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Surgery-Obstetrics Gynecology

Surgery-Obstetrics Gynecology

Stay up to date on the latest medical knowledge with this Surgery-Obstetrics Gynecology activity. In this online self-assessment activity, you'll read our reference articles and test your knowledge with 786 activities in Surgery-Obstetrics Gynecology for 722.5 total CME hours.


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1 Year Unlimited Physician MD/DO/PA CME

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Access to all the Physician MD/DO/PA CME activities in all specialties.

Featured Article Activities

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Duodenal Atresia And Stenosis

Duodenal atresia is a congenital intestinal obstruction that can cause bilious or nonbilious vomiting within the first 2 ...
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Hours: 1

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Uterine Inversion

Uterine inversion is one of the most serious complications of childbirth. It refers to the collapse of the fundus into t ...
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Hours: 0.75

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Hypercortisolism

Hypercortisolism refers to the clinical state resulting from excess tissue exposure to cortisol and/or other glucocortic ...
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Hours: 1.25

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Pediatric Preoperative Management

The preoperative management of anesthesia in children differs from that in adults. These differences include employing c ...
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Hours: 1

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Health Screening

A health screening test is a medical test or procedure performed on members of an asymptomatic population or population ...
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Hours: 0.75

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Adrenal Cancer

Adrenal masses are a frequent observation in the adrenal gland. While most lesions are benign, adrenocortical carcinoma ...
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Hours: 1

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Surgery-Obstetrics Gynecology Activities

