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Surgery-Podiatry Cert Surgery

Surgery-Podiatry Cert Surgery

Stay up to date on the latest medical knowledge with this Surgery-Podiatry Cert Surgery activity. In this online self-assessment activity, you'll read our reference articles and test your knowledge with 271 activities in Surgery-Podiatry Cert Surgery for 247.5 total CME hours.


6 Month Unlimited Physician MD/DO/PA CME

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1 Year Unlimited Physician MD/DO/PA CME

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Access to all the Physician MD/DO/PA CME activities in all specialties.

Featured Article Activities

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Freiberg Infarction

Freiberg infarction pattern results in flattening and collapse of the head of the second metatarsophalangeal joint, lead ...
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Hours: 0.75

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March Fracture

March fractures (metatarsal stress fractures) were first described in 1855, when the term was coined for the foot pain a ...
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Hours: 1

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Gangrene

Gangrene is tissue damage secondary to infection, ischemia, or both. It is a relatively uncommon condition, and early re ...
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Hours: 0.75

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Ankylosing Spondylitis

Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic, inflammatory disease of the axial spine. Chronic back pain and progressive spinal s ...
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Hours: 2

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Wound Foreign Body Removal

Soft tissue foreign bodies or wounds associated with foreign bodies result from blunt/abrasive trauma or penetrating tra ...
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Hours: 0.75

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Turf Toe

The term turf toe was initially described by Bowers in 1976 as a sprain of the plantar capsule ligament of the great toe ...
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Hours: 0.75

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Surgery-Podiatry Cert Surgery Activities

