesthetic technique developed to avoid the side effects and complications of supraclavicular blocks, particul ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Infraorbital Nerve Block Nerve blocks are useful for providing anesthesia to a specific area of the body. Regional nerve blocks offer many advantages over local tissue infiltr ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Inhalation Injury Inhalation injury is a broad term that includes pulmonary exposure to a wide range of chemicals in various forms including smoke, gases, vapors, or fu ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Inhalational Anesthetic Inhalation anesthetics (nitrous oxide, halothane, isoflurane, desflurane, sevoflurane most commonly used agents in practice today) are used for induct ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Inotropes And Vasopressors Vasopressors and inotropes are medications used to create vasoconstriction or increase cardiac contractility, respectively, in patients with shock. Th ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intercostal Nerve Block An intercostal nerve block is simple to perform and useful for pain management, either as a primary intervention or as an adjunct. In particular, inte ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intercostal Neuralgia Intercostal neuralgia encompasses any painful condition of the intercostal nerves. There are a variety of causes of intercostal neuralgia which cause ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Interlaminar Epidural Injection Interlaminar epidural injection refers to a procedure that involves the delivery of injectate to the epidural space by directing a needle between the ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Internal Jugular Vein Central Venous Access If an ultrasound machine is not immediately available and central venous access via the right jugular vein is required, a simple three-finger techniqu ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Internal Jugular Vein Thrombosis Internal jugular vein thrombosis occurs when a thrombus develops in the lumen of the internal jugular vein (IJV). Hereditary and acquired risk factors ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Interpleural Analgesia The interpleural analgesic technique was first described by Reiestad et al. for the treatment of acute postoperative pain. It is believed that this te ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Interscalene Block An interscalene nerve block anesthetizes most of the territory innervated by the brachial plexus, sparing the inferior trunk. This block is generally ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump This activity reviews the indications and contraindications of intra-aortic balloon pump in the patients with cardiogenic shock secondary to various c ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intracranial Hypertension Intracranial hypertension is a spectrum of neurological disorders where cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure within the skull is elevated. Normal CSF pr ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intracranial Hypotension Intracranial hypotension (ICH) is defined as a CSF pressure less than 60 mm H2O and generally causes a postural headache in patients with the conditio ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intracranial Pressure Monitoring This activity outlines the current recommendations for ICP monitoring and reviews the role of current invasive and noninvasive methods of monitoring. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intraoperative Echocardiography Although transesophageal ultrasound was first reported in the 1970s, the advent of phased array transducers and flexible transesophageal probes in the ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring Different intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring techniques assess the function of the brain, brainstem, spinal cord, cranial nerves, and periph ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intrathecal Catheter The placement of an intrathecal catheter is a minimally invasive procedure aimed at releasing drugs directly into the subarachnoid space for the contr ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intrathecal Delivery System Intrathecal drug delivery systems are typically used for three main purposes, which are the treatment of chronic non-malignant pain, muscle spasticity ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intrathecal Morphine Morphine is an opioid administered for acute and chronic pain conditions. The advantage of intrathecal (IT) morphine over intravenous (IV), oral (PO), ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intubation Endotracheal Tube Medications Mastering the skill of endotracheal intubation to secure airway plays a critical role in many settings such as pre-hospital environments, emergency ro ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Inverse Ratio Ventilation Inverse ratio ventilation (IRV) is an alternative strategy for mechanical ventilation that reverses the classical inspiratory/expiratory paradigm. Thi ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Isoflurane Isoflurane is a volatile anesthetic that is approved by the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia. ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ketamine Ketamine (ketamine hydrochloride) has been approved for use in general anesthesia either alone or in combination with other medications. It is a super ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ketamine In Acute and Chronic Pain Management Acute and chronic pain remain important health problems both in the United States and worldwide. With the rise in the prevalence of many chronic degen ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ketamine Toxicity Ketamine is a structural analog of the dissociative anesthetic and recreational drug phencyclidine (PCP). Similar to phenylcyclidine, ketamine causes ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Labyrinthectomy Labyrinthectomy is performed to treat intractable vertigo. It ablates the abnormal signals from a diseased vestibular system in order to facilitate ce ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lactic Acidosis Lactic acid is produced in physiologically normal processes, and as a common finding in disease states. When increased production is comorbid with dec ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure used for the removal of a diseased gallbladder. Since the early 1990s, this te ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Laryngeal Fracture A laryngeal fracture requires a considerable impact force. The most common cause of laryngeal trauma is a motor vehicle accident or sports injury, fol ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Laryngeal Mask Airway Laryngeal mask airways (LMA) are supraglottic airway devices. They may be used as a temporary method to maintain an open airway during the administrat ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Laryngotracheal Stenosis Laryngotracheal stenosis (LTS) is a narrowing of the upper airway between the larynx and the trachea with potentially devastating consequences, includ ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Latex Allergy Latex comes from a sap found in rubber trees, Hevea brasiliensis, which is used to make many products used today. It is allergenic and causes symptoms ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lidocaine Lidocaine is a local anesthetic agent that is commonly used for local and topic anesthesia, but which also has antiarrhythmic and analgesic uses and c ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lipid Emulsion Therapy Lipid emulsion therapy is a medication used in the management and treatment of Local anesthetic toxicity. This activity reviews the indications, actio ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Liposuction Liposuction represents a well-described and popular surgical procedure used to reduce localized amounts of adipose tissue in certain regions of the bo ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Liver Transplantation Cirrhosis and decompensated liver disease were the ninth leading cause of death for males in 2016 in the United States. Liver transplantation (LT) is ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lobectomy The anatomic resection of an entire lobe of a lung is called a lobectomy. It is usually done with the help of the video scope and with less than 8 cm ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Local Anesthetic Toxicity Local anesthetics are commonly used in most medical and dental practice. While adverse effects are rare, the rising prevalence of local anesthetics in ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Low Molecular Weight Heparin (LMWH) Low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs), for example, dalteparin, enoxaparin, among