Title Description Hours Questions
5 Alpha Reductase Deficiency This activity reviews 5-alpha-reductase deficiency, an important cause of ambiguous genitalia in children. Initially, the phenotype of children with 5 ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominal Compartment Syndrome Abdominal compartment syndrome occurs when the pressure in the abdominal cavity elevates beyond 20 mmHg. It is associated with multiorgan dysfunction. ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominal Hysterectomy This activity describes the current status of abdominal hysterectomy, which represents the most common gynecologic surgical procedure performed in the ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abnormal Labor Physicians, advanced practice nurses, nursing personnel and midwives must be aware of what constitutes normal versus abnormal labor. Without proper sk ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Abnormal uterine bleeding is a broad term that describes irregularities in the menstrual cycle involving frequency, regularity, duration, and volume o ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abortion Elective termination of pregnancy (abortion) is a common procedure despite the ethical and moral controversy surrounding it. With the availability of ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abortion Complications Roughly one million abortions are performed each year in the United States alone. The total abortion-related complication rate is estimated to be abou ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
ACE Inhibitors ACE inhibitors are a medication class used in the treatment and management of hypertension, which is a significant risk factor for coronary disease he ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acne Vulgaris Acne vulgaris is an inflammatory disorder of pilosebaceous unit, which runs a chronic course and it is self-limiting. Acne vulgaris is triggered by pr ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acquired Hemophilia Acquired hemophilia is an uncommon but severe bleeding disorder. It is caused by the development of autoantibodies directed against one of the antihem ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Antiretroviral Therapy Human immunodeficiency virus infection is a significant health problem worldwide. Advances in treatment have made this disease not only manageable but ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Active Tuberculosis Active tuberculosis is a condition in which Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes infection; typically in the lungs, although many systems can be involved ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acupuncture Acupuncture is a system of medical treatment and ideology that is based on the principle of applying small needles or pressure to specific points in t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Cholecystitis Acute cholecystitis is inflammation of the gallbladder that occurs due to occlusion of the cystic duct or impaired emptying of the gallbladder. Often ... Read the Article 1.5 22 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Cystitis Urinary tract infections are the most common bacterial infection in women, and result in roughly eight million emergency department or clinic visits a ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Eclampsia Eclampsia is a pregnancy-related disorder that manifests as new onset generalized tonic colonic seizures. Typically eclampsia occurs after gestational ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Mastitis Mastitis can be broken down into lactational and non-lactational causes. While non-lactational causes of mastitis are less common, lactational mastiti ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Postpartum Hemorrhage Obstetric hemorrhage is the most common and dangerous complication of childbirth. Traditionally, postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) has been defined as great ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Pulmonary Embolism Acute pulmonary embolism is a common clinical condition with a variable clinical presentation, making its diagnosis challenging. This activity outline ... Read the Article 2 30 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Stress Disorder Acute stress disorder (ASD) was first outlined in 1994 at the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) as a new ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acyclovir Acyclovir is a medication used in the management and treatment of infections caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). It is FDA approved to treat gen ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Addison Disease Though Addison disease is a relatively rare condition, it can have devastating consequences if not diagnosed and managed appropriately. Often the insi ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adenomyosis Adenomyosis is a gynecologic condition characterized by ectopic endometrial tissue within the uterine myometrium. Presenting signs and symptoms vary, ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adhesiolysis Intra-abdominal adhesions are commonly formed after surgery, but can also be congenital. They are the most common cause of bowel obstruction. The majo ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adrenal Cancer Adrenal masses are a frequent observation in the adrenal gland. While most lesions are benign, adrenocortical carcinoma should be a consideration when ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adverse Events Adverse events (AE) occur frequently in our medical system and at least one in ten patients are affected. An AE is a harmful and negative outcome that ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Akinesia Akinesia or "absent movement" is a clinical sign that could be indicative of a number of disorders, depending on the age group of the patient. The var ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alagille Syndrome Alagille syndrome (ALGS) is a multisystem autosomal dominant disorder with a wide variety of clinical manifestations. It is also known as arteriohepat ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alendronate Alendronate is FDA-approved for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis, steroid-induced osteoporosis, ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alopecia Areata Alopecia areata (AA) is a form of alopecia that impacts hair follicles, nails, and rarely, the retinal pigment epithelium. It typically presents with ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alosetron Alosetron is a medication used in the management and treatment of severe diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D). It is in the class of ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alpha Thalassemia Hemoglobin H disease (alpha-thalassemia) can be found in patients that live in areas with a high incidence of malaria. Symptoms at presentation, such ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ambiguous Genitalia And Disorders of Sexual Differentiation Infants born with a disorder of sex development (DSD) prompt multiple medical, surgical, ethical, psychosocial, and physical issues for patients and t ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amenorrhea Amenorrhea is defined as the absence of menstruation during the reproductive years of a woman's life. Physiological states of amenorrhea are seen, mos ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aminoglycosides While aminoglycosides are an older class of medication, they continue to be clinically valuable. Aminoglycosides have a broad spectrum of activity cov ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amiodarone Amiodarone is one of the most commonly used anti-arrhythmic drugs. While the United States FDA has labeled amiodarone for the treatment of life-threat ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amniocentesis Amniocentesis is the aspiration of amniotic fluid from the amniotic cavity and is the most common invasive fetal testing procedure. It is usually perf ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amniotic Band Syndrome Amniotic band syndrome (ABS) comprises a variety of congenital anomalies which includes disruption, deformation, and malformations of organs which wer ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amniotic Fluid Embolism Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is a rare entity, but one which has very high mortality and morbidity rates. This article will explain the clinical pres ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amniotomy Amniotomy, also known as artificial rupture of membranes (AROM) or colloquially known as "breaking the water," is the intentional rupture of the amnio ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amoxapine Amoxapine is an FDA approved drug belonging to the class of second-generation tricyclic dibenzoxazepine antidepressants. Generally, it is reserved for ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amoxicillin Clavulanate Amoxicillin-clavulanate is a mainstay antibiotic in emergency departments and primary care offices throughout the country. It is a combination of two ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anabolic Steroid Toxicity Anabolic steroids such as testosterone are produced naturally and enhance protein synthesis at the cellular level. There are also synthetic analogs av ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anal Cancer Anal cancer is a rare tumor comprising only 2.5% of all digestive system malignancies in the United States. The pathophysiology of the development of ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is a common etiology of sexual developmental disorders and results in varying phenotypes. These disorders of and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anembryonic Pregnancy A blighted ovum, also known as an anembryonic pregnancy, occurs when a fertilized egg implants and a gestational (embryonic) sac forms and grows, but ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARB) Pharmaceutical RAAS blockade has is a common and successful strategy in the treatment of several diseases, including hypertension, congestive heart fa ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anorexia Nervosa Anorexia nervosa is defined by a restriction of energy intake relative to requirements, which leads to significantly low body weight. Patients with th ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anoscopy Anoscopy is a bedside procedure that is inexpensive and can be performed quickly without bowel preparation or sedation. With this method, the examiner ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anovulatory Bleeding Abnormal uterine bleeding due to ovulatory dysfunction causes irregular and often heavy menses. This condition, if left untreated, can have a signific ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antepartum Infections This activity reviews the evaluation and management of antepartum infections and highlights the role of the interprofessional team in improving matern ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antiemetic Histamine H1 Receptor Blockers First-generation antihistamines have several indications that primarily include nausea and vomiting secondary to motion sickness and vertigo, but seco ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antiemetic Neurokinin-1 Receptor Blockers Neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonists are a new class of antiemetic drugs that possess unique anxiolytic, antidepressant, and antiemetic properties ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis Anti NMDAR encephalitis is a relatively common autoimmune encephalitis characterized by complex neuropsychiatric features and the presence of Immunogl ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antiphospholipid Syndrome Antiphospholipid antibodies are autoantibodies that are directed against phospholipid-binding proteins. Antiphospholipid syndrome (APLS) is characteri ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anton Syndrome Anton-Babinski syndrome, also known as ABS or Anton syndrome, is visual anosognosia, or denial of vision loss, associated with confabulation, or makin ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Valvular Atresia Aortic valvular atresia is a congenital condition in which the aortic valvular cusps are fused at birth. It frequently forms as a spectrum of malforma ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortocaval Compression Syndrome Aortocaval compression syndrome is also known as a supine hypotensive syndrome. It typically occurs in pregnant females, usually after 20 weeks of ges ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aphthous Stomatitis Aphthous stomatitis is a common ailment, idiopathic in nature, with recurrent painful aphthous ulcers (commonly termed “canker sores”) on the non-kera ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aplastic Anemia Aplastic anemia refers to the syndrome of chronic primary hematopoietic failure from injury leading to diminished or absent hematopoietic precursors i ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Appendicitis in Pregnancy Appendicitis during pregnancy is a condition in which the appendix becomes inflamed and infected. Its treatment consists of emergent surgery for the r ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Approach New Breast Mass Breast masses are common and are associated with a wide spectrum of disease, from benign physiological adenosis to advanced malignancy. A structured a ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arginase Deficiency Argininemia is an autosomal recessive disorder causing hyperammonemia secondary to arginine accumulation. It is a disorder first noticed in children w ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arnold Chiari Malformation Arnold-Chiari or Chiari malformations describe a group of deformities of the posterior fossa and hindbrain, which includes the cerebellum, pons, and m ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aromatase Inhibitors Anastrozole is a medication used in the management and treatment of breast cancer. It is in the aromatase inhibitors class of drugs. This activity des ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Asherman Syndrome Asherman syndrome (intrauterine adhesions or intrauterine synechiae) occurs when scar tissue forms inside the uterus and/or the cervix. These adhesion ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Asthma Asthma is a chronic disease of the air passages characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways. Symptoms of asthma include shortness of br ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Asthma In Pregnancy Bronchial asthma (BA) is considered the most common chronic disease in pregnancy, complicating 4% to 8% of pregnancies. Bronchial asthma exacerbation ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Asthma Medications Asthma is a wide-reaching, chronic, inflammatory illness that impacts millions of people daily. It is frequently responsible for unscheduled healthcar ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Asymptomatic Bacteriuria Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the presence of bacteria in the properly collected urine of a patient that has no signs or symptoms of a urinary tract inf ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atypical Ductal Hyperplasia Atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) is a pathology finding, usually found incidentally on biopsy of the breast. ADH is associated with an increased risk ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) is a category of cervical epithelial cell abnormalities described by the Bethesda system ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Autoimmune Hepatitis and Pregnancy Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic inflammatory liver disorder that is usually characterized by circulating autoantibodies and elevated serum glo ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacteremia Bacteremia, in the strictest sense, refers to viable bacteria in the blood. Asymptomatic bacteremia can occur in normal daily activities such as condu ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacterial Vaginosis Bacterial vaginosis is a condition caused by an overgrowth of normal vaginal flora. Most commonly, this presents clinically with increased vaginal dis ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bartholin Gland Cyst A Bartholin gland cyst is usually a unilateral, asymptomatic blockage of the Bartholin gland that may be incidentally discovered during a pelvic exam ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Benign Breast Calcifications Benign breast calcifications are common. If benign breast calcifications are not appropriately identified, unnecessary intervention and use of finite ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Benzathine Penicillin Benzathine penicillin is formulated from two penicillin G molecules reacting with diphenylethylene diamine. It is active against gram-positive bacteri ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Benzoyl Peroxide Benzoyl peroxide is an over-the-counter topical medication and is also an FDA-approved prescription medication for the treatment of acne vulgaris. It ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bernard Soulier Syndrome Bernard-Soulier syndrome is a rare inherited blood clotting disorder that is characterized by unusually giant platelet cells, thrombocytopenia, and pr ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Beta 2 Agonists Beta-2 adrenergic receptor agonists are a class of medications used in the frontline management and treatment of bronchial asthma and COPD. This activ ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Beta Lactamase Inhibitors Beta-lactamase inhibitors are drugs that are co-administered with beta-lactam antibiotics to prevent antibiotic resistance by inhibiting serine beta-l ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bevacizumab Bevacizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and is used for the treatment of several differen ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bicornuate Uterus A bicornuate uterus is a uterine malformation that is produced due to impairment in the fusion of Mullerian ducts. The bicornuate uterus is a rare ano ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biofeedback Biofeedback is a technique to augment the normal sensory feedback and allow better control of body functions that are usually considered involuntary. ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Birth Asphyxia Perinatal asphyxia is a lack of blood flow or gas exchange to or from the fetus in the period immediately before, during, or after the birth process. ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bisphosphonate Bisphosphonates define a class of drugs that are widely indicated since the 1990s to treat osteoporosis both in men and women. Their effectiveness in ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Black Cohosh Black Cohosh, or Cimicifuga racemosa, is a perennial dicot of the Buttercup family native to the Eastern half of the United States and Canada. It is a ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bladder Rupture Bladder rupture is most commonly due to abdominal and/or pelvic trauma but may be spontaneous or iatrogenic in association with surgical or endoscopic ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blast Injuries Explosions are unique in their ability to inflict acute injuries on many people at the same time, resulting in high levels of mortality and morbidity. ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blood Transfusion Blood transfusions are a relatively common medical procedure and while typically safe, there are multiple complications that practitioners need to be ... Read the Article 1.25 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Body Fluid Exposures Health care workers have serious concerns about exposures to bodily fluids. Accidental exposures to bodily fluids present a wide variety of issues to ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bone Marrow Failure Bone marrow failure (BMF) refers to the decreased production of one or more major hematopoietic lineages which leads to diminished or absent hematopoi ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bosentan Pulmonary artery hypertension has proven to cause significant mortality and morbidity worldwide. The first-line treatment option for pulmonary artery ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Boutonneuse Fever Boutonneuse fever is a disease caused by the rickettsia genus and is of the spotted fever group classification. This disease classically causes fever, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bowenoid Papulosis Bowenoid papulosis is an uncommon sexually transmitted condition that occurs in both males and females. It is characterized by multiple well-demarcate ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brachytherapy Brachytherapy is a procedure to treat and manage cancers. It acts by placing sources containing radioactive isotopes that emit radiation for a specifi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Braxton Hicks Contractions Braxton-Hicks contractions, also known as prodromal or false labor pains, are contractions of the uterus that typically are not felt until the second ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