Title Description Hours Questions
5th Metatarsal Fracture Fractures of the fifth metatarsal are common injuries that must be recognized and treated appropriately to avoid poor clinical outcomes for the patien ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ablative Nerve Block Ablation procedures have been used to treat chronic back pain and sciatica of unknown etiology as an alternative to surgical severing the dorsal rami. ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Achilles Tendon Rupture Achilles tendon rupture is the most common tendon rupture in the lower extremity. The injury most commonly occurs in adults in their third to fifth d ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Achilles Tendonitis The Achilles tendon ranks as the strongest tendon in the human body connecting the plantaris, gastrocnemius, and soleus to the calcaneus bone. This ac ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acquired Digital Fibrokeratoma Acquired digital fibrokeratoma (ADFK) is a rare, benign, fibrous tumor. It usually occurs in adults as a solitary lesion on fingers and toes. Since AD ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acral Lentiginous Melanoma Acral lentiginous melanoma is a subtype of cutaneous malignant melanoma. It is comprised of malignant melanocytes, which can become invasive with time ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Ankle Sprain Acute ankle sprains are commonly seen in both primary care practices and emergency departments and can result in significant short-term morbidity, rec ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Arterial Occlusion Acute arterial occlusion is synonymous with acute limb ischemia and is considered a vascular emergency. Acute limb ischemia is defined as a sudden los ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Compartment Syndrome Acute compartment syndrome is a condition in which there is increased pressure within a closed osteofascial compartment, resulting in impaired local c ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Pulmonary Embolism Acute pulmonary embolism is a common clinical condition with a variable clinical presentation, making its diagnosis challenging. This activity outline ... Read the Article 2 30 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adolescent and Idiopathic Scoliosis Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the most common form of pediatric scoliosis occurring in individuals between the ages of 10 to 18. By definit ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adult Acquired Flatfoot Adult acquired flatfoot (AAFD), formerly described as posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD), is a debilitating condition with complex pathology d ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ainhum Ainhum, also called dactylolysis spontanea, is a rare disease of fibrotic constricting bands that most commonly occur over digits. These rings of fibr ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alendronate Alendronate is FDA-approved for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis, steroid-induced osteoporosis, ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aminoglycosides While aminoglycosides are an older class of medication, they continue to be clinically valuable. Aminoglycosides have a broad spectrum of activity cov ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ankle Arthrocentesis Acute arthritis, particularly monoarthropathy, is a common acute presentation. In regards to the ankle, there is not always a clear etiology for the m ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ankle Dislocation An ankle dislocation occurs when there is an abnormal separation between the talo-tibial joint. This most often occurs concomitantly with an ankle fra ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ankle Fractures Acute ankle fractures can affect many different structures. Classification systems can help delineate the mechanism of injury and the structures damag ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ankle Splinting Splinting is primarily used to immobilize a joint to allow for pain control, injury stabilization, and ultimately tissue healing. In the acute setting ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ankylosing Spondylitis Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic, inflammatory disease of the axial spine. Chronic back pain and progressive spinal stiffness are the most common f ... Read the Article 2 34 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anterior Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome Anterior tarsal tunnel syndrome occurs due to compression or entrapment of the deep peroneal nerve. Most commonly, the deep peroneal nerve becomes ent ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arthritis Arthritis is defined as an acute or chronic joint inflammation in the joint. Arthritis may attribute to a wide variety of symptoms that include pain, ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arthrocentesis Arthrocentesis is a procedure that is performed to obtain synovial fluid from within a joint capsule, both for diagnostic and for therapeutic purposes ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Avascular Necrosis Osteonecrosis is a degenerative bone condition characterized by death of cellular components of bone secondary to an interruption of the subchondral b ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Avulsion Fractures Avulsion fractures can happen anywhere in the body where soft tissue attaches to the bone. The failure of bone most commonly results from an acute eve ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Babinski Reflex The Babinski reflex was described by the neurologist Joseph Babinski in 1899. Since that time, it has been incorporated into the standard neurological ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Back Pain Back pain is one of the most common causes for patients to seek emergency care. It has a broad range of potential etiologies for both adult and pediat ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Baker's Cyst A Baker's cyst is a fluid-filled sac that forms in the popliteal fossa, which is located on the posterior aspect of the knee. In adults, Baker's cysts ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Below Knee Amputation A below the knee amputation (BKA) is a transtibial amputation that involves removing the foot, ankle joint, distal tibia, fibula, and corresponding so ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biceps Tendon Rupture of the Lower Limb Rupture of the biceps femoris tendon can be treated conservatively or surgically, depending on the severity of the tendon retraction. Most of the pati ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bimalleolar Ankle Fractures A bimalleolar fracture is a fracture of the lateral malleolus and the medial malleolus. This fracture is a bimodal distribution, most likely affects o ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blast Injuries Explosions are unique in their ability to inflict acute injuries on many people at the same time, resulting in high levels of mortality and morbidity. ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blount Disease Blount disease is a pediatric genu varum deformity. Infantile and adolescent forms are two types because of their variable presentation. Surgical trea ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus Syndrome Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome is also known as Bean syndrome. It is a rare syndrome of venous malformations that arise in the skin and gastrointesti ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bone Marrow Edema Syndrome Bone marrow edema syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion that is characterized by pain and increased interstitial fluid within bone marrow without an ob ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Calcaneofibular Ligament Injury Isolated calcaneofibular ligament (CFL) injuries are rare. CFL injuries are often described in the lateral ankle compartment, specifically associated ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Calcaneus Fractures Calcaneus fractures are rare but potentially debilitating injuries. The calcaneus is one of seven tarsal bones and is part of the hind-foot which incl ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Calcitonin Salmon calcitonin (after this referred to as “calcitonin”) is an analog of human calcitonin used in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, Page ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition Disease Calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (CPPD) is a crystal deposition arthropathy involving the synovial and periarticular tissues. Its clinical pre ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cartilage Graft Cartilage graft transplantation is frequently used in the treatment of chondral and osteochondral lesions, most commonly in the knee. These procedures ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cellulitis Cellulitis is a common bacterial skin infection, with over 14 million cases occurring in the United States annually. This activity educates the learne ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Disc Herniation Cervical disc herniation is a common cause of neck pain in adults. The severity of the disease can range from mild to severe, and even life-threatenin ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Injury Cervical spine injuries, although uncommon, can result in significant and long-term disability. The cervical spine encompasses seven vertebrae and ser ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Charcot Marie Tooth Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is the commonest inherited neuromuscular disorder. It affects the peripheral nerves and leads to progressive weaknes ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Charcot Neuropathic Osteoarthropathy Charcot neuropathic osteoarthropathy is a destructive joint disorder initiated by trauma to a neuropathic extremity. It can lead to dislocations and f ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chondroblastoma Chondroblastoma is a benign, chondroid-producing neoplasm composed of chondroblasts. It accounts for less than 1% of all bone tumors and usually arise ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chordoma A chordoma is a low-grade, slow-growing but locally invasive and locally aggressive tumor that is a type of sarcoma. Chordomas arise from remnants of ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clavus A clavus is a well-demarcated thickened area of the epidermis that has a central core. This skin lesion is most commonly found on the foot and is ofte ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Claw Hand Ulnar nerve palsy is the loss of sensory and motor function. This can occur after injury to any portion of the ulnar nerve. The ulnar nerve is the ter ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clear Cell Acanthoma Clear cell acanthoma is an uncommonly made diagnosis. Clear cell acanthomas are benign lesions of unknown etiology with characteristic physical exam ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clonus Clonus is a rhythmic oscillating stretch reflex that is related to upper motor neuron lesions. Therefore, clonus is generally accompanied by hyperrefl ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clubfoot Clubfoot is a congenital deformity of the foot, otherwise known as congenital talipes equinovarus. It is one of the most common congenital malformatio ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a neuropathic pain disorder defined by the presence of distinct clinical features including allodynia, hypera ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Corns A corn, also known as a "heloma" or "focal intractable plantar hyperkeratosis," is a type of callosity. This latter is a common, uncomfortable, thicke ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Crutches Crutches are medical devices designed to aid in ambulation, by transferring body weight from the legs to the torso and arms. They are mainly used to a ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cuboid Stress Fractures Overuse injuries are a common entity in medical practice. Stress reactions and fractures make up a significant portion of patients in a typical sports ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Decubitus Ulcer Decubitus ulcers are skin or soft tissue injuries that form due to prolonged pressure exerted over specific areas of the body. They should receive pro ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Deep Peroneal Nerve Block The deep peroneal nerve is one of 5 nerves that are often blocked or anesthetized to perform ankle surgery. It can be performed as a regional block an ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Deep Venous Thrombosis Of The Lower Extremity A deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) is a blood clot that forms within the deep veins usually of the leg but can occur in the veins of the arms and the mesent ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Developmental Dysplasia Of The Hip DDH (developmental dysplasia of the hip ) is a disorder that is due to abnormal development of acetabulum with or without hip dislocation. Early diagn ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetic Amyotrophy Diabetic amyotrophy, better known as diabetic lumbosacral radiculoplexus neuropathy (DLRPN), is a rare disorder englobed in the diabetic neuropathy sp ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetic Foot Care Proper diabetic foot care is an essential part of limb preservation. Patients with diabetes are at increased risk for foot ulceration secondary to neu ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetic Foot Infections There are approximately 29 million people with diabetes in the United States, and approximately 25% of people older than age of 65 have diabetes. The ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetic Foot Ulcer Diabetic foot ulcers are among the most common complications of patients who have diabetes mellitus which is not well controlled. It is usually the re ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diaphyseal Femur Fracture Diaphyseal femur fractures are commonly encountered in association with other high-energy injuries. These injuries can lead to life-threatening sequel ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is a systemic condition characterized by characteristic ossification patterns that can occur in the sp ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Digit Amputation Digital amputation is often associated with traumatic injuries but is also seen within the elective surgery setting, such as in the case of cancer res ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diphenhydramine Diphenhydramine, which is available as an over-the-counter medication, is a first-generation antihistamine that is used in a variety of conditions to ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Disc Herniation A herniated disc is a condition affecting the spine in which the annulus fibrosus is damaged enabling the nucleus pulposus (which is normally located ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Discoid Meniscus Menisci are two crescent-shaped structures in the knee that act as shock absorbers between the femur and tibia, dissipating stress and dispersing comp ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Unfortunately, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is not only one of the most severe forms of inherited muscular dystrophies but also the most common h ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Duplex Ultrasound Duplex ultrasound is an integral tool for medical diagnosis and therapy. Duplex ultrasonography combines the principles of anatomic and flow ultrasono ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dystonia Dystonia is defined by involuntary maintained contraction of agonist and antagonist muscles yielding abnormal posturing, twisting and repetitive movem ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Enchondroma Enchondromas are benign tumors of unknown etiology that occur in the hyaline cartilage in bones of endochondral origin. Enchondromas account for appro ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Endovascular Papillary Angioendothelioma Endovascular papillary angioendothelioma (EPA), also known as Dabska tumor (DT) and papillary intralymphatic angioendothelioma (PILA), represents a bo ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Enthesopathies Enthesopathies encompass a broad range of pathologies that include ligamentous and tendinous injuries. They are relatively common and can be the initi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Escharotomy Burns commonly present acutely . They can be due to many modalities, including thermal, chemical, electrical or radiation. Often, burns result in supe ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ewing Sarcoma Ewing sarcoma is the second most common primary malignant bone tumor, mostly affecting adolescents in the second decade of their life, and it is a hig ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Excisional Biopsy In dermatology, skin biopsies are essential to assist in making a correct diagnosis and for therapeutic planning. Several types of skin biopsy techniq ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Exertional Compartment Syndrome Exertional compartment syndrome is a commonly underdiagnosed entity which occurs secondary to elevated intra-compartmental pressures in the absence of ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
