Omalizumab is a recombinant humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody targeting human immunoglobulin E (IgE) and thereby preventing its interaction with the high-affinity receptor Fc-epsilon-RI, typically found on eosinophils, mast cells and basophils and is critical in the allergic cascade. Omalizumab has a vital role in the management of moderate to severe Ig-E medicated asthma and also more recently a role in chronic urticaria.
It received initial approval for use in 2003 for the treatment of moderate to severe asthma and later received approval for use in patients with chronic idiopathic or spontaneous urticaria in 2014 in both the United States and Europe. It is, in fact, the first drug to be licensed for the treatment of chronic urticaria in a patient who remains symptomatic despite H1-antihistamine treatment. The determination of omalizumab dosing and frequency are by serum total IgE levels and also the patient's body weight. In the United States the total serum IgE should be in the range of 30 to 700 IU/ml, and in Europe for adults and children above the age of 12, the range is between 30 to 1500 IU/ml, while for children between 6 to 12, IgE levels should be under 1300 IU/ml.
The mechanism of action of omalizumab is different for allergic asthma vs. chronic urticaria.
The direct action involves selectively binding to the C-epsilon-3 locus, the domain at which IgE binds to Fc-epsilon-RI decreasing levels of the immunoglobulin and preventing interactions with its high-affinity receptor, as stated earlier primarily on eosinophils, basophils and mast cells interrupting the allergic cascade. Also, due to the total reduction of free IgE, there is a reduction in the expression of the IgE high-affinity receptor on inflammatory cells and a reduction in peripheral eosinophilia.
With regards to chronic urticaria, the mechanism is not as well understood; unlike in asthma, where a 95% reduction in serum IgE levels is required to modify allergen response, in chronic urticaria, it is not a classic allergen-driven response, and a fixed dose of omalizumab has approval for use. The theory is that omalizumab could prevent activation of mast cells and basophils in 40 to 45% of patients with chronic urticaria who may have an autoimmune component, by decreased high-affinity IgE receptor density and preventing IgE antibody-mediated cross-linking of adjacent alpha-subunits or IgE itself. There is some evidence to support that these patients with chronic urticaria have an abnormal basophil IgE high-affinity receptor and also that basophils are generally present chronic urticarial lesion sites. There is also some evidence that treatment with omalizumab reverses the basopenia and increases IgE receptor expression, which is typical in the disease states of patients with chronic urticaria.
Omalizumab administration is subcutaneous. Absorption into the systemic circulation is rather slow, with peak serum concentrations achieved after an average of 7 to 8 days. Omalizumab demonstrates linear pharmacokinetics in the approved dosage regimens. IgG clearance process, as well as specific binding and complex formation with IgE, are involved in omalizumab clearance. The mean half-life is 26 days.
In dosing for asthma
In chronic urticaria
There is a U.S. Boxed Warning for Anaphylaxis for omalizumab.
Typically omalizumab is characterized by a very good safety profile, the major side-effect concerns with omalizumab are in four categories: systemic reactions, the potential effect on malignancy, risk of parasite disease and immunological effects including serum sickness and Churg-Strauss vasculitis.
Subjects in clinical trials generally tolerate the drug well, with most adverse events being mild or moderate and reported with a similar frequency to those in control or placebo groups. The most commonly reported adverse events with omalizumab in clinical trials were injection-site reactions (45%), viral infection (23%), upper respiratory tract infection (20%), sinusitis (16%), headache (15%), and pharyngitis (11%). There are reports of anaphylactic reactions occurring with omalizumab, usually within 2 hours of the first or subsequent doses, although the incidence is low (0.1 to 0.2%). It merits noting these reports have been in asthmatics and not chronic urticaria patients.
With regards to anaphylaxis, the Omalizumab Joint Task Force, formed by two American institutions specializing in asthma, allergy, and immunology reviewed the omalizumab clinical trials and also the post-marketing surveillance data. They concluded that out of the 39510 patients who received omalizumab from June 2003 and December 2005, 35 patients had 41 episodes, which corresponds to an anaphylaxis reporting rate of 0.09%, as a result of the data, recommendations were implemented which included a 2 hour observation following the initial three injections and the provision of epinephrine pens to patients. There has some been some mention of a risk of malignancy associated with IgE in the literature, a pooled analysis of phase 1 through 4 clinical trials in 2012, which demonstrated no clear association was observable between omalizumab treatment and risk of malignancy in randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials.
Immunoglobulin E is classically the primary antibody in combatting parasitic disease; there are concerns that omalizumab therapy puts patients at increased risk of helminth infections, and some data demonstrates that in areas where there is an increased risk of helminth infection, omalizumab treatment does slightly raise patients risk compared to placebo.
Cases of Churg-Strauss in omalizumab treatment do appear in the literature. However it is still uncertain if there is a causal link between omalizumab treatment and Churg-Strauss, it is unclear if its a consequence or perhaps a pre-existing condition which has previously been masked by the long-term corticosteroid treatments these patients are generally on.
Contraindications include severe hypersensitivity reaction to omalizumab.
Due to the risk of anaphylaxis, patients require close observation for an appropriate period after omalizumab administration. Registered nurse or physicians administering omalizumab should be prepared and trained to manage episodes of omalizumab-induced anaphylaxis. Clinics administering omalizumab should have resuscitation equipment available.
Assessing the toxicology profile of omalizumab has proven to be complicated. Based on the initial manufacturer information and literature searches, it is unclear what the actual toxicology profile is, with regards to the initial animal studies; they identified no apparent single-dose toxicity or multiple dose toxicity. However, there was some discussion and delay in trials due to thrombocytopenia observed in monkey studies. Study data demonstrated no overt carcinogenic properties.