others, are anticoagulants. These drugs are used in the prophylaxis ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lower Extremity Blocks The lumbosacral plexus (L1 to S4 nerve roots) innervates the lower extremity. Unlike the brachial plexus in the upper extremity, the lumbosacral plexu ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ludwig Angina Ludwig's angina is life-threatening cellulitis of the soft tissue involving the floor of the mouth and neck. It involves two compartments on the floor ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lumbar Disc Herniation Low back pain is a prevalent symptom, as approximately 80 % of the population sustains an episode once in their lifetime. Within the many differential ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lumbar Facet Arthropathy The lumbar zygapophysial joint, otherwise known as facet joint, is a common generator of lower back pain. The facet joint is formed via the posterolat ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lumbar Plexus Block Regional anesthesia techniques are powerful tools for postoperative pain management that have shown to reduce perioperative opioid consumption, Increa ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lumbar Puncture The lumbar puncture is a diagnostic procedure in the diagnosis of meningitis, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and certain neurological disorders. It is also ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lumbar Sympathetic Block The autonomic nervous system consists of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions. As the name implies, the lumbar sympathetic block can be utili ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lumbar Sympatholysis Lumbar sympatholysis can be an effective treatment for individuals suffering from chronic pain in the lower extremity as a result of numerous etiologi ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lumbosacral Facet Syndrome Low back pain is one of the most common musculoskeletal complaints encountered in clinical practice. It is the leading cause of disability in the deve ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lung Isolation Anesthesia Lung isolation involves the utilization of bronchial barrier devices to separate the lungs enabling each lung to function as a separate unit. Lung iso ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lung Perfusion Scan A ventilation-perfusion (VQ) scan is a diagnostic test using radioisotopes to evaluate lung perfusion and ventilation. Its most common clinical use is ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Malignant Hypertension Malignant hypertension is a term that has been used to describe patients with elevated blood pressure (BP) and multiple complications with poor progno ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Malignant Hyperthermia Malignant Hyperthermia (MH) is a hereditary disorder of skeletal muscle that classically presents as a hypermetabolic response to halogenated anesthet ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mannitol Mannitol can be used for the reduction of intracranial pressure and brain mass, to reduce intraocular pressure if this is not achievable by other mean ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Massive Transfusion Massive transfusion is traditionally defined as transfusion of 10 units of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) within a 24 hour period. The goal of massive ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Maxillary Sinus Fracture Maxillary sinus fractures (MSFs) are most commonly caused by blunt force trauma to the face. Depending on the magnitude and location of the direct inj ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mechanical Ventilation Although mechanical ventilation can be a complex and seemingly elusive topic, expectations are that healthcare professionals who deal with critically ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Median Nerve Block Techniques A median nerve block is a simple, safe, and effective method of obtaining anesthesia to the palmar aspect of the thumb, index finger, middle finger, r ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Median Nerve Injury This activity reviews the evaluation and treatment of an injury to the median nerve and highlights the role of the healthcare team in managing patien ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mediastinal Trauma The mediastinum is contained within the thoracic cavity and has a high concentration of major vascular and visceral structures. Traumatic injury to an ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mediastinoscopy Mediastinoscopy is a thoracic surgical procedure performed with a mediastinoscope to examine the mediastinum— the space in the thoracic cavity between ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mendelson Syndrome The standard use of regional anesthesia for most laboring women and increased awareness among anesthesia providers regarding high risk of aspiration ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mental Nerve Block The mental nerve supplies sensation to the lower teeth, the skin over the chin and lower lip, and the buccal mucosa. Mental nerve blocks allow for exc ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Meperidine Meperidine is in the class of phenylpiperidine as a hydrochloride salt synthetic form of the opioid. Meperidine is used for the treatment of moderate ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Methemoglobinemia Methemoglobinemia is a condition with life-threatening potential in which diminution of the oxygen-carrying capacity of circulating hemoglobin occurs ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Methohexital Methohexital is a medication used in anesthesia for sedation. It is in the barbiturate class of medications. This activity outlines the indications, a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Methylene Blue Methylene blue is a medication used in the management and treatment of methemoglobinemia, a condition in which hemoglobin decreases its ability to car ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Metoclopramide Metoclopramide has been approved by the FDA specifically to treat nausea and vomiting in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease or diabetic gas ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Midazolam Intravenous midazolam is used for the induction of anesthesia and also in the management of acute seizures. Because of its water-soluble nature, midaz ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mitral Stenosis Mitral stenosis (MS) is a form of valvular heart disease characterized by narrowing of the mitral valve orifice. The most common cause of mitral steno ... Read the Article 2 34 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mitral Valve Repair Mitral valve repair is commonly used to treat mitral valve pathology due to mitral regurgitation. Mitral regurgitation (MR) is classified as primary o ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOI) Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a separate class from other antidepressants, treating different forms of depression as well as other nervous ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Morphine FDA-approved usage of morphine sulfate includes moderate to severe pain that may be acute or chronic. Most commonly used in pain management, morphine ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Multifocal Atrial Tachycardia Multifocal atrial tachycardia (MAT) is a supraventricular tachycardia resulting in a rapid, irregular atrial rhythm that is caused by multiple ectopic ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Myasthenia Gravis Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder affecting the neuromuscular junction. It manifests as a generalized muscle weakness which can involve the ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nalbuphine Nalbuphine is FDA indicated for moderate to severe pain in which an opioid agent is required when other alternative treatments have been insufficient. ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Naloxone Over the past two decades, the rate of overdose from opiates has increased significantly. Opiate misuse is associated with enormous morbidity and mort ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Napalm Toxicity Napalm is a weaponized mixture of chemicals designed to create a highly flammable and gelatinous liquid. Detonation then occurs by various explosive ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nasal Fracture Reduction Nasal bony fractures are the most common type of facial bone fractures, representing 40 to 50 percent of cases. Nasal fractures are commonly associate ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nasopharyngeal Airway A nasopharyngeal airway device (NPA) is a hollow plastic or soft rubber tubes that a healthcare provider can utilize to assist with patient oxygenatio ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nasotracheal Intubation Nasotracheal intubation (NTI) involves passing an endotracheal tube through the naris into the nasopharynx and the trachea; most commonly after induct ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neck Trauma The management of neck trauma can be challenging and sometimes overwhelming, as this anatomical region contains many vital structures. These structure ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Needlestick Needlestick injuries are frequent occurrences in healthcare settings and can lead to serious complications. While the introduction of universal precau ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neonatal Anesthesia Neonatal anesthesia requires a unique knowledge of neonatal physiology, which is different than the physiology of older infants, children, or adults. ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neonatal Seizure Neonatal seizures are a commonly encountered neurologic condition in neonates. They are defined as the occurrence of sudden, paroxysmal, abnormal alte ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neostigmine Neostigmine is water-soluble, an ionized compound that reversibly inhibits the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. Its FDA indication is for the reversal of ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nerve Block Anesthesia The purpose of peripheral nerve blocks is to inhibit impulse transmission distally in a nerve terminal, thus terminating the pain signal perceived by ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nerve Stimulation Chronic pain conditions, including low back pain, neck pain, and neuropathic pain states like chronic regional pain syndrome, causalgia, and diabetic ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neurapraxia Neurapraxia is the mildest form of peripheral nerve injury commonly induced by focal demyelination or ischemia. In neurapraxia, the conduction of nerv ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neuraxial Neurolysis Neurolysis is the application of chemical or physical agents to a nerve to cause a temporary or permanent degeneration of targeted nerve fibers. When ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neurogenic Pulmonary Edema Neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) is a clinical condition arises as acute respiratory distress taking place in conjunction with severe neurological dam ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neurogenic Shock Neurogenic shock, also known as vasogenic shock, is a devastating consequence of spinal cord injury (SCI) that can manifest as hypotension, bradyarrhy ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a life-threatening syndrome associated with the use of dopamine-receptor antagonist medications or with rapid ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neurolytic Blocks A neurolytic block is the targeted destruction of a nerve or nerve plexus. Frequently, the term neuroablation is used to also describe the physical in ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neuromuscular Blocking Agents The widespread use of neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBA) was a significant milestone in the development of anesthesia. Before the introduction of N ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nicotinic Ganglionic Blocker Mecamylamine is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension. It is in the nicotinic ganglion blocker class of drugs. This activi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nitric Oxide Nitric oxide is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypoxic respiratory failure or persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn ( ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nitrous Oxide Nitrous oxide is an odorless, colorless, non-flammable gas. While nitrous oxide is not flammable, it will support combustion to the same extent as ox ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a broad term used to cover a spectrum of conditions which are characterized by evidence of hepatic steato ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Noncardiogenic Pulmonary Edema Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema is a disease process that results in acute hypoxia secondary to a rapid deterioration in respiratory status. The diseas ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Non-depolarizing Neuromuscular Blockers Non-depolarizing neuromuscular blockers (nNMBs) are administered as primary therapy in facilitating endotracheal intubations and adjuvant therapy in t ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nondepolarizing Paralytics Non-depolarizing, neuromuscular blocking drugs (NMBDs) work by competing with acetylcholine (Ach) for binding sites on nicotinic alpha subunits. They ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Normal Saline Fluid therapy is a critical component of the clinical management of patients. It consists of colloid therapy as well as crystalloid therapy. The most ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Obstructive Sleep Apnea Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by episodes of complete collapse of the airway or partial collapse with an associated decrease in oxyge ... Read the Article 1.5 22 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Oculocardiac Reflex The oculocardiac reflex (OCR), also known as the Aschner reflex or trigeminovagal reflex (TVR), was first described in 1908 as a reduction in heart ra ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ommaya Reservoir Ommaya reservoir is a ventricular access device with an intraventricular catheter system for the purpose of chronic access to the intrathecal space. O ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Opioid Anesthesia Opioids have had a wide range of uses in medicine throughout history. However, they have fallen under scrutiny in recent history due to the opioid cri ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Opioid Equivalency Opioids are often prescribed for cancer-related pain and moderate-to-severe chronic pain, especially pain that is inadequately controlled with non-opi ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Opioid Overdose One very common reason why patients seek medical care is for pain. Today, there are many ways to relieve pain, and one of them is with the use of opia ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Opioid Toxicity Opioids and opiates together comprise a class of medications widely used primarily to control severe pain. If first-line agents are not effective in c ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Opioid-induced Endocrinopathy Hormone replacement therapy is a mainstay of treatment for those suffering from opioid-induced endocrinopathy (OIE), which can have a significant impa ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Optic Nerve Decompression Optic nerve sheath decompression, more commonly known as optic nerve sheath fenestration (ONSF), is a surgical procedure performed to decompress the o ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Oral Hypoglycemic Medications The most effective management of diabetes mellitus demands an interprofessional approach involving both lifestyle modifications with diet and exercise ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Organophosphate Toxicity Most patients exposed to organophosphates come into contact with insecticides. The first organophosphate insecticide was created in the mid-1800s but ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Oropharyngeal Airway Acute respiratory failure is caused by a wide range of etiologies. Progression to cardiopulmonary arrest and ultimately death is likely in the absenc ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pain Assessment There are multiple tools used to help assess a patient's pain. These tools can be used to assess multiple types of pain, ranging from nociceptive pain ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Parkland Formula Early and aggressive fluid resuscitation plays a fundamental role in the management of severe burn patients. The Parkland formula is the most widely u ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pathologic Fractures Pathologic fractures occur secondary to altered skeletal physiology and mechanics in the setting of a benign or malignant lesion. Proper diagnosis, st ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Patient Controlled Analgesia Patient-controlled analgesia is used to treat acute, chronic, postoperative, and labor pain. A variety of medications can be used for patient-controll ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pectoralis Nerve Block The pectoral nerve (Pecs) block I and II are a novel technique to block the pectoral nerves, intercostal nerves 3 to 6, intercostobrachial