External Fixation Principles and Overview External fixation has been used for the treatment of fractures for 2000 years. The application and devises have changed, but the biomechanics remain t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fasciocutaneous Flaps This activity reviews the reconstructive option of fasciocutaneous flaps and highlights the role of the interprofessional team in evaluating and impro ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fasciotomy A fasciotomy procedure is a procedure used to decompress acute compartment syndrome. Most commonly, acute compartment syndrome occurs in the leg and t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fat Embolism Fat embolism (FE) and fat embolism syndrome (FES) are a clinical phenomenon that are characterized by systemic dissemination of fat emboli within the ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Femoral Nerve Block Peripheral nerve blocks inhibit the propagation of impulses in nerve terminals to inhibit the perception of pain by the cerebral cortex. Local anesthe ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Femoral Shaft Fractures Femoral shaft fractures are a common orthopedic injury occurring in high energy trauma or low energy trauma in the elderly. Femoral shaft fractures ar ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Femoroacetabular Impingement Femoroacetabular impingement is an increasingly recognized source of hip pain, particularly in the young adult population. This condition is a known r ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fibrous Dysplasia Fibrous dysplasia is a typically benign bone lesion characterized by intramedullary fibro-osseous proliferation secondary to altered osteogenesis. The ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fibula Fractures Isolated fibula fractures are quite rare, much less common than fibula fractures with associated ligamentous involvement and/or tibia fractures. Fortu ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fifth-Toe Deformities Deformities of the fifth toe are often congenital and include deformities such as an overlapping fifth toe or a congenital curly toe. The purpose of t ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Filariasis Lymphatic filariasis is a neglected tropical disease that causes significant morbidity in the developing world. This activity reviews the evaluation, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fingertip Injuries The fingertip is the most distal portion of the finger providing the tactile and sensory functions that are then relayed to the brain. It is anatomica ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Flaps, Muscle And Musculocutaneous Muscle and myocutaneous flaps are common reconstructive options for patients with acquired traumatic or oncologic defects. While fasciocutaneous and p ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Floating Knee As early as 1975, the term floating knee was initially used by Blake and McBryde to describe fractures of the ipsilateral femur and tibia. Fractures c ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Foot Dislocation Foot dislocations are uncommon injuries that can occur at multiple different joints of the foot. The three most common joints involved include the sub ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Foot Drop Foot drop is a clinical entity that is not frequently seen in primary care settings. There are multiple etiologies of foot drop. Careful neurological ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Foot Ulcer Foot ulceration is among the most common health issues, and its prevalence has increased recently. It is one of the major causes of amputations, parti ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Freiberg Infarction Freiberg infarction pattern results in flattening and collapse of the head of the second metatarsophalangeal joint, leading to degenerative changes an ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Frostbite Frostbite, also known as freezing cold injury is tissue damage that occurs due to cold exposure, occurring at temperatures below zero degrees celsius. ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gait Disturbances Gait disturbances are described as any deviations from normal walking or gait. These disturbances stem from numerous etiologies. Due to their differen ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gangrene Gangrene is tissue damage secondary to infection, ischemia, or both. It is a relatively uncommon condition, and early recognition is essential. Gangre ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gas Gangrene Gas gangrene is a highly lethal infection of soft tissue, caused by Clostridium species, with Clostridium perfringens being the most common. This is s ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastrocnemius Rupture Gastrocnemius injuries are common in both recreational and competitive athletes. This activity outlines the evaluation, treatment, and management of g ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastrocnemius Strain The gastrocnemius muscle consists of two heads. The medial head originates from the posterior medial femoral condyle while the lateral head arises fro ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Genu Valgum Genu valgum (knocked knees) is part of the coronal plane deformities of the lower extremity. The majority of patients are asymptomatic and have no fun ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Giant Cell Tumor Giant cell tumor is one of the most common benign bone tumors, occurring in young adults ages 20–40 years with a high recurrence rate and a potential ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gonococcal Arthritis Gonococcal arthritis is arthritis that results from the bacteremic spread of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, a sexually transmitted pathogen. It comprises loca ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gout Gout is one of the most common causes of chronic inflammatory arthritis in the United States, which is characterized by monosodium urate (MSU) monohyd ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gracilis Tissue Transfer Free gracilis transfer is a procedure used for a number of different reconstructive issues. The gracilis free flap is considered one of the reconstruc ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Greenstick Fracture A greenstick fracture is a partial thickness fracture where only cortex and periosteum are interrupted on one side of the bone, while they remain unin ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hallux Rigidus Hallux rigidus is a condition that refers to degenerative arthritis of the first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint. Davies-Colley first described the co ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hallux Valgus A hallux valgus is a complex deformity of the first ray of the forefoot. This deformity is, at times, red and painful and can disrupt daily activities ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hallux Varus Hallux varus is a clinical condition characterized by medial deviation of the great toe at the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint. This condition has mul ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hammertoe Hammertoes are among the most common deformities of the forefoot. This activity outlines the evaluation and management of hammertoe deformity and expl ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hidradenitis Suppurativa Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS), also called acne inversus, is a chronic inflammatory skin condition with lesions including deep-seated nodules and absc ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hip Fracture Overview Hip fractures are fractures of the proximal femur and are commonly seen in the elderly population following a fall. This type of injury has a high rat ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyaluronic Acid Hyaluronic acid is a high-molecular-weight polysaccharide, which is widely distributed in the connective tissue extracellular matrix. Several