Diaper dermatitis is an inflammatory reaction of the skin of the perineal and perianal areas (diaper area). It is the most common skin disorder seen in young infants. It is most commonly caused by irritation of the skin; however, there are other causes such as atopic dermatitis and seborrheic dermatitis that can present as a diaper rash. Another common reason is infection with Candida albicans, which can be primary or secondary. Diaper dermatitis is usually a mild and self-limited condition that requires minimal intervention. Some of the management approaches include skincare, with adequate hygiene, and avoidance of any irritant substance.
Diaper dermatitis is an inflammatory reaction of the skin around the diaper area. It results due to a combination of multiple factors such as increased moisture, prolonged contact with urine or feces, and other irritants like detergents.
The second most common cause of diaper dermatitis is infection. Fungal infection, especially by Candida albicans is the most common infectious cause. Candida infection can be a primary cause of diaper dermatitis, and can also result as a superimposed infection to chronic irritation. Other mycoses that can be associated with diaper dermatitis include dermatophytosis, exacerbation of seborrheic dermatitis by Malassezia, and other pseudomycotic conditions like erythrasma.
Bacterial infections follow fungal as the second most common cause of infectious diaper dermatitis. Staphylococcus aureus infection can occur in newborns, secondary to colonization from the umbilical cord. Streptococcus pyogenes is also seen as an etiologic agent causing the condition.
Diaper dermatitis can affect any individual using diapers without any gender preference. Newborns and infants are at an increased risk due to skin immaturity. Peak incidence is around 9 to 12 months of age. Diaper dermatitis occurs in about 50% of infants, and it accounts for about 25% of visits to primary care physicians related to dermatologic complaints in the first year of life.
There are risk factors associated with the development of diaper dermatitis, such as:
The most important predisposing factor for the development of diaper dermatitis is the increased moist that results from wearing diapers, which leads to increased friction and maceration, which makes the skin more susceptible to damage and penetration by skin microorganisms and other irritants.
Changes in skin pH also play an essential role; an increase in pH around the diaper area from the breakdown of urinary urea can, in turn, increase fecal enzyme activity that can further damage the skin. The combination of these processes results in colonization and infection from organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Candida albicans.
The presentation may begin with a history of increased frequency of stools or changes in its appearance (loose), followed by the development of erythema around the diaper area about two days after. Physicians must elicit from parents hygiene practices, frequency of diaper changes, type of diapers used, and use of any substance that may be worsening the irritation.
Clinical presentation can be variable. Skin findings include erythema, papules, scaling, and erosions that can be present around the thighs, scrotum, suprapubic area, and buttocks. It usually spares skin creases.
Candida dermatitis presents with erythema and scaly plaques, accompanied by edema. The most characteristic feature is the presence of satellite pustules or papules. Candidal dermatitis can be present in the skin folds. In severe cases, erosions and ulceration can occur.
Clinical manifestation of S. aureus infection can range from small papules and pustules to large, fragile blisters of bullous impetigo. S. pyogenes presents with fiery-red erythema and maceration that involves the skin folds.
Diaper dermatitis is a clinical diagnosis based on history and physical examination findings. Overall, there is no need to perform any laboratory testing. However, when considering infection by Candida albicans, confirmation of the diagnosis by examination with KOH can be useful, although not necessary. If there is suspicion of bacterial infection, Gram staining can be performed.
Management of diaper dermatitis has two main goals: healing of damaged skin, and prevention of rash recurrence.
The strategies to achieve these goals include:
The differential diagnosis of diaper dermatitis includes any skin condition that can present around the diaper area.
Other differential diagnoses that need to be taken into consideration include tinea cruris, scabies, acrodermatitis enteropathica, biotin deficiency, Langerhans cell histiocytosis (Letterer-Siwe disease), congenital syphilis, Kawasaki disease, and HIV infection.
Diaper dermatitis has an excellent prognosis with appropriate diagnosis and with timely adequate management. It is usually a mild, self-limiting disease.
Complications of irritant diaper dermatitis include superimposed infection either with fungal or bacterial microorganisms. Special consideration must be taken when these infections occur in immunocompromised patients since they are at risk of invasive disease.
Diaper dermatitis is a condition that can be safely managed by a general practitioner. However, a consult to dermatology may be warranted in cases of an extensive disease that does not respond to treatment. If there is suspicion of a superimposed bacterial infection or extensive/invasive disease, consultation with infectious disease specialists may be required.
Education on proper diaper skincare must be provided as part of the anticipatory guidance of each well-care visit. including frequency of diaper change, guidance on the types of diapers and wipes to use, and application of the barrier emollients with diaper changes.
Diaper dermatitis is one of the most common dermatologic conditions in the newborn period and early infancy. It is of great importance that all healthcare professionals at any level be familiar with the characteristics of the disease and how to manage it and to be able to provide appropriate guidance to the parents and caregivers.
Management of diaper dermatitis does not necessitate the involvement of an interprofessional team to achieve appropriate treatment; however, as some cases can be more challenging, it is important to obtain timely consults whenever the need arises.
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