nerves, and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pediatric Bronchospasm Bronchospasm involves the constriction of the smooth muscle layers of the small airways. If left untreated, bronchospasm can progress to respiratory d ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pediatric Facial Trauma Pediatric facial trauma includes blunt and penetrating trauma to the structures of the face in patients ages less than 18 years. This article primaril ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pediatric Preoperative Management The preoperative management of anesthesia in children differs from that in adults. These differences include employing cognitive and age-appropriate l ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pediatric Tracheostomy Tracheostomy has been increasingly performed in children with complex medical conditions for the management of upper airway obstruction, prolonged ven ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pelvic Fracture A pelvic fracture involves damage to the hip bones, sacrum, or coccyx - the bony structures forming the pelvic ring. Due to the inherent structural an ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Penetrating Abdominal Trauma Penetrating abdominal trauma is most commonly caused by stabbing or gunshot wound. The most commonly injured regions are the small bowel, large bowel, ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Penetrating Groin Trauma Penetrating groin trauma is an infrequent yet complex injury that requires quick identification, evaluation, and treatment in the emergency department ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Penetrating Head Trauma Penetrating brain injury (PBI) is a significant cause of mortality in young individuals. PBI encompasses all traumatic brain injuries other than blunt ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pentobarbital Pentobarbital is a medication used in the management and treatment of several medical conditions including seizures, intracranial pressure control, in ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Peptic Ulcer Perforated Peptic ulcer disease refers to an insult to the mucosa of the upper digestive tract resulting in ulceration that extends beyond the mucosa and into th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Percutaneous Central Catheter The ability to obtain venous access in the inpatient and outpatient setting is one of the most fundamental, yet, crucial components for a large number ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Percutaneous Liver Biopsy Percutaneous liver biopsy is a procedure in which a needle is introduced through the skin and, eventually liver tissue to obtain a specimen to help ai ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) also called percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a minimally invasive procedure to open b ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pericardiocentesis Pericardiocentesis is a procedure performed to remove pericardial fluid from the pericardial sac that surrounds the myocardium. It is often performed ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Perimortem Cesarean The perimortem cesarean section, as described in its name, is the surgical delivery of the fetus, performed during or near the time of death of the mo ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Periodic Limb Movement Disorder Sleep-related movement disorders are an important group of sleep diseases encountered commonly in clinical practice that requires thorough evaluation ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Perioperative Acute Kidney Injury Perioperative acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common yet under-recognized problem that increases mortality, morbidity, and increases the cost of hospit ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Perioperative Anticoagulation Management Management of perioperative anticoagulation requires an interprofessional approach to determine the duration and discontinuation of temporary interrup ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Perioperative Cardiac Management The importance of the appropriate perioperative cardiac management in non-cardiac surgery lies in the high number of surgical procedures performed eac ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Peripheral Magnetic Stimulation Peripheral magnetic stimulation (PMS) or so-called transcutaneous magnetic stimulation is a noninvasive method of delivering a rapidly pulsed, high-in ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Peripheral Nerve Blocks Recent advances in surgical techniques and the development of a greater number of minimally invasive procedures have led to an increase in outpatient ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Peripheral Nerve Stimulator Peripheral nerve stimulation is an emerging field in adjunctive analgesic therapies. This activity reviews the indications, contraindications, and tec ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Peripheral Neurolytic Blocks Peripheral nerve neuralgia or peripheral neuropathic pain may result from damage of a nerve due to various etiologies including medical conditions suc ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Peripheral Vascular Bypass Peripheral vascular bypass (PVB) refers to surgical revision of blood flow to restore perfusion distal to an occluded or otherwise disrupted arterial ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Permissive Hypotension Permissive hypotension is the act of maintaining a blood pressure lower than physiologic levels in a patient that has suffered from a hemorrhagic bloo ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Phantom Limb Pain Phantom limb pain is the perception of pain or discomfort in a limb that is no longer there. PLP most commonly presents as a sequela of amputation. Th ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Phencyclidine Toxicity Phencyclidine (PCP) is a dissociative anesthetic that is a commonly used recreational drug. PCP is a crystalline powder that can be ingested orally, i ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Phenol Nerve Block It was not until 1926 that the use of phenol as a neurolytic agent was described by Doppler et al., followed by a description of intrathecal injection ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Phenoxybenzamine Phenoxybenzamine is a medication used in the management and treatment of paroxysmal hypertension and sweating resulting from pheochromocytoma. It is i ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Phenylephrine The FDA-approved indication for intravenous (IV) phenylephrine hydrochloride is for increasing blood pressure in adults with clinically significant hy ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Piriformis Injection Piriformis syndrome is an infrequent cause of entrapment neuropathy. A diagnosis of exclusion, piriformis syndrome occurs secondary compression or en ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Placental Abruption Placental abruption is the early separation of the placenta from the lining of the uterus before the completion of the second stage of labor. It is on ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Platelet Transfusion Platelet transfusion is a lifesaving procedure that is carried out to prevent bleeding or stop ongoing bleeding in patients with low platelet count or ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pneumocephalus Pneumocephalus, also known as pneumatocele or intracranial aerocele, is defined as the presence of air in the intracranial space. Pneumocephalus can o ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pneumocystis Jiroveci Pneumonia Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia (PCP), now referred to as Pneumocystis Jirovecii Pneumonia is a fungal infection that most commonly affects the immunoc ... Read the Article 2.25 39 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pneumonectomy A pneumonectomy is an invasive procedure used as a management option for patients with advanced malignant and non-malignant lung disease. Proper patie ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pneumothorax A pneumothorax is a collection of air outside the lung but within the pleural cavity. It occurs when air accumulates between the parietal and visceral ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Polymyxin Polymyxins are a class of medications used in the management and treatment of systemic infections caused by susceptible strains of multidrug-resistant ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Polytraumatized Patient Polytrauma is when a patient has sustained multiple injuries, some of which may cause significant disability and may be life-threatening. Worldwide th ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Portacaval Shunt With the advent of transjugular intrahepatic shunting procedures and less