preparat ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Treatment Of Clostridial Myositis And Myonecrosis Clostridial myonecrosis, also called gas gangrene, can rapidly cause death if not immediately detected and treated. It is caused by the anaerobic spor ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Treatment Of Diabetic Foot Ulcer Complications associated with diabetes are the leading cause of nontraumatic lower-extremity amputations. Diabetic foot ulcers occur in approximately ... Read the Article 0.75 2 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypothermia Accidental hypothermia occurs when the body dissipates more heat than it absorbs or creates, leaving the body unable to generate sufficient heat to ma ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Infantile and Juvenile Scoliosis Early-onset scoliosis (EOS) occurs in young children and presents a unique and challenging dilemma since the spine, thorax, and lungs are still develo ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ingrown Toenails An ingrown toenail is a common nail problem occurring when the nail plate grows into the periungual skin and causes inflammation and infection. It cau ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intermittent Claudication Intermittent claudication (IC) typically refers to lower extremity skeletal muscle pain that occurs during exercise. IC presents when there is insuffi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intoeing Deformities and angular variations of the lower extremities are one of the most common reasons for referral to pediatric orthopedics, with in-toeing s ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), a heterogeneous group of chronic arthritis, is the most common chronic rheumatological condition in children. The ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Kienbock Disease Kienböck disease refers to avascular necrosis of the lunate carpal bone, known as lunatomalacia. It was first recognized and described by Austrian rad ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Kohler Disease Kohler disease is a disease only seen in pediatric patients. Although the etiology is not fully understood, it is thought to be caused by the compress ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lachman Test The Lachman test is a specific clinical exam technique used to evaluate patients with a suspected anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. The test re ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lateral Ankle Instability Lateral ankle instability is a complex condition that can, at times, prove difficult to evaluate and treat for general practitioners. The difficulty i ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Legg Calve Perthes Disease Legg-Calve-Perthes disease (LCPD) is idiopathic osteonecrosis or idiopathic avascular necrosis of the capital femoral epiphysis of the femoral head. T ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lisfranc Dislocation A Lisfranc dislocation or injury describes a spectrum of injuries involving the tarsometatarsal joints of the foot. The Lisfranc joint is comprised of ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Local Anesthetic Toxicity Local anesthetics are commonly used in most medical and dental practice. While adverse effects are rare, the rising prevalence of local anesthetics in ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lower Extremity Amputation Approximately 150000 patients per year undergo a lower extremity amputation in the United States. The most common causes leading to amputation are dia ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lumbar Disc Herniation Low back pain is a prevalent symptom, as approximately 80 % of the population sustains an episode once in their lifetime. Within the many differential ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lumbar Sympathetic Block The autonomic nervous system consists of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions. As the name implies, the lumbar sympathetic block can be utili ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lumbosacral Spondylolisthesis Lumbosacral spondylolisthesis is a forward translation of the fifth lumbar vertebrae over the first sacral vertebrae. Untreated, it may be associated ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lytic Bone Lesions Bone tumors are mostly benign. Most important determinants in imaging of bone tumors are morphology on plain radiograph (well defined lytic, ill-defin ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
March Fracture March fractures (metatarsal stress fractures) were first described in 1855, when the term was coined for the foot pain and swelling experienced by Pru ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Medial Collateral Ligament Knee Injuries The medial collateral ligament (MCL) is a flat band of connective tissue that runs from the medial epicondyle of the femur to the medial condyle of th ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome (MTSS) is a common overuse injuries of the lower extremity, often seen in athletes and military personnel. It involves e ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Median Nerve Palsy This activity addresses the topic of median nerve palsy in great detail. The median nerve is a critical neurological structure in the upper extremity ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Methemoglobinemia Methemoglobinemia is a condition with life-threatening potential in which diminution of the oxygen-carrying capacity of circulating hemoglobin occurs ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Morton Neuroma Morton neuroma is a compressive neuropathy of the interdigital nerve in forefoot due to compression and constant irritation at the plantar aspect of t ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Munchausen Syndrome Factitious disorder imposed on self, formerly known as Munchausen syndrome, is a psychiatric disorder in which a person assumes the role of a sick pat ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Myelomeningocele Neural tube defects are a spectrum of congenital anomalies that includes cranial defects and open or closed spinal dysraphism. Open spinal dysraphism ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Myofascial Pain Syndrome Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is common among patients with musculoskeletal pain problems. MPS is a pain condition originating from muscle and surrou ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nail Patella Syndrome Nail patella syndrome (NPS) is a rare multisystemic disease with a classic clinical tetrad of fingernail dysplasia, hypoplasia or absence of the patel ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Necrotizing Fasciitis Necrotizing fasciitis is a subset of aggressive skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) that cause necrosis of the muscle fascia and subcutaneous tiss ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neuroma A neuroma is a benign tumor of nerve tissue that is often associated with pain or in specific types of various other symptoms. Neuromas most commonly ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neuropathic Ulcer Neuropathic ulcers occur when a patient with poor neurological function of the peripheral nervous system has pressure points that cause ulceration thr ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Obturator Hernia Obturator hernia is a rarely diagnosed subgroup of hernias. These can be difficult to accurately identify in the initial stages of the patient's clini ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Open Fracture Management An open fracture is an injury where the fractured bone and/or fracture hematoma are exposed to the external environment via a traumatic violation of t ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Opioid Toxicity Opioids and opiates together comprise a class of medications widely used primarily to control severe pain. If first-line agents are not effective in c ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Oral Hypoglycemic Medications The most effective management of diabetes mellitus demands an interprofessional approach involving both lifestyle modifications with diet and exercise ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Os Peroneum Os peroneum is one of several accessory ossicles of the foot and ankle, located lateral to the cuboid within the distal peroneus longus tendon. Painfu ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Osgood Schlatter Disease Osgood Schlatter disease, also known as osteochondrosis, tibial