The clinical efficacy of subcutaneous omalizumab as adjunctive therapy in patients with allergic asthma has evidence from several well-designed trials. After nearly two years of use, there is robust evidence that omalizumab is an effective and safe treatment of severe asthma. The optimum duration of therapy is, however, not known, though trials have demonstrated that indefinite treatment is not always needed. There is also a considerable amount of information in support of the health economic benefits of long term omalizumab treatment in select populations, as the marked reduction in frequency and also the severity of exacerbations and improved quality of life, reduce the burden on acute health-care services.
Due to the risk of anaphylaxis, patients require close observation for an appropriate period after omalizumab administration. This risk necessitates an interprofessional team approach to therapy. Registered nurses or physicians administering omalizumab should be prepared and trained to manage episodes of omalizumab-induced anaphylaxis. Pharmacists should be consulted for dosing as well as performing complete medication reconciliation, and results reported back to the healthcare team. Clinics administering omalizumab should have resuscitation equipment available, including epinephrine at the bedside. All nurses who administer omalizumab must be familiar with the drug and its adverse effects and report any signs of such reaction to the managing clinician or pharmacist. Further, patient education is vital to ensure that delayed reactions are not left untreated, which falls under the purview of all healthcare team members. This type of interprofessional collaboration increases the chance of successful therapy with omalizumab. [Level V]
|||Godse K,Mehta A,Patil S,Gautam M,Nadkarni N, Omalizumab-A Review. Indian journal of dermatology. 2015 Jul-Aug; [PubMed PMID: 26288408]|
|||Kaplan AP,Giménez-Arnau AM,Saini SS, Mechanisms of action that contribute to efficacy of omalizumab in chronic spontaneous urticaria. Allergy. 2017 Apr; [PubMed PMID: 27861988]|
|||Thomson NC,Chaudhuri R, Omalizumab: clinical use for the management of asthma. Clinical medicine insights. Circulatory, respiratory and pulmonary medicine. 2012; [PubMed PMID: 22745565]|
|||McKeage K, Omalizumab: a review of its use in patients with severe persistent allergic asthma. Drugs. 2013 Jul; [PubMed PMID: 23812924]|
|||Vonakis BM,Saini SS, New concepts in chronic urticaria. Current opinion in immunology. 2008 Dec; [PubMed PMID: 18832031]|
|||RORSMAN H, Basophilic leucopenia in different forms of urticaria. Acta allergologica. 1962; [PubMed PMID: 14493754]|
|||Plosker GL,Keam SJ, Omalizumab: a review of its use in the treatment of allergic asthma. BioDrugs : clinical immunotherapeutics, biopharmaceuticals and gene therapy. 2008; [PubMed PMID: 18481901]|
|||Clark JJ,Secrest AM,Hull CM,Eliason MJ,Leiferman KM,Gleich GJ,Powell DL, The effect of omalizumab dosing and frequency in chronic idiopathic urticaria: Retrospective chart review. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 2016 Jun [PubMed PMID: 27185439]|
|||Ledford DK, Omalizumab: overview of pharmacology and efficacy in asthma. Expert opinion on biological therapy. 2009 Jul; [PubMed PMID: 19527111]|
|||Cox L,Platts-Mills TA,Finegold I,Schwartz LB,Simons FE,Wallace DV, American Academy of Allergy, Asthma [PubMed PMID: 17996286]|
|||Busse W,Buhl R,Fernandez Vidaurre C,Blogg M,Zhu J,Eisner MD,Canvin J, Omalizumab and the risk of malignancy: results from a pooled analysis. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. 2012 Apr; [PubMed PMID: 22365654]|
|||Cruz AA,Lima F,Sarinho E,Ayre G,Martin C,Fox H,Cooper PJ, Safety of anti-immunoglobulin E therapy with omalizumab in allergic patients at risk of geohelminth infection. Clinical and experimental allergy : journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 2007 Feb; [PubMed PMID: 17250692]|
|||Winchester DE,Jacob A,Murphy T, Omalizumab for asthma. The New England journal of medicine. 2006 Sep 21; [PubMed PMID: 16990394]|
|||Vaglio A,Moosig F,Zwerina J, Churg-Strauss syndrome: update on pathophysiology and treatment. Current opinion in rheumatology. 2012 Jan; [PubMed PMID: 22089097]|
|||Konstantinou GN,Chioti AG,Daniilidis M, Self-reported hair loss in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria treated with omalizumab: an under-reported, transient side effect? European annals of allergy and clinical immunology. 2016 Sep [PubMed PMID: 27608479]|
|||Noshela Ghazanfar M,Thomsen SF, Transient hair loss in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria treated with omalizumab. European annals of allergy and clinical immunology. 2017 Nov [PubMed PMID: 29249138]|
|||Kim HL,Leigh R,Becker A, Omalizumab: Practical considerations regarding the risk of anaphylaxis. Allergy, asthma, and clinical immunology : official journal of the Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 2010 Dec 3; [PubMed PMID: 21129189]|
|||Matera MG,Calzetta L,Rogliani P,Cazzola M, Monoclonal antibodies for severe asthma: Pharmacokinetic profiles. Respiratory medicine. 2019 May 13; [PubMed PMID: 31136930]|
|||Incorvaia C,Mauro M,Makri E,Leo G,Ridolo E, Two decades with omalizumab: what we still have to learn. Biologics : targets [PubMed PMID: 30464389]|
|||Norman G,Faria R,Paton F,Llewellyn A,Fox D,Palmer S,Clifton I,Paton J,Woolacott N,McKenna C, Omalizumab for the treatment of severe persistent allergic asthma: a systematic review and economic evaluation. Health technology assessment (Winchester, England). 2013 Nov; [PubMed PMID: 24267198]|