BRCA 1 and 2 Breast cancer genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 are tumor suppressor genes whose mutations significantly increase the likelihood of developing particular types of ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Abscess Breast abscesses are a common problem, especially in lactating women. Most breast abscesses are benign, however when a non-lactating patient presents ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Biopsy With improved screening and diagnostic techniques, the incidence and prevalence of breast cancer are rising worldwide. In 2018 alone, there were 2.2 m ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Cancer Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women, accounting for more than 1 in 10 new cancer diagnoses each year. It is the second most com ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Cancer Conservation Therapy Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths among females in the world. The rapid growth of breast conservation therapy has significantl ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Cancer Surgery Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in the U.S. with constantly evolving treatment guidelines. The treatment of breast cancer often invo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Cyst Breast cysts are a common diagnosis among women and one of the most common reasons for a referral to a breast clinic. These cysts can be entirely asym ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Examination Techniques The ability to perform a thorough and accurate breast exam is an important skill for medical practitioners of many levels and across many specialties. ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Fibroadenoma A breast fibroadenoma is a painless, unilateral, benign tumor that presents as a solid lump. It commonly occurs in women between the age of 14 to 35 y ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Implant Rupture Breast augmentation is a surgical procedure where a saline or silicone implant is placed retroglandular or retropectoral within the breast. A possible ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Implants Breast implants are used for breast augmentation in aesthetic as well as oncoplastic surgery. The various types of implants over the years have had di ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging Over the past several years, magnetic resonance imaging of the breast has become an increasingly important modality for screening for and diagnosing b ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Milk Jaundice Breast milk jaundice is a type of jaundice that occurs in neonates due to breastfeeding. It happens within the first week of life due to the abnormal ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Nipple Discharge Nipple discharge is fluid that leaks from one or both nipples of non-pregnant and non-breastfeeding women. Nipple discharge can at times be a complex ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Ultrasound Breast ultrasound is performed due to the high incidence rate of breast cancer amongst women globally. Ultrasound is typically used as an adjunct to m ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breech Presentation Breech presentation refers to the fetus in the longitudinal lie with the buttocks or lower extremity entering the pelvis first. The three types of bre ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brexanolone Brexanolone is a medication used in the treatment of postpartum depression in adult women. It is in the GABA-A modulator class of medications. This ac ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Budesonide Budesonide is a medication used in the management and treatment of the inflammatory diseases, mainly affecting the airways and gastrointestinal tract. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bulimia Nervosa Bulimia nervosa is a disorder that is characterized by binge eating and inappropriate compensatory behavior to control weight with potentially dangero ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bupivacaine Bupivacaine is a potent local anesthetic with unique characteristics from the amide group of local anesthetics. Local anesthetics are used in regional ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bupropion Bupropion is an antidepressant medication that is now also used in smoking cessation. Bupropion has been FDA-approved since 1985. The drug is FDA-appr ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Buspirone Buspirone is an anxiolytic. Originally the drug was being developed as an antipsychotic but found not to be effective for psychosis, but it had anxio ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Caffeine Caffeine is a naturally occurring, central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class and is the most widely taken psychoactive stimul ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cancer Breast Screening In women, breast cancer is number one in incidence and mortality when compared to all cancers. It is the most common non-skin cancer and second deadli ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cancer Screening Cancer screening is pivotal in reducing the mortality and morbidity from cancer. Some of the screening methods, like a pap smear, has been successful ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Calcifications Cardiac calcifications carry different diagnostic and prognostic significance depending on their location. They can involve the coronary arteries, car ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Disease In Pregnancy Many cardiac diseases during pregnancy are under investigation, and many others which are still not understood require further inquiry. Some of these ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Rhabdomyoma Cardiac rhabdomyoma is a rare tumor. It arises from the striated muscles. It is a type of hamartoma seen in the pediatric age group. Although mostly a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carney Complex Carney complex (CNC) is a rare genetic disorder associated with one of the multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes. Carney complex affects multip ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Caroli Disease Caroli disease is a rare inherited disorder involving segmental dilatation of large, intrahepatic bile ducts which appear as cysts on imaging and hist ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Castor Oil Castor oil is a vegetable oil made from Ricinus communis, a plant common in the Eastern areas of the world. Castor oil is most well known for its laxa ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Caudal Anesthesia A caudal block is a type of central neuraxial block, most commonly used in pediatrics to provide analgesia for surgeries up to the umbilicus, and in a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cavum Septum Pellucidum The septum pellucidum (meaning translucent wall in Latin - SP), also known as the ventricle of Sylvius, is a thin, triangular double membrane separati ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cefotaxime Cefotaxime(CTX) is a medication used in the management and treatment of cervicitis/urethritis and pneumonia. Cefotaxime (CTX) is a beta-lactam antibio ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cellulitis Cellulitis is a common bacterial skin infection, with over 14 million cases occurring in the United States annually. This activity educates the learne ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central and Peripheral Cyanosis Peripheral cyanosis is the bluish discoloration of the distal extremities (Hands, fingertips, toes), and can sometimes involve circumoral and periorbi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cephalohematoma A cephalohematoma is an accumulation of blood under the scalp. During the birth process, small blood vessels on the head of the fetus are broken as a ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebral Palsy Cerebral palsy is a group of permanent disorders affecting the development of movement and causing a limitation of activity. Non-progressive disturban ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebral Venous Thrombosis Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), which includes thrombosis of the cerebral veins and the dural sinuses, is a rare disorder that can lead to significa ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Cancer Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide. Primary prevention and screening are by far the most effective modalities for ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Cerclage Cervical cerclage is performed as an attempt to prolong pregnancy in certain women who are at higher risk of preterm delivery. Cerclage placement may ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Clear Cell Carcinoma The management of clear cell carcinoma of the cervix is complex, and new approaches have been recently introduced. To achieve optimal outcomes, the ba ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Dysplasia The Pap smear is responsible for decreasing the incidence of and mortality rates from cervical cancer. The Papanicolaou (Pap) smear is a collection of ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Ectropion Cervical ectropion is a benign gynecological condition and is regarded as a normal variant that frequently occurs in women of the reproductive age gro ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Epidural Injection Cervical epidural corticosteroids can provide significant benefits in patients experiencing chronic neck pain secondary to cervical radiculopathy. Thi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Incompetence Cervical insufficiency is the inability of the cervix to retain fetus, in the absence of uterine contractions or labor (painless cervical dilatation), ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Cervical cancer incidence and mortality have decreased due primarily to screening programs using the pap smear. As more outcome data has become availa ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Intraepithelial Squamous Cell Lesion This article reviews the anatomy, natural history, epidemiology, etiology, clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, evaluation, treatment, compl ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Polyps Cervical polyps are abnormal growths that appear in the cervix. Although cervical polyps are commonly benign, malignant polyps can be seen in 0.2 to 1 ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervicitis Cervicitis is the inflammation of the ectocervix, which can be infectious or non-infectious. Due to the association of serious complications like infe ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cesarean Section This activity reviews the cesarean section, and it highlights ways in which an interprofessional care team can impact the health of women and their ne ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cetirizine Cetirizine is a medication used in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and urticaria. It is a second-generation antihistamine. This activity reviews th ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