tubercle apophysitis, or traction apophysitis of the tibial tubercle, is a common caus ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Osteoarthropathy Hypertrophic Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (HOA), consists of the presence of digital clubbing, increased periosteal activity of the tubular bones, arthralgias, an ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Osteochondral Allograft Osteochondral lesions represent a challenging entity with a high progression to osteoarthritis if left untreated. The most widespread cartilage preser ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Osteochondral Autograft Transplantation Osteochondral autografts can be used to treat full-thickness cartilage defects. There are numerous treatment options for patients with focal cartilage ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Osteochondroma Osteochondromas are common benign osseous surface lesions generally arising from the metaphysis of long bones. The lesions are most commonly asymptoma ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Osteofibrous Dysplasia Osteofibrous dysplasia (OFD) is a rare disease. It is considered a benign non-neoplastic condition of unknown cause, characterized by a fibrovascular ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Osteogenic Sarcoma Osteogenic sarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumor with an annual incidence of 900 cases in the United States. This activity reviews t ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Osteoid Osteoma An osteoid osteoma is a benign bone-forming tumor that has no potential to become malignant. It classically causes severe pain at night and is relieve ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Osteomyelitis Osteomyelitis is a serious infection of the bone that can be either acute or chronic. It is an inflammatory process involving the bone and its structu ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Osteosarcoma Osteosarcoma is a malignant osseous neoplasm. It is the most common primary bone cancer of childhood. Less frequently, it occurs in adults where it re ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Paronychia Drainage Acute paronychia is one of the most common infections of the hand. It is usually caused by a breakdown of the seal between the nail plate and the nail ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Paroxetine Paroxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). It is used to treat several diseases, including major depressive disorder, obsessive-co ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Patella Fractures The patella is the largest sesamoid bone in the human body. The posterior aspect of the patella contains a thick cartilage layer, which is the thickes ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Patellar Instability Patellar dislocations are common and represent 3 percent of all knee injuries. Additionally, they are a leading cause of knee hemarthrosis. Patellar d ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Patellar Tendon Rupture A patellar tendon rupture involves a complete tear of the tendon that runs from the patella's inferior pole to the tibial tubercle. It is typically se ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pentoxifylline Pentoxifylline is a drug used in the management of peripheral vascular disease. It is a xanthine derivative. This activity outlines the mechanism of a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Perioperative Cardiac Management The importance of the appropriate perioperative cardiac management in non-cardiac surgery lies in the high number of surgical procedures performed eac ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Peripheral Diabetic Neuropathy Peripheral neuropathy (PN) encompasses a broad range of clinical pathologies potentially presenting with peripheral nervous system dysfunction. Patien ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Peripheral Nerve Blocks Recent advances in surgical techniques and the development of a greater number of minimally invasive procedures have led to an increase in outpatient ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Peripheral Vascular Bypass Peripheral vascular bypass (PVB) refers to surgical revision of blood flow to restore perfusion distal to an occluded or otherwise disrupted arterial ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Peripheral Vascular Disease Peripheral vascular diseases are a significant cause of morbidity and limb loss in the United States. An early identification and risk factor modifica ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Peroneal Nerve Injury The common peroneal nerve is a major nerve that innervates the lower extremity. There are numerous traumatic and non-traumatic causes of peroneal nerv ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Peroneal Tendon Syndromes Peroneal tendon disorders are a cause of hindfoot and lateral foot pain. There are three primary disorders of the tendons; Peroneal tendonitis, perone ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pes Cavus Pes cavus is an orthopedic condition that manifests in both children and adults. It is defined primarily by the elevation of the longitudinal arch of ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pes Planus Pes planus is a relatively common foot deformity that refers to the loss of the medial longitudinal arch of the foot, resulting in this region of the ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Phantom Limb Pain Phantom limb pain is the perception of pain or discomfort in a limb that is no longer there. PLP most commonly presents as a sequela of amputation. Th ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Phlegmasia Alba And Cerulea Dolens Phlegmasia alba dolens (PAD) and phlegmasia cerulea dolens (PCD) are uncommon conditions that result from acute, massive venous thromboembolism. These ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Piezogenic Pedal Papule Piezogenic pedal papules are small papular herniations of subcutaneous tissue on the heel that occur only upon standing or with application of pressur ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pilon Fracture “Pilon,” the French word for pestle, was first used by Etienne Destot in 1911 as an analogy for the mechanical function of the distal tibia on the tal ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Plantar Fasciitis Plantar fasciitis is the result of degenerative irritation of the plantar fascia origin at the medial calcaneal tuberosity of the heel as well as the ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Plantar Fibromatosis Plantar fibromatosis is a benign fibroblastic, connective tissue proliferative disorder of the superficial plantar aponeurosis of the foot. It belongs ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Plantar Heel Pain Plantar heel pain is a common problem among adults. It can lead to severe pain which causes significant disability and impairment of activities of dai ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Plica Syndrome A plica is a band of thick, fibrotic tissue that extends from the synovial capsule of a joint. The knee is the joint most commonly affected by plica t ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Popliteal Artery Aneurysm A popliteal artery aneurysm is defined as a focal dilation in the artery, with the largest diameter being more than 50% of the normal. These focal dil ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Popliteal Artery Entrapment Syndrome The rare clinical manifestation of Popliteal Artery Entrapment Syndrome (PAES) was defined approximately 40 years ago. It has a preference for young t ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Posterior Cruciate Ligament Knee Injuries The Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL) is one of the four major ligaments of the knee joint that functions to stabilize the tibia on the femur. It orig ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) represents an acquired, progressive disease of the foot and ankle that is seen commonly in middle-aged pati ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pressure Injury Pressure injuries are formed when pressure causes localized damage to underlying skin and soft tissue. These skin and soft tissue injuries remain a si ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Primary Bone Cancer Primary bone cancers are rare malignant tumors originating in bone and derived from primitive mesenchymal cells. They are frequently aggressive tumors ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Primary Osteoarthritis