invasive techniques as sclerotherapy, portacaval shunt procedures have decre ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Positive End-Expiratory Pressure Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is a value that can be set up in patients receiving invasive or non-invasive mechanical ventilation. This acti ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Positive Pressure Ventilation Positive pressure ventilation describes the process of either using a mask or, more commonly, a ventilator to deliver breaths and to decrease the work ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Post Intubation Laryngeal Edema Post intubation laryngeal edema is common after endotracheal intubation and clinically manifests after extubation. Though most cases of post-intubatio ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postdural Puncture Headache Postdural puncture headache is a potential complication of a lumbar puncture, with symptoms caused by traction on pain-sensitive structures from low c ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Post-op Urinary Retention Postoperative urinary retention is the inability to urinate after a surgical procedure despite having a full bladder. It is a relatively common compli ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postoperative Delirium Post-operative delirium (POD) can occur from anywhere between 10 minutes after anesthesia up until discharge from the hospital. It is commonly recogni ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postoperative Fever Postoperative fever is defined as a temperature higher than 38 C (or greater than 100.4 F) on two consecutive postoperative days or higher than 39 C ( ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postoperative Nausea Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a common occurrence following anesthesia and leads to patient dissatisfaction and discomfort. In certain s ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postoperative Pain Control Postoperative pain is experienced by the vast majority of patients who undergo surgical procedures. Control of postoperative pain plays an essential r ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Prazosin Prazosin is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension, benign prostatic hyperplasia, PTSD associated nightmares, and Raynaud p ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Premature Rupture Of Membranes Premature rupture of membranes (PROM) is the rupture of gestational membranes prior to the onset of labor. When membrane rupture occurs before 37 wee ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Preoperative Antibiotic Prophylaxis Preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis is the administration of antibiotics before performing surgery to help decrease the risk of postoperative infectio ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pressure Support Ventilation management is an ever growing and changing the environment in which medical professionals, through positive patient outcomes can determine ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pressure Support Ventilation Pressure support ventilation (PSV) is a common ventilator setting for both invasive and non-invasive ventilation. Healthcare workers involved in the c ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Procaine Procaine is a medication used for analgesia before a procedural intervention. It is in the local anesthetics class of drugs. This activity reviews the ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Procedural Sedation Procedural sedation permits the safe performance of procedures that a patient cannot tolerate in the fully conscious state. Through this activity, th ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Promethazine Promethazine is a medication used in the management and treatment of allergic conditions, nausea and vomiting, motion sickness, and sedation. It also ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Propofol Toxicity Propofol is a phenol derivative administered intravenously that is commonly used for sedation and in general anesthesia. The most common formulation ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Protamine Protamine is a medication used to reverse and neutralize the anticoagulant effects of heparin. Protamine is the specific antagonist that neutralizes ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Prothrombin Complex Concentrate Prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) comes from the process of ion-exchange chromatography from the cryoprecipitate supernatant of large plasma pools ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Provocative Discography Provocative discography is an invasive diagnostic spine procedure that involves the administration of contrast into the nucleus pulposus of an interve ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pseudocholinesterase Deficiency Pseudocholinesterase deficiency, also known as butyrylcholinesterase deficiency, refers to a rare acquired or inherited defect in the pseudocholineste ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pudendal Nerve Block A pudendal nerve block is a method utilized to diagnose and treat pudendal neuralgia. The pudendal nerve block is also commonly used as a regional ane ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pudendal Neuralgia Pudendal neuralgia (PN) is a chronic pelvic pain syndrome that originates from damage or irritation to the pudendal nerve. Few providers examine speci ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulmonary Artery Catheterization Pulmonary artery catheterization is a diagnostic procedure in which an intravascular catheter is inserted through a central vein, such as the femoral, ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulmonary Contusion Pulmonary contusions are lung injuries commonly sustained during cases of blunt chest trauma. These traumatic lung injuries result in impaired gas exc ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulsus Paradoxus Pulsus paradoxus refers to a systolic pressure drop greater than 10mmHg during inspiration. Pulsus paradoxus results from alterations in the mechanica ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pyloric Stenosis Pyloric stenosis, also known as infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS), is an uncommon condition in infants characterized by abnormal thickeni ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Quadratus Lumborum Block Healthcare providers have used many regional, anesthetic modalities to provide analgesia for the thorax, abdomen, and pelvis. While each of these moda ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radial Artery Cannulation Arterial lines placement is for real-time monitoring of blood pressures and arterial blood sampling in critically ill patients or those undergoing com ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ranchos Los Amigos The Rancho Los Amigos Scale (RLAS), also known as the Ranchos Scale, is a widely accepted medical scale used to describe the cognitive and behavioral ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Injury Recurrent laryngeal nerve injuries are a common cause of vocal cord paresis and resulting in voice changes or hoarseness. The etiology, history, and m ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Refractory Hypoxemia and Venovenous ECMO Refractory hypoxemia is a common problem encountered in patients on mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory failure. Acute respiratory distress s ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Regional Anesthetic Blocks A regional block is a specific anesthetic technique that inhibits nerve transmission to avoid or relieve pain. This activity reviews the indications, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Respiratory Acidosis Respiratory acidosis typically occurs due to failure of ventilation and accumulation of carbon dioxide. The primary disturbance is an elevated arteria ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Respiratory Distress Syndrome Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a common condition which is caused by pulmonary and extra-pulmonary pathologies, and it carries high rat ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Respiratory Failure Respiratory failure happens when the respiratory system fails to maintain gas exchange and is classified into type 1 and type 2 according to blood gas ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Restrictive Lung Disease The purpose of this article is to serve as a brief review of the restrictive lung diseases. The topic is vast, and here, we have provided a concise re ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Retrobulbar Block The retrobulbar block, initially described in 1884, had been widely referred to as the "gold standard" in ophthalmological surgery for many years. Tho ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Retrograde Cardioplegia To ensure the protection of the heart during cardiopulmonary bypass, administration and even distribution of cardioplegia solution to the myocardium i ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Retroperitoneal Hematoma Retroperitoneal hematoma describes a heterogeneous condition that may arise spontaneously, as a result of trauma or iatrogenically. It is associated w ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rheumatoid Arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disorder of the joints characterized by inflammatory arthritis as well as extra-articular involvement. It c ... Read the Article 1.75 25 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Right Bundle Branch Block Right bundle branch block (RBB) is an electrocardiogram finding resulting in a widened QRS and electrocardiographic vector changes. Although usually ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rocuronium Rocuronium is a non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocker which is widely used to produce muscle relaxation to help facilitate surgery and ventilation of ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ropivacaine Ropivacaine is FDA-approved for surgical anesthesia and acute pain management. It is used in an epidural block for surgery—such as cesarean sections. ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rotator Cuff Tendonitis Rotator cuff tendonitis is an inflammation of the tendons that make up the rotator cuff, i.e., supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sacroiliac Joint Injection Sacroiliac (SI) joint pain is a common etiology of low back pain. Studies have shown that 10 to 27 percent of mechanical low back pain is secondary to ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Saddle Anesthetic Block Saddle block anesthesia is the mainstay method of anesthesia for numerous surgical procedures. It is the desired procedure owing to its simplicity and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Saphenous Nerve Block The saphenous nerve block is widely used in both emergency and perioperative settings for procedural anesthesia and post-procedural pain management. T ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Saphenous Vein Cutdown The establishment of venous access is essential to the treatment and resuscitation of both the medically and traumatically ill patient. Adequate venou ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Scalp Catheterization Peripheral venous access is a key need for resuscitating patients of all ages. An ideal site for venous catheterization is one that is easy to access ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sciatic Nerve Block The sciatic nerve supplies the vast majority of motor and sensory function to the lower limb. Regional anesthetic blockade of the sciatic nerve can be ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Scopolamine Scopolamine is a medication used in the management and treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and motion sickness. It is in the anticho ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Seat Belt Injuries Although seatbelts have prevented numerous deaths by reducing head injuries, they can cause damage via the transmission of force upon impact associate ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Seizure A seizure represents the uncontrolled, abnormal electrical activity of the brain that may cause changes in the level of consciousness, behavior, memor ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sellick Maneuver Cricoid pressure is a technique that has become part of rapid sequence intubation to prevent aspiration of gastric contents. The technique has limited ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sengstaken-Blakemore Tube In 1950 Robert W. Sengstaken and Arthur H. Blakemore recognized that the introduction of blood banks and the ability to provide patients with large qu ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Septic Shock Sepsis syndromes span a clinical continuum with variable prognosis. Septic shock, the most severe complication of sepsis, carries a high mortality. Se ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Serotonin Syndrome Serotonin syndrome is a potentially life-threatening condition precipitated by the use of serotonergic drugs. It may be a consequence of therapeutic m ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sevoflurane Sevoflurane is a halogenated inhalational anesthetic that is FDA approved for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia in adults and pediat ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Shock Shock is a life-threatening manifestation of circulatory failure. Circulatory shock leads to cellular and tissue hypoxia resulting in cellular death ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Shock Resuscitation At its most basic definition, the term “shock” means that there is a lack of adequate tissue oxygenation throughout the body. Typically, this lack of ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Shoulder Arthrocentesis Technique Shoulder arthrocentesis, also known as shoulder aspiration, is an important skill for interprofessional team members. It can be used for both diagnost ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Single Lung Ventilation Single lung ventilation involves ventilating one lung and letting the other collapse for providing surgical exposure in the thoracic cavity or isolati ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sinus Arrhythmia Sinus arrhythmia is a variation of normal sinus rhythm that characteristically presents with an irregular rate in which the change in the R-R interval ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
SMAS Plication Facelift The SMAS (superficial musculoaponeurotic system) plication technique evolved as a minimally invasive technique to provide an alternative to highly inv ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sodium Channel Blocker Toxicity Medications that act by sodium channel blockade have a wide variety of clinical applications. Broadly they include Vaughn Williams Class 1 antiarrhyth ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sodium Nitroprusside Sodium nitroprusside is a medication used in the management of acute hypertension. It is a potent vasodilator and is administered as an IV infusion wi ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate Sodium polystyrene sulfonate is a medication used in the management and treatment of hyperkalemia. This activity outlines and reviews the indications, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Somatosensory Evoked Potentials Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) have been in use for decades as an integral method of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring for spinal, ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sphenopalatine Ganglion Block The sphenopalatine ganglion is an extracranial parasympathetic ganglion found within the pterygopalatine fossa of the skull. Since it was first descri ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spinal Anesthesia Development of regional anesthesia started with the isolation of local anesthetics, the first being cocaine (the only naturally occurring local anesth ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spinal Cord Compression Spinal cord compression can result from a myriad of both atraumatic and traumatic causes. The spinal column is vulnerable to a variety of compressive ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spinal Cord Stimulation In the middle of the spectrum of increasingly invasive pain treatment modalities, lies spinal cord stimulation (SCS), also referred to as dorsal colum ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spinal Cord Stimulator Implant Spinal cord stimulator implantation is an essential procedure for the treatment of chronic neuropathic pain. In select patient's spinal stimulators ca ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spinal Opioids In Anesthetic Practice Spinal opioids for use in anesthesia offers several advantages to systemic pain management. This occurs mainly through the mechanism of action when pl ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spinal Shock Spinal shock is a result of severe spinal cord injury. It usually requires high-impact, direct trauma that leads to spinal cord injury and spinal shoc ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spirometry Spirometry is one of the most commonly used approaches to test pulmonary function. It measures the volume of exhaled air vs. time. This activity highl ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Splenic Trauma Traumatic injuries of the spleen can be either blunt or penetrating. The management of splenic trauma has become largely non-operative, as non-operati ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Stapedectomy