An HIV positive male presents with confusion and general malaise. Blood work reveals that he is anemic and brain CT shows generalized brain atrophy. What is the most common HIV disorder of the brain?
Select Your Answer:
HIV dementia, HIV encephalopathy, and AIDS dementia complex refer to the same condition.
It is a metabolic encephalopathy caused by HIV infection with immune activation of microglia and brain macrophages.
These cells secrete neurotoxins of both viral and host origin.
Patients can have disabling cognitive impairment, motor dysfunction, behavioral changes, and speech problems.
Adult Lab Normals
Pediatric Lab Normals
Impact of combination antiretroviral therapy on cerebrospinal fluid HIV RNA and neurocognitive performance., Marra CM,Zhao Y,Clifford DB,Letendre S,Evans S,Henry K,Ellis RJ,Rodriguez B,Coombs RW,Schifitto G,McArthur JC,Robertson K,, AIDS (London, England), 2009 Jul 17 [PubMed PMID: 19424052]
Zidovudine treatment of the AIDS dementia complex: results of a placebo-controlled trial. AIDS Clinical Trials Group., Sidtis JJ,Gatsonis C,Price RW,Singer EJ,Collier AC,Richman DD,Hirsch MS,Schaerf FW,Fischl MA,Kieburtz K,, Annals of neurology, 1993 Apr [PubMed PMID: 8489204]
Adjunctive therapies for AIDS dementia complex., Uthman OA,Abdulmalik JO,, The Cochrane database of systematic reviews, 2008 Jul 16 [PubMed PMID: 18646159]
Changes in the incidence and predictors of human immunodeficiency virus-associated dementia in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy., Bhaskaran K,Mussini C,Antinori A,Walker AS,Dorrucci M,Sabin C,Phillips A,Porter K,, Annals of neurology, 2008 Feb [PubMed PMID: 17894380]
Human immunodeficiency virus and depression in primary care: a clinical review., Colibazzi T,Hsu TT,Gilmer WS,, Primary care companion to the Journal of clinical psychiatry, 2006 [PubMed PMID: 16964315]
HIV-1-related central nervous system disease: current issues in pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment., Spudich S,González-Scarano F,, Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine, 2012 Jun [PubMed PMID: 22675662]
The neuropathogenesis of AIDS., González-Scarano F,Martín-García J,, Nature reviews. Immunology, 2005 Jan [PubMed PMID: 15630430]
The changing pattern of HIV neuropathology in the HAART era., Gray F,Chrétien F,Vallat-Decouvelaere AV,Scaravilli F,, Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology, 2003 May [PubMed PMID: 12769183]
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders persist in the era of potent antiretroviral therapy: CHARTER Study., Heaton RK,Clifford DB,Franklin DR Jr,Woods SP,Ake C,Vaida F,Ellis RJ,Letendre SL,Marcotte TD,Atkinson JH,Rivera-Mindt M,Vigil OR,Taylor MJ,Collier AC,Marra CM,Gelman BB,McArthur JC,Morgello S,Simpson DM,McCutchan JA,Abramson I,Gamst A,Fennema-Notestine C,Jernigan TL,Wong J,Grant I,, Neurology, 2010 Dec 7 [PubMed PMID: 21135382]
Changing patterns in the neuropathogenesis of HIV during the HAART era., Langford TD,Letendre SL,Larrea GJ,Masliah E,, Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland), 2003 Apr [PubMed PMID: 12744473]
The AIDS dementia complex: I. Clinical features., Navia BA,Jordan BD,Price RW,, Annals of neurology, 1986 Jun [PubMed PMID: 3729308]
Evolving character of chronic central nervous system HIV infection., Price RW,Spudich SS,Peterson J,Joseph S,Fuchs D,Zetterberg H,Gisslén M,Swanstrom R,, Seminars in neurology, 2014 Feb [PubMed PMID: 24715483]
HIV-1 infection and cognitive impairment in the cART era: a review., Schouten J,Cinque P,Gisslen M,Reiss P,Portegies P,, AIDS (London, England), 2011 Mar 13 [PubMed PMID: 21160410]
An evaluation of neurocognitive status and markers of immune activation as predictors of time to death in advanced HIV infection., Sevigny JJ,Albert SM,McDermott MP,Schifitto G,McArthur JC,Sacktor N,Conant K,Selnes OA,Stern Y,McClernon DR,Palumbo D,Kieburtz K,Riggs G,Cohen B,Marder K,Epstein LG,, Archives of neurology, 2007 Jan [PubMed PMID: 17210815]