CHARGE Syndrome CHARGE syndrome is an inherited disorder caused by a mutation in the DNA-binding protein-7 CHD7 gene. CHARGE syndrome is an acronym for coloboma, hear ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chediak Higashi Syndrome Chediak Higashi syndrome (CHS) is an autosomal recessive disorder that is characterized by easy bruising, oculocutaneous albinism and recurrent pyogen ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chiari II Malformation Chiari II malformation is a relatively common congenital malformation of the posterior fossa and the spine characterized by beaked midbrain, downward ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Child Sexual Abuse And Neglect Sexual abuse of children is the involvement of children or adolescents in sexual activities that he or she does not fully comprehend and can include e ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chlamydia Chlamydia trachomatis is responsible for the greatest number of sexually transmitted infections and the majority of infection-related of blindness wor ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chloramphenicol Chloramphenicol is a medication used in the management and treatment of superficial eye infections such as bacterial conjunctivitis, and otitis extern ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chloroprocaine Chloroprocaine is an ester class local anesthetic and is indicated for neuraxial anesthesia (caudal, epidural and spinal), as well as peripheral nerve ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Choanal Atresia The nasal choanae are paired openings that connect the nasal cavity with the nasopharynx. Choanal atresia is a congenital condition in which these ope ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Choledocholithiasis Choledocholithiasis is the presence of stones within the common bile duct. It is estimated that common bile duct stones are present in anywhere from 1 ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cholelithiasis Cholelithiasis or gallstones are hardened deposits of digestive fluid that can form in your gallbladder. The gallbladder is a small organ located just ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chorioamnionitis Chorioamnionitis is an infection that can occur before labor, during labor, or after delivery. It can be acute, subacute, or chronic. Chorioamnionitis ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Choriocarcinoma Choriocarcinoma is a rare, aggressive neoplastic type of trophoblastic disease. The 2 major types of choriocarcinoma are gestational and non-gestation ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chorionic Villus Sampling Chorionic villus sampling is a prenatal diagnostic test performed between 10 and 13 weeks gestation. This activity reviews the indications, risks, and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chorioretinitis Chorioretinitis is a type of uveitis affecting the posterior segment of the eye. It is a vision-threatening condition that is associated with many sys ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Insomnia Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder in the United States affecting about one-third of the general population. According to the third edition of ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Pain Syndrome Chronic pain is a leading chief complaint in an adult ambulatory care setting. Unfortunately, chronic non-cancer pain is often poorly understood by ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Pelvic Pain Chronic pelvic pain can be a disabling, chronic, persistent pain, within the pelvis in women. Relatively common, chronic pelvic pain is associated wit ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cisplatin Cisplatin is a medication used in the management and treatment of solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. It is in the alkylating agent class of cy ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cleft Lip Cleft lip deformity is one of the most common congenital deformities, and management requires an interprofessional approach to address the physical cl ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cleft Palate Cleft palate is a developmental defect in the hard palate that results in a communication between the oral and nasal cavities resulting in nasal reflu ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clindamycin Clindamycin is a medication used for the treatment of numerous infections, including but not limited to septicemia, intra-abdominal infections, lower ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cloacal Malformations Cloacal malformations are rare congenital anomalies characterized by a confluence of the gastrointestinal, genital, and urologic systems which exits t ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clostridium Difficile Clostridium difficile is a gram-positive bacterium that is the cause most implicated in antibiotic-associated diarrhea. The emergence of a newer hyper ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clotrimazole Clotrimazole is a medication used in the management and treatment of fungal infections. It is in the imidazole class of drugs. This activity outlines ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coarctation of the Aorta Coarctation of the aorta is a narrowing of the aorta, most commonly occurring just beyond the left subclavian artery. However, it can occur in various ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coccyx Pain Coccyx pain is known by multiple synonyms, including coccydynia, coccygodynia, and tailbone pain. There are many causes of coccygeal pain, ranging fro ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Colon Diverticulitis Diverticulitis has increased in incidence over the past few decades and represents a significant healthcare burden in western countries. In the United ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Colostomy Care Colostomy care, as the name suggests, is an all-encompassing term referring to colostomy management, from its creation to peristomal skin management, ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Colovesicular Fistula The most common cause of colovesicular fistulas is the sequelae of complicated diverticulitis and accounts for over two-thirds of cases. The second mo ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Condyloma Acuminata Condyloma acuminata is a manifestation of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. The condition is characterized by skin-colored, fleshy papules in the ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an autosomal recessive disease emerging from mutations of genes for enzymes that lead to the production of glu ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection Primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in pregnancy is associated with the highest risk of trans-placental transmission. Universal screening for pre ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a condition resulting from the herniation of abdominal contents into the thoracic cavity resulting in lung hypoplas ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Pulmonary Airway Malformation Congenital pulmonary airway malformation is a congenital lung disease that can present from the prenatal period to childhood. Though rare overall, it ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Rubella Rubella, also known as German Measles, is a viral illness characterized by maculopapular rash, lymphadenopathy, and fever. It is a highly contagious b ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Syphilis Congenital syphilis (CS) is caused by transmission of the spirochete Treponema pallidum from mother to fetus, resulting in diverse clinical presentati ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic infection in humans and animals. Infection in healthy immunocompetent adults is asymptomatic in about 50% of the cases al ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Conization Of Cervix Conization of the cervix or cold knife cone (CKC) is a surgical procedure used to diagnose and treat cervical dysplasia or very early cervical cancer. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Conjoined Twins Conjoined twins refers to twins that are physically fused in utero and consequently at birth. This type of pregnancy is a complicated phenomenon that ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Copper Toxicity Copper metabolism plays an important role in physiologic homeostasis. Copper toxicity, however, induces several pathologic processes that are detrimen ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Corpus Callosum Agenesis Corpus callosum is the largest white matter structure containing 200 million axons, connecting the two hemispheres of the brain. Agenesis of the corpu ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cowden Disease Cowden disease, also known as Cowden syndrome or multiple hamartoma syndrome, is an uncommon autosomal dominant genodermatosis and is a member of the ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Crohn Disease Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are two conditions commonly referred to as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). They are immunologically m ... Read the Article 2 34 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cultural Competence in the Care of Muslim Patients and Their Families Delivering high-quality care to patients of the Muslim faith requires knowledge of the differences in cultural and spiritual values. Important differe ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cushing Syndrome Cushing syndrome is caused by prolonged exposure to high circulating levels of cortisol. The most common cause of cushingoid features is iatrogenic co ... Read the Article 1.75 25 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cutaneous Endometriosis Cutaneous endometriosis can be divided into primary and secondary lesions. They comprise less than 1% of the total cases of endometriosis. However, wi ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cyanosis Cyanosis is characterized by a blueish discoloration of the skin or mucous membranes. Cyanosis is frequently encountered in clinical practice, and the ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cystic Fibrosis Until relatively modern times, cystic fibrosis was poorly understood. In 1949, Lowe et al. postulated that cystic fibrosis must be caused by a geneti ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cystic Hygroma Cystic hygromas are the most common subtype of lymphangiomas, presenting at birth and in early infancy. Enlargement of cystic hygromas is common, and ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cystitis Cystitis refers to infection of the lower urinary tract, or more specifically the urinary bladder. It may be broadly categorized as either uncomplicat ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cystocele Bladder prolapse (cystocele) is a chronic condition during which a bladder herniates to the anterior vaginal wall. Due to the condition's progressive ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Danon Disease Danon disease is a rare X-linked dominant genetic disorder that manifests with the clinical triad of cardiomyopathy, skeletal myopathy, and intellectu ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
De Quervain Thyroiditis In general, thyroiditis is defined as an inflammation of the thyroid gland. There are several kinds of thyroiditis, and they can be associated with ei ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Deep Vein Thrombosis A deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) is a blood clot that forms within the deep veins, usually of the leg, but can occur in the veins of the arms and the mese ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Deep Venous Thrombosis Of The Lower Extremity A deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) is a blood clot that forms within the deep veins usually of the leg but can occur in the veins of the arms and the mesent ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Delayed Puberty Delayed puberty not infrequently occurs in the pediatric population and a common reason for referral to a pediatric endocrinologist. While it is usual ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dermatographism Dermatographism, also known as Dermographism urticaria, or urticaria factitia, is an urticarial eruption upon pressure or trauma to the skin. The lite ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dermatoses of Pregnancy Skin changes during pregnancy may be physiological. However, some dermatoses are specific to pregnancy, while others are altered by pregnancy. These c ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dextroamphetamine-Amphetamine Dextroamphetamine/amphetamine belongs to a class of drugs known as central nervous system stimulants. The Drug Enforcement Administration/Food and Dru ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetes Insipidus Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a disease process that results in either decreased release of or response to antidiuretic hormone (ADH, also known as vasop ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetes Intraoperative Management According to CDC data, the incidence of diabetes in the United States in the year 2015 was 30.3 million and predicted to increase yearly with an alrea ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease of inadequate control of blood levels of glucose. It has many subclassifications, including type 1, type 2, maturi ... Read the Article 1.75 28 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetic Embryopathy Maternal diabetes has several adverse effects on embryogenesis and fetal development and causes multiple congenital anomalies, and secondary medical c ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dietary Calcium Adequate calcium intake, from either direct food sources or calcium supplements, is essential for nutrition in patients of all ages. This article will ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diffuse Toxic Goiter Goiter is an anatomical enlargement of the thyroid gland. It can be related with thyroid dysfunction or have normal thyroid function. This activity re ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Digoxin Immune Fab Digoxin immune fab is a medication used in the management and treatment of digoxin toxicity. Most toxicity cases are seen in patients with a past medi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Disc Herniation A herniated disc is a condition affecting the spine in which the annulus fibrosus is damaged enabling the nucleus pulposus (which is normally located ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Disseminated intravascular coagulation can be defined is a widespread hypercoagulable state that can lead to both microvascular and macrovascular clot ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Domestic Violence Family and domestic violence is a common problem in the United States, affecting an estimated 10 million people every year; as many as one in four wom ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Down Syndrome Down syndrome (trisomy 21) is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or a portion of a third chromosome 21. Patients typically present with ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Doxorubicin Doxorubicin is an antibiotic derived from the Streptomyces peucetius bacterium. It has widespread use as a chemotherapeutic agent since the 1960s. Dox ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Doxycycline Hyclate Doxycycline hyclate is a medication used in the management and treatment of a variety of infections. It is in the tetracyclines class of drugs. This a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Doxylamine Doxylamine is a medication used in the management and treatment of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP), allergic rhinitis, and insomnia. It is in t ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Drug Interactions In Palliative Care Drug-drug interactions (DDI) are a significant cause of adverse drug events (ADE) in palliative care. This activity will highlight the mechanism of ac ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) has sustained a niche for measuring bone mineral density since its approval by the Food and Drug Administratio ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dubin Johnson Syndrome In 1954, Dubin and Johnson described a new clinicopathological entity consisting of chronic idiopathic jaundice with unidentified pigment in the liver ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Duodenal Atresia And Stenosis Duodenal atresia is a congenital intestinal obstruction that can cause bilious or nonbilious vomiting within the first 24 to 38 hours of neonatal life ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dwarfism Dwarfism is the medical terminology for short-stature. It is defined as height-vertex below two standard deviations (-2SD) or in the third percentile ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dysmenorrhea Dysmenorrhea can be classified as primary and secondary dysmenorrhea. Primary dysmenorrhea is a lower abdominal pain happening during the menstrual cy ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dyspareunia Dyspareunia is defined by genital pain that can be experienced before, during, or after intercourse. It is debatable whether this condition can be cla ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dysuria Dysuria is a symptom of pain and/or burning, stinging, or itching of the urethra or urethral meatus with urination. It is one of the most common sympt ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ear Microtia Microtia is a congenital ear deformity in which the external ear is malformed and underdeveloped. In more severe cases, it is usually associated with ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Eclampsia This article discusses preeclampsia and eclampsia, one of the four categories of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Eclampsia is a severe complicati ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ectopic Pregnancy An ectopic pregnancy occurs when fetal tissue implants outside of the uterus or attaches to an abnormal or scarred portion of the uterus. Ectopic preg ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ectopic Pregnancy, Ultrasound Ectopic pregnancy is a diagnosis that is quite challenging to make. It has been estimated that 40% of ectopic pregnancies go undiagnosed on initial pr ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ehlers Danlos Syndrome Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a genetic disorder affecting collagen formation and function. It affects virtually every organ system, which can resul ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