The goal of any stapes procedure is to restore the vibration of fluids within the cochlea; increasing communication secondary to increasing sound ampl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Status Epilepticus Status epilepticus is a neurological emergency requiring immediate evaluation and management to prevent significant morbidity or mortality. Previously ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Stellate Ganglion Blocks Stellate ganglion block (SGB) is used for the treatment of many medical conditions including complex regional pain syndrome and peripheral vascular di ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Strychnine Toxicity Strychnine has been used for years as a medicinal remedy for a broad range of complaints. Strychnine is responsible for inhibiting postsynaptic glycin ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Subcutaneous Emphysema Subcutaneous emphysema is the de novo generation or infiltration of air underneath the dermal layers of skin. The development of subcutaneous air may ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Suboccipital Puncture Suboccipital puncture is a procedure that was developed at the beginning of the last century. It was designed to obtain cerebrospinal fluid for diagno ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Succinylcholine Chloride Succinylcholine chloride is a short-acting depolarizing neuromuscular blockade that is approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sugammadex Sugammadex is a modified gamma-cyclodextrin that is used to reverse steroidal nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking drugs rocuronium and vecuronium. ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Superficial Peroneal Nerve Block The superficial peroneal nerve (superficial fibular nerve) is a mixed nerve that carries sensory information from the anterolateral aspect of the leg ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Superior Vena Cava Syndrome Superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome is a collection of clinical signs and symptoms resulting from either partial or complete obstruction of blood flow t ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Supertrochlear Nerve Block The supratrochlear nerve block is a special procedure, which can be utilized to relieve pain in the mid-forehead region. It can provide anesthesia for ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Supraclavicular Block The supraclavicular block is a regional anesthetic technique used as an alternative or adjunct to general anesthesia or used for postoperative pain co ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Supraglottic Airway Obstruction Supraglottic obstruction is a medical or surgical emergency. It can result in increased work of breathing and respiratory distress and can progress to ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Supraorbital Nerve Block The supraorbital nerve block is a procedure performed to provide immediate localized anesthesia for a multitude of injuries such as complex laceration ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Supraventricular Tachycardia Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is a dysrhythmia originating at or above the atrioventricular (AV) node and is defined by a narrow complex (QRS &lt ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sural Nerve Block The sural nerve block is a regional anesthetic technique used as an alternative or adjunct to general anesthesia for foot and ankle surgery. Periphera ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Surgical Airway Suctioning Airway suctioning refers to the collective measures that are used for clearing the airway of a patient. It involves suctioning, clearing secretions, a ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sympathetic Nerve Block Sympathetic blocks are widely used to treat visceral, ischemic, neuropathic, and sympathetically mediated pain, as well as many other conditions. Most ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Synchronized Intermittent Mandatory Ventilation Synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV) is a type of volume control mode of ventilation. With this mode, the ventilator will deliver a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone ADH release (SIADH) is a condition defined by the unsuppressed release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) fr ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, also known as Gebrochenes-Herz syndrome, transient apical ballooning syndrome, apical ballooning cardiomyopathy, stress-indu ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Targeted Hypothermia Temperature Management Targeted temperature management aims to reduce mortality and improve neurological outcomes in unresponsive patients who achieve ROSC after cardiac arr ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tension Pneumothorax Pneumothorax is when air collects in between the parietal and viscera pleurae resulting in lung collapse. It can happen secondary to trauma (traumatic ... Read the Article 1.75 28 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Terazosin Terazosin is a medication used in the management and treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia as well as essential hypertension. Terazosin is a long- ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tetanus Tetanus is an infection characterized by muscle spasms and lockjaw, also called trismus. Toxins produced by Clostridium tetani are responsible for the ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tetracaine Tetracaine is an amino-ester class local anesthetic. It has been in use for a variety of purposes since the early 1930s, but its most common use today ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Theophylline Toxicity Around the world, theophylline (1,3-dimethylxanthine) is primarily used as a bronchodilator for patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thoracentesis Thoracentesis is a procedure that is performed to remove fluid from the thoracic cavity. This can be done for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thoracic Aorta Aneurysm Thoracic aortic aneurysms require a prompt diagnosis as most patients are asymptomatic until dissection or rupture of the aorta occurs, leading to wor ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thoracic Duct Leak Thoracic duct leaks are most often due to traumatic injury and iatrogenic injury. Surgery of the esophagus and the heart are the most common source of ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thoracotomy Thoracotomy is described as an incision made between the ribs to access the contents of the thoracic cavity. Due to the anatomic location of the conte ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thrombin Thrombin is a topical hemostatic agent used to control and minimize blood loss during surgical procedures, is utilized in conjunction or as an alterna ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thrombocytopenia Thrombocytopenia is a platelet count below the lower limit of normal, i.e., 150000/microliter (for adults). This activity reviews the etiology, evalua ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thyroid Storm Thyroid storm, also known as thyrotoxic crisis, is an acute, life-threatening complication of hyperthyroidism that presents with multi-system involvem ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tissue and Organ Donation Tissue/organ donation is a complex and multidisciplinary process that begins with the meticulous procedure of determining death. This is followed by a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Topical, Local, and Regional Anesthesia and Anesthetics Nerve impulse transmission occurs when voltage-gated sodium channels on the neuronal membrane open, allowing a massive influx of sodium. This causes m ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Torsade de Pointes Torsades de Pointes is a type of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia characterized on electrocardiogram by oscillatory changes in amplitude of the QRS ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Total Laryngectomy The primary goal for the treatment of laryngeal cancer is the control of the disease. Preservation of speech, swallowing functions, and avoidance of t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Total Parenteral Nutrition Total parenteral nutrition is a medication used in the management and treatment of malnourishment. It is in the nutrition class of drugs. This activit ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tracheal Bronchus The tracheal bronchus is a congenital anomaly defined as abnormal bronchus arising anywhere from the cricoid cartilage to the carina. This activity re ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tracheal Injury Tracheal injury is an uncommon occurrence seen primarily after