Primary osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis that affects adults and the elderly. All providers, but especially primary care physicians ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Prosthetic Joint Infection There is no uniformly accepted definition for prosthetic joint infection. The presentation is often varied and classic features of infection, such as ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Psoriasis Psoriasis is a chronic proliferative and inflammatory condition of the skin. It is characterized by erythematous plaques covered with silvery scales p ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Psoriatic Arthritis Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is chronic inflammatory arthritis associated with psoriasis (PsO) and found in about 20 to 30% of such patients. It shares ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pudendal Nerve Entrapment Syndrome Pudendal neuralgia caused by pudendal nerve entrapment is chronic, severely disabling, neuropathic pain in the distribution of the pudendal nerve in b ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Quadriceps Tendon Rupture The quadriceps tendon is derived from the muscular junction of the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and vastus intermedius muscles a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radiation Therapy Induced Skin Ulcer Management of acute or chronic skin injuries due to ionizing radiation is a complex challenge with injuries ranging from acute redness to chronic woun ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ramipril Ramipril is an ACE-inhibitor which is used for several indications. These include hypertension, prevention of heart failure progression post-myocardia ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Reactive Arthritis Reactive arthritis (ReA) is inflammatory arthritis which manifests in several days to weeks after a gastrointestinal or genitourinary infection. It is ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Recurrent Ankle Sprain Ankle sprains are one of the most common recurrent injuries of the lower extremity. Up to 40% of ankle sprains go on to develop chronic symptoms, incl ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rhabdomyolysis Rhabdomyolysis is a state of muscle injury that can lead to several forms of systemic insult, with the most important being acute kidney injury, elect ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rickets Rickets is a condition characterized by a defect in mineralization of the epiphyseal plates. Rickets could be inherited or acquired. The acquired rick ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ritonavir Ritonavir is a protease inhibitor used for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. It is seldom employed for its own antiviral activity but instead serves as a boo ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ropivacaine Ropivacaine is FDA-approved for surgical anesthesia and acute pain management. It is used in an epidural block for surgery—such as cesarean sections. ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Salter Harris Fractures The Salter-Harris classification system is a method used to grade fractures that occur in children and involve the growth plate, which is also known a ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Saphenous Nerve Block The saphenous nerve block is widely used in both emergency and perioperative settings for procedural anesthesia and post-procedural pain management. T ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Saphenous Vein Cutdown The establishment of venous access is essential to the treatment and resuscitation of both the medically and traumatically ill patient. Adequate venou ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Scabies Scabies is a contagious skin condition caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei which burrows into the skin and causes severe itching. Scabies is transmit ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Scar Revision Patients may want a scar revision for a multitude of reasons. They can cause function limitations, be a reminder of a traumatic event, or cause other ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sciatic Nerve Block The sciatic nerve supplies the vast majority of motor and sensory function to the lower limb. Regional anesthetic blockade of the sciatic nerve can be ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Secondary Osteonecrosis of the Knee Secondary osteonecrosis is a subtype of the disabling disease osteonecrosis, which leads to end-stage arthritis of various joints, including the knee. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Segond Fractures Segond fractures are a type of avulsion fracture on the lateral aspect of the knee. They are relatively common and are highly associated with an under ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Septic Bursitis Bursae are fluid-filled sacs that produce small amounts of synovial fluid to reduce friction between mobile structures of the musculoskeletal system. ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sever Disease Sever disease, or calcaneal apophysitis, is an overuse injury in young athletes that causes heel pain. This overuse injury is thought to be caused by ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sjogren Syndrome Primary Sjogren syndrome is a systemic autoimmune disorder commonly presenting with dryness involving the eyes and mouth due to inflammation and resul ... Read the Article 1.5 24 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (slipped upper femoral epiphysis), is a common hip pathology in pre-adolescents and adolescents. It occurs when the ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Snapping Hip Syndrome Snapping hip syndrome (dancer’s hip or coxa saltans) is a clinical condition characterized by a palpable or audible snapping sensation that is heard d ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Soft Tissue Clear Cell Sarcoma Clear cell sarcoma of soft tissue (CCSST) is an exceedingly rare tumor that originates from neural crest cells and is histologically characterized by ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spina Bifida Spina Bifida is a generalized term for the neurologic condition resulting from the failure of neural tube closure of varying degrees during fetal deve ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spinal Stenosis Spinal stenosis is a condition characterized by the compression of the nerve roots by a number of pathologic factors, leading to symptoms such as pain ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spondylolysis Spondylolysis is a unilateral or bilateral defect in the region of the pars interarticularis, (isthmus or bone bridge between the inferior and superio ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Stellate Ganglion Blocks Stellate ganglion block (SGB) is used for the treatment of many medical conditions including complex regional pain syndrome and peripheral vascular di ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Straight Leg Raise Test The straight leg raise test, also called the Lasegue test, is a fundamental maneuver during the physical examination of a patient with lower back pain ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Stress Fractures Stress fractures occur when bone, typically in the lower extremities, is subjected to repeated mechanical stress that results in microscopic fractures ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Stress Reaction and Fractures Stress injuries represent a spectrum of injuries ranging from periostitis, caused by inflammation of the periosteum, to complete stress fractures with ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Subtrochanteric Femur Fractures When a patient presents with an open subtrochanteric fracture, time is of the essence. Improving health professionals ability to quickly recognize thi ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Suction Drains Surgical drains are catheters placed near the surgical wound to remove blood, pus, or other fluid, and prevent it from accumulating in the body. They ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Superficial Peroneal Nerve Block The superficial peroneal nerve (superficial fibular nerve) is a mixed nerve that carries sensory information from the anterolateral aspect of the leg ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Superficial Thrombophlebitis Superficial thrombophlebitis, increasingly known as superficial venous thrombosis, is no longer considered a benign entity. It is often associated