EMS Prehospital Deliveries There are approximately 3.9 million deliveries in the United States every year. Fortunately, most of these deliveries are appropriately anticipated an ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Endometrial Biopsy Endometrial biopsy is a simple and effective office-based procedure that samples the endometrium to allow for direct histological evaluation. This act ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Endometrial Cancer Uterine endometrial cancer is the most prevalent gynecologic malignancy in American women and a major cause of both morbidity and mortality. Over 60,0 ... Read the Article 1.75 19 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Endometrial Hyperplasia Endometrial hyperplasia is a common disorder due to exposure to exogenous or endogenous estrogen along with a relative deficiency of progesterone. It ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Endometrial Polyp Endometrial polyps refer to overgrowths of endometrial glands and stroma within the uterine cavity. Endometrial polyps vary in size from few millimete ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Endometrioma Endometriomas are cystic lesions that stem from the disease process of endometriosis. Endometriomas are most commonly found in the ovaries. They are f ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Endometritis Endometritis is inflammation of the uterine lining. It can affect all layers of the uterus. The uterus is typically aseptic. However, the travel of mi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Enterobius Vermicularis Enterobius vermicularis, also called pinworm, is one of the most common helminth infections in the world, with most cases occurring in children. This ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ephedrine Ephedrine is a medication used in the management and treatment of clinically significant hypotension. It is in the sympathomimetic class of medication ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidermal Inclusion Cyst Epidermal inclusion cysts are the most common cutaneous cysts and can occur anywhere on the body. These cysts typically present as fluctuant nodules u ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidermolytic Hyperkeratosis Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis (bullous ichthyosiform erythroderma) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder of cornification caused by mutations in kerati ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidural This activity reviews epidural analgesia and anesthesia and highlights used medications, indications, contraindications, uses, and techniques. It ment ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidural Anesthesia Epidural anesthesia is a technique that may be used as a primary surgical anesthetic or as a resource for postoperative pain management. It is safe an ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidural Blood Patch An epidural blood patch (EBP) is a procedure in which a small volume of autologous blood is injected into a patient's epidural space to stop a leak of ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidural Catheter Epidural catheters are widely used in the surgical, obstetric, and chronic pain settings as they serve as an excellent adjunct or alternative to gener ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidural Hematoma An epidural hematoma (EDH) is an extra-axial collection of blood within the potential space between the outer layer of the dura mater and the inner ta ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidural Morphine Epidural morphine is a medication used for analgesia, as an adjunct to general anesthesia, or as a sole technique for surgical anesthesia. Morphine wa ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Episiotomy An episiotomy is a procedure developed to augment difficult vaginal deliveries while controlling for and avoiding potentially dangerous perineal lacer ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Erb Palsy Erb's palsy, or Erb-Duchenne paralysis, is one of most common neurological birth injuries. It is caused by injury to the brachial plexus, which is for ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Erythema Infectiosum Erythema infectiosum, also known as fifth disease, is a common viral exanthem caused by parvovirus B19. It is commonly seen in children between five a ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Erythema Multiforme Erythema multiforme (EM) is a cutaneous and mucosal hypersensitivity reaction with characteristic lesions in target triggered by certain antigenic sti ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Erythrasma Erythrasma is a common skin disorder caused by bacteria. It was first described in 1859 by Burchardt. He thought the etiology was fungal. In 1862, Bur ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Erythroblastosis Fetalis Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) is also known as alloimmune HDFN or erythroblastosis fetalis. It is caused by the destruction of neo ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is a common hematology test that measures how quickly red blood cells settle to the bottom of an elongated tu ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Estimated Date of Delivery Determining gestational age is one of the most critical aspects of providing quality prenatal care. Knowing the gestational age allows the obstetrical ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Estradiol Estradiol is a medication used in the management and treatment of postmenopausal symptoms and for women who have had hysterectomies. Estradiol is the ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Estrogen Estrogen is a steroid hormone associated with the female reproductive organs and is responsible for the development of female sexual characteristics. ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Estrogen Therapy Estrogen therapy is a form of hormone replacement therapy that is often used in the management and treatment of menopausal symptoms, especially vasomo ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
External Cephalic Version About 25 percent of fetuses will be in breech presentation at 28 weeks, though this decreases to roughly 3 to 4 percent at term. Most infants who are ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Factor V Leiden Deficiency Factor V Leiden (FVL) is a point mutation of factor V resulting in an elimination of cleavage site in factor V and factor Va. This genetic defect lead ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Factor XIII Deficiency Factor XIII deficiency is a rare bleeding disorder that is challenging to recognize clinically. The lab tests such as the prothrombin time, INR, and a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Familial Hypercholesterolemia Familial hypercholesterolemia is known as a group of inherited genetic defects that lead to the severe elevation of serum cholesterol concentrations. ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fatal Familial Insomnia Fatal familial insomnia is a very rare and invariably fatal autosomal dominant neurodegenerative prion disease caused by a mutation of the prion prote ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fatty Liver In Pregnancy Acute fatty liver in pregnancy (AFLP) is an obstetric emergency and carries high morbidity and mortality, including death in the mother and her fetus. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fecal Incontinence Fecal incontinence is a highly prevalent problem resulting in an inability to control the discharge of bowel contents. Its severity can range from the ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Female Athlete Triad Female athletes often complain of low energy availability, which is defined as energy from oral nutrition less energy used for exercise. As such, low ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Female Infertility Infertility is a medical condition that can cause psychological, physical, mental, spiritual, and medical detriments to the patient. The unique qualit ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Female Urinary Retention Urinary retention, or the inability to voluntarily void urine, is one of the most prevalent presenting urologic complaints in the emergency department ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Femoral Hernia Femoral hernias are less frequent than inguinal hernias. Recognition of a femoral hernia is an important factor in the workup and evaluation of a pati ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fetal Growth Restriction Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is most often defined as an estimated fetal weight less than the 10th percentile for gestational age by prenatal ultras ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fetal Movement Fetal movements felt by pregnant women are a sign that the fetus is growing in size and strength. The mother is usually the first to feel these moveme ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fever In A Neonate The World Health Organization categorizes neonatal sepsis as early or late based on the age of onset. Early neonatal sepsis affects infants less than ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fexofenadine Fexofenadine is a medication used in the management and treatment of allergic rhinitis and chronic urticaria. It is a second-generation antihistamine. ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fibrinogen Fibrinogen is a 340kDa hexameric plasma glycoprotein synthesized by the liver and is the major structural component of a clot. The type of fibrinogen ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fibrocystic Breast Disease Fibrocystic breast disease is the most common benign type of breast disease, diagnosed in millions of women worldwide. Certain hormonal factors underp ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fibromyalgia Fibromyalgia is a condition characterized by chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain. This activity illustrates the evaluation and management of fibro ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fine Needle Aspiration Of Breast Masses Fine needle aspiration of breast masses is a type of biopsy performed using a small needle to obtain samples of tissue and fluid from solid or cystic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fitz-Hugh-Curtis Syndrome Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome is inflammation of the liver capsule with adhesion formation resulting in right upper quadrant pain. It is an uncommon chron ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fluconazole Fluconazole is a member of the triazole family, one of the most widely used antifungal agents. It is an FDA-approved drug to treat vaginal candidiasis ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Flucytosine Flucytosine is a medication used in the management and treatment of systemic and severe candida and cryptococcus infections. It is in the antimetaboli ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fluticasone Fluticasone