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Bursitis, Septic

Bursae are fluid-filled sac-like structures located between mobile structures of the musculoskeletal system, between skin and bone, or between the joints. There are upward of 150 superficial and deep bursae located in between bone, muscle, tendons, and skin. Small amounts of synovial fluid are produced within the bursa and reduce friction by lubrication. Inflammation of the bursa causes excess fluid production and leads to swelling and irritation, known as bursitis. This inflammation can be caused by prolonged pressure, overuse, inflammatory and crystalloid arthritis, and direct injury or trauma. Common locations of bursitis include prepatellar, olecranon, and trochanteric.

Septic (or infectious) bursitis occurs when infection from either direct inoculation (usually superficial bursa) or hematogenous or direct spread from other sites (deep bursa involvement) causes inflammatory bursitis. Septic bursitis can be acute, subacute, or recurrent/chronic. The clinical features of septic bursitis are sometimes indistinguishable from non-infectious bursitis; therefore, bursa aspiration and fluid analysis must be completed to make an accurate diagnosis.

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