wit ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sural Nerve Biopsy Peripheral neuropathy is a condition present in a wide range of etiologies. Of these etiologies, diabetes remains the most common cause of peripheral ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sural Nerve Block The sural nerve block is a regional anesthetic technique used as an alternative or adjunct to general anesthesia for foot and ankle surgery. Periphera ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sural Nerve Graft Peripheral nerve injuries are a frequent condition commonly developed as a consequence of trauma. They may occur due to various mechanisms including l ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Swimmer's Shoulder Swimmers have significant susceptibility for shoulder injuries due to the involvement of the shoulders required for various strokes and the high volum ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Syndactyly Syndactyly is one of the most common congenital anomalies of the extremities. It is a failure of differentiation of the digits, defined as a fusion of ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Synovial Chondromatosis Synovial chondromatosis typically presents with large joint effusion(s), and joints may appear deformed due to swelling or synovial hypertrophy. Synov ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Talar Neck Fractures Talar neck fractures are relatively uncommon, but potentially devastating injuries that are often associated with life-altering sequelae. They are ass ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Talipes Equinovarus Talipes equinovarus is a congenital disorder that affects the mobility and quality of life of patients worldwide. This common abnormality is typically ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Talocalcaneal Coalition Talocalcaneal coalition or peroneal spastic foot or subtalar coalition is an anomalous connection between the talus and the calcaneum that can present ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Talus Fracture The talus ranks as the second largest tarsal bone with unique anatomic features and serves an important role in the mobility of the foot and ankle as ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tarsal Navicular Fractures Fractures of the tarsal navicular bone are most commonly the result of either traumatic injury or undue stress, with the latter having a higher incide ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome Tarsal tunnel syndrome is sometimes referred to as tibial nerve dysfunction or posterior tibial nerve neuralgia. It is an entrapment neuropathy that i ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tetanus Prophylaxis This activity reviews and outlines the role of tetanus prophylaxis. It will outline the basics of immunization and prophylaxis and will discuss types ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thiazide Diuretics Thiazide diuretics are an FDA-approved class of drugs that inhibit the reabsorption of 3% to 5% of luminal sodium in the distal convoluted tubule of t ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thrombocytopenia Thrombocytopenia is a platelet count below the lower limit of normal, i.e., 150000/microliter (for adults). This activity reviews the etiology, evalua ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tibia Diaphyseal Fracture Tibial fractures are common injuries; the subcutaneous nature of the tibia makes it more prone to open injury. Radiographs are essential in the initia ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tibia Fractures Overview Tibial shaft fractures are the most common long bone fractures and are seen in 4 percent of the senior population. This activity reviews the evaluatio ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tibial Eminence Fractures Tibial eminence fractures are very common in the pediatric population. Appropriate diagnosis and treatment are important to avoid the numerous associa ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tibial Plateau Fractures Tibial plateau fractures account for 1 percent of all fractures and are typically sustained with high-energy mechanisms. Tibial plateau fractures may ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tillaux Fracture Tillaux fractures are intraarticular fractures involving the physis and epiphysis of the distal tibia and are seen in children and adolescents. Thes ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Trendelenburg Gait A trendelenburg gait is an abnormal gait resulting from a defective hip abductor mechanism. The primary musculature involved is the gluteal musculatur ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Triplane Ankle Fracture Triplane ankle fractures are distal tibia physeal fractures that occur in children from 10 to 17 years of age. The physis ossifies in a predictable or ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Triple Arthrodesis The Triple Arthrodesis is a versatile procedure useful in many pedal conditions. The term "triple" arthrodesis refers to a fusion procedure of three j ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Turf Toe The term turf toe was initially described by Bowers in 1976 as a sprain of the plantar capsule ligament of the great toe metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joi ... Read the Article 0.75 2 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Urinary Tract Infection Forty percent of women in the United States will develop a urinary tract infection (UTI) at some point in her lifetime, making this one of the most co ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Varicose Vein Endovenous Laser Therapy Endovenous laser ablation is used in the treatment and management of varicose veins from chronic venous disease. Indication for this treatment is a di ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Varicose Veins Venous reflux, also known as chronic venous insufficiency, is a common condition and usually the underlying cause of varicose veins, reticular veins, ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Varicose Veins Radiofrequency Ablation Therapy Radiofrequency ablation is a minimally invasive technique for the treatment of superficial venous insufficiency causing varicose veins and chronic ven ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Venous Insufficiency Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) is a common condition that typically involves lower extremity edema, trophic skin changes, and discomfort secondary ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wart Warts are prevalent benign lesions caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV) that occur in the mucosa and skin. Warts may cause significant morbidity f ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wound Assessment A wound is damaged or disruption to the skin and, before treatment, the exact cause, location, and type of wound must be assessed to provide appropria ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wound Closure Techniques Wound management is an essential part of emergency medicine practice. The clinicians care for wounds ranging from minor and simple lacerations or abra ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wound Dressings Wounds can be present over different anatomical parts of the body. However, the basic principles of choosing a wound dressing remain the same. Choosin ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wound Foreign Body Removal Soft tissue foreign bodies or wounds associated with foreign bodies result from blunt/abrasive trauma or penetrating trauma. Patients may present earl ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wound Irrigation Wounds and lacerations are common complaints. Each year in the United States, roughly 12.2 million patients are seen in emergency departments for woun ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wound Pressure Injury Management Pressure injuries have been given various names over the last several years, including pressure ulcers, decubitus ulcers, or bed sores. Pressure injur ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wrist Fracture Distal radius fractures, commonly known as a wrist fracture, are defined by the involvement of the metaphysis of the distal radius. In younger patient ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Xanthoma Xanthomas are localized lipid deposits within an organ system. They are often an important sign of systemic disease. To avoid the high morbidity and m ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO

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