healthcare procedures, blunt and penetrating trauma, and caustic inhalations. Damage to ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tracheal Intubation Medications Endotracheal intubation is indicated in many clinical settings, such as impending respiratory failure and when protecting the patient airway. The foll ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tracheal Rapid Sequence Intubation Rapid sequence intubation (RSI) is a technique that is used when rapid control of the airway is needed as a precaution for patients that may have a 'f ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tracheal Resection Tracheal resection is performed when tracheal stenosis is unresponsive to conservative management, such as balloon dilation and scar excision. Trachea ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tracheal Trauma Tracheal trauma may be penetrating or blunt and acute or subacute. A blow or stab wound to the neck or crush injuries to the upper chest may cause acu ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tracheo Innominate Artery Fistula Tracheoinnominate fistulas (TIFs) are life-threatening complications most frequently described as occurring after tracheostomy. They are associated wi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tracheobronchial Tear Tracheobronchial tears are uncommon injuries or lacerations or puncture occurring anywhere in the tracheobronchial tree resulting from penetrating or ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tracheostomy A tracheostomy (or tracheotomy, while there are technical differences, these terms are colloquially used interchangeably. For the purposes of this art ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tracheostomy Tube Change Tracheostomy is a procedure where an artificial airway is established surgically or percutaneously in the cervical trachea. This activity describes th ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Transabdominal Plane Block The tranversus abdominis plane (TAP) block has become one of the most common truncal blocks performed for postoperative analgesia after abdominal surg ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Transfusion Reactions Transfusion reactions are adverse events associated with the transfusion of whole blood or one of its components. They range in severity from minor to ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Transfusion-related Acute Lung Injury Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a clinical syndrome in which there is an acute, noncardiogenic pulmonary edema associated with hypox ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Transversus Abdominis Plane Block This activity outlines the transversus abdominis plane (TAP) blocks, relevant anatomy, as well as indications and contraindications to performing this ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Trauma Care Principles Trauma care principles outline fundamental concepts that providers should be aware of when treating various injuries in a trauma setting. The content ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Trauma Primary Survey The primary survey is designed to rapidly assess and treat life-threatening injuries. The main causes of death in trauma patients are airway obstructi ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Traumatic Brain Injury Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can result from trauma ranging from a simple blow to the head to a penetrating injury to the brain. In the United States, ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Trigger Point Injection Myofascial trigger points are focal "knots" located in a taut band of skeletal muscle first described by Dr. Janet Travell in 1942. Trigger points may ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ulnar Nerve Block Techniques An ultrasound-guided ulnar nerve block can be used to provide surgical anesthesia or analgesia to the ulnar portion of the hand including the little f ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ultrasound Guided Intravenous Access At least 150 to 200 million peripheral intravenous (PIV) catheters are placed each year in the United States, and up to 80 percent of patients receive ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ultrasound Guided Serratus Anterior Blocks Approximately 10 percent of injured patients presenting to the emergency department are found to have rib fractures. Rib fractures are associated with ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ultrasound Intravascular Access Ultrasound (US) guidance for intravenous (IV) access has been well documented for more than 20 years and is now routine in many settings for non-emerg ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ultrasound-guided Fascia Iliaca Compartment Block Pain management is an integral part of providing care in the emergency setting. Lower extremity pain from hip fractures, burns, and other trauma is a ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ultrasound-Guided Intercostal Nerve Block The blockage of anterior branches of the intercostal nerves is a selective superficial block, with a very low incidence of complications and effective ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Umbilical Artery Catheterization Catheterization of an umbilical artery is one of the commonly performed procedures in extremely premature neonates. This activity reviews the indicati ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Unilateral Diaphragmatic Paralysis Unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis is a condition caused when one side of the diaphragm becomes weak or paralyzed. There are many possible causes for ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Upper Airway Obstruction Upper airway obstruction is defined as occlusion or narrowing of the airways leading to compromise in ventilation. Obstruction can vary from acute to ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Upper Limb Block Anesthesia Regional anesthesia and the incorporation of peripheral nerve blocks allows for localized, targeted anesthesia for both surgical anesthesia and post-o ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vascular Tunneled Central Catheter Access In contrast to non-tunneled central venous catheters (CVCs), subcutaneously tunneled CVCs travel under the skin, away from the point of venous entry, ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vecuronium Vecuronium bromide is an FDA approved peripherally acting, monoquarternary, steroidal, non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocker with an intermediate dur ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Venous Gas Embolism A venous gas embolism is an abnormal collection of gas which forms a bubble in the systemic venous circulation, which can at as an embolus and affect ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ventilation Assist Control Mechanical ventilation is a common intervention used to treat patients with acute respiratory failure. Assist-Control ventilation is the most common s ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ventilator Complications Mechanical ventilation is an essential medical intervention in the context of critical illness. However, this intervention is associated with the risk ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ventilator Management Invasive mechanical ventilation is an intervention that is frequently used in acutely ill patients requiring either respiratory support or airway prot ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ventilator Weaning Mechanical ventilation is an established supportive treatment for patients with various forms of respiratory failure. Despite the widespread use and c ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury (VILI) Ventilator-induced lung injury is the acute lung injury inflicted or aggravated by mechanical ventilation during treatment and has the potential to ca ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Video-Assisted Thoracoscopy Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has revolutionized the approach to and management of many pulmonary and cardiac diseases over the past two ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Viral Hepatitis Viral hepatitis is a form of hepatitis that can be acute or chronic. It has various presentations and different outcomes, depending on the specific ca ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Waddell Triad Waddell’s triad represents a pediatric emergency. The triad comprises of three distinct features seen in pediatric pedestrian patients subject to blun ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Warfarin Toxicity Warfarin is a vitamin K antagonist used as an anticoagulant used for treatment and prevention of a variety of coagulopathic and thromboembolic disorde ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO

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