Magnesium use is indicated for a variety of diseases. This is due to the variety of effects magnesium has within the body. Administration of magnesium can be divided into FDA versus non-FDA approved. Also, magnesium is commonly used in over-the-counter products.
Hypomagnesemia: Magnesium Concentration of Less Than 1.8 mg/dL
Eclampsia or Severe Pre-Eclampsia
Pre-Term Labor (Off-Label Use)
Arrhythmias (Off-Label Use)
Asthma: Acute Severe Exacerbation (Off-Label Use)
Migraines: Over the Counter Supplementation
As with other electrolytes, magnesium's role is the body is diverse and complex. The mechanism of action of magnesium is dependent on which organ system is involved.Physiology of Magnesium
Effects of Magnesium
Hemostasis of Magnesium
Administration of magnesium can occur in various ways. Dietary intake is the main source of magnesium for a healthy individual. The recommended daily intake varies with gender and age. Green leafy vegetables, fish, legumes and whole grains are good sources of magnesium.
Adverse reactions are associated with magnesium’s effect on the neuromuscular and cardiovascular system. Effects can include flushing, hypotension, vasodilation, and hypermagnesemia.
For contraindications, factors to consider are renal function, pregnancy, and neuromuscular disease.
Monitoring magnesium level is necessary while administering magnesium. Monitoring can be done with serum magnesium levels. Hypermagnesemia may occur from overdose.
Hypermagnesemia: Serum Magnesium Concentration Greater Than 2.6 mg/dL
Magnesium is a vital mineral for many bodily functions. However, unless patients are diagnosed with hypomagnesemia, this mineral should not be empirically recommended by the nurse practitioner and primary care provider. These days many people consume magnesium supplements because of false beliefs. Too much magnesium is not safe either as it can lead to hypotension, hyporeflexia, and respiratory depression. With a magnesium concentration of above 6 mg/dL, ECG changes can include PR prolongation, widening of QRS, and peaked T waves. Cardiac arrest occurs whenever levels are above 15 mg/dL.
When IV magnesium is administered, the nurse should constantly monitor the vital signs, especially blood pressure. A multidisciplinary approach involving nursing and providers will provide the safest and most successful care of the patient. [Level V]
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