is a medication used in the management and treatment of asthma, allergic rhinitis, emphysema, and atopic dermatitis. It is in the corticos ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Focal Nodular Hyperplasia In 1958, pathologist, Hugh Edmondson, MD, first described focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) as a solid, benign hepatic mass of non-vascular origin. Unli ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Folic Acid Folic acid has FDA-approval for the treatment of megaloblastic and macrocytic anemias due to folic deficiency. Folic acid is a water-soluble vitamin ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Folic Acid Deficiency Folate is an essential water-soluble vitamin, naturally present in food, especially in fruits, green leafy vegetables, and liver. Folic acid is the s ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Forceps Delivery The use of forceps in infant delivery has fallen out of favor among obstetricians in the past three decades. Forceps deliveries now make up about only ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fulvestrant Fulvestrant is used in the management and treatment of advanced breast cancer. It is a selective estrogen receptor degrader. This activity outlines th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Galactorrhea Galactorrhea is milk production from the breast unrelated to pregnancy or lactation. Milk production one year after cessation of breastfeeding is non- ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gardnerella Gardnerella vaginalis is an anaerobic bacterium that is the causative agent in bacterial vaginosis (BV). This bacteria normally is part of the vaginal ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastroschisis Gastroschisis is a paraumbilical abdominal wall defect associated with protrusion of the bowel through the defect. A membrane does not cover the bowe ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Generalized Pustular Psoriasis Generalized pustular psoriasis is a rare and extreme form of psoriasis characterized by the presence of sterile pustules. The incidence peaks between ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Genital Warts Genital warts (condyloma acuminatum) are a sexually transmitted infection caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6 and 11. These are spread by ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gestational Age Assessment Gestational age is a key piece of data used by healthcare providers to determine when to perform various screening tests and assessments of the fetus ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gestational Diabetes The definition of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. GDM can c ... Read the Article 1.75 25 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gestational Sac Evaluation The gestational sac is the first structure seen in pregnancy by ultrasound as early as 4.5 to 5 weeks of gestational age, but it is only 97.6% specifi ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gestational Trophoblastic Disease Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a group of tumors defined by abnormal trophoblastic proliferation. Trophoblast cells produce human chorioni ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) involves both benign and malignant entities that include hydatidiform mole (complete and partial), choriocarci ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ginseng There are many described uses for ginseng. Due to its antioxidative and potential neuromodulating effects, it has become a popular supplement in neuro ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glanzmann Thrombasthenia Glanzmann thrombasthenia is a congenital bleeding disorder caused by a deficiency of the platelet integrin alpha IIb beta3. This integrin is the plate ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glatiramer Glatiramer is an immunomodulator used in the treatment and management of multiple sclerosis. Its mechanism is not clearly understood, but it appears t ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gonococcal Arthritis Gonococcal arthritis is arthritis that results from the bacteremic spread of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, a sexually transmitted pathogen. It comprises loca ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gonorrhea Neisseria gonorrhoeae, an obligate human pathogen, is a sexually transmitted disease that causes consequential worldwide morbidity both in resource-ab ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Granuloma Inguinale Donovanosis, also known as granuloma inguinale, is a bacterial infection of the genital region caused by Klebsiella granulomatis. It is chronic and pr ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Graves Disease Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. It is a disorder with systemic manifestations that primarily affect heart, skeletal muscl ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Group B Coxsackie Virus Coxsackie B virus belongs to the Picornavirus family and can cause a variety of diseases, including gastrointestinal illness, myocarditis, pneumonia, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Group B Streptococcus And Pregnancy Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a gram-positive bacteria that colonizes the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract. It is known to cause both early o ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gynecologic Examination The gynecological exam traditionally includes an examination of the external and internal genitalia. Under some conditions, it may be necessary to per ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gynecomastia Gynecomastia is an increase in male breast volume. This condition most often occurs during times of hormonal change such as at birth, during adolescen ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hamartoma A hamartoma is a local malformation made up of an abnormal mixture of cells and tissue. Although most hamartomas are benign, they cause morbidity by v ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hashimoto Thyroiditis Hashimoto thyroiditis, also known as chronic autoimmune thyroiditis and chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, is an autoimmune disease in which thyroid cel ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Health Screening A health screening test is a medical test or procedure performed on members of an asymptomatic population or population subgroup to assess their likel ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
HELLP Syndrome The syndrome of hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets, otherwise referred to as HELLP syndrome, has historically been classified as a co ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemochromatosis Hemochromatosis is a disorder that causes excess iron deposition and, in turn, multiple organ dysfunction. Organs affected by hemochromatosis include ... Read the Article 1.5 23 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemoglobin C Disease Hemoglobin C is a common hemoglobin variant that has a single amino acid substitution (lysine substituted for the glutamate) in the sixth position of ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemolytic Diseases Of The Newborn Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn is a red blood cell mismatch between mothers and their fetus that can cause significant morbidity and morta ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemophilia Hemophilia A and B are the most common severe hereditary hemorrhagic disorders. Hemophilia A and B result from factor VIII and factor IX protein defic ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemorrhagic Disease Of Newborn Hemorrhagic disease of the newborn is a life-threatening condition that is caused due to insufficient vitamin K levels in the newborns as a result of ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hepatitis The term hepatitis means inflammation of the liver — hepatitis most commonly results from viruses. But drugs, alcohol, toxins, and certain diseases, i ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hepatitis A The hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the family Picornaviridae. It replicates primarily within h ... Read the Article 1.25 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hepatitis B Hepatitis B infection is a serious global healthcare problem. Often transmitted via body fluids like blood, semen, and vaginal secretions, the hepatit ... Read the Article 1.5 23 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hepatitis E Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is classified in the genus Orthohepevirus of the Hepeviridae family and is one of the most common causes of hepatitis in the w ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Herald Patch A herald patch is an erythematous, 2 to 10 centimeter, round to oval scaly patch or plaque with a depressed center and raised border that frequently p ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Herpes Simplex Neonatorum Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections in the neonatal period continue to be troublesome for practitioners. In the 1970s, the drug vidarabine was intro ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Herpes Simplex Type 2 This activity reviews the evaluation and management of herpes simplex type 2 and highlights the role of the primary care provider in managing patients ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hidradenitis Suppurativa Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS), also called acne inversus, is a chronic inflammatory skin condition with lesions including deep-seated nodules and absc ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
High Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion High grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) encompasses the entities previously termed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)2, CIN3, moderate ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is a medication regimen used in the management and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV- ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hirsutism Hirsutism is the growth of excessive male-pattern hair in women after puberty. It affects facial and body areas dependent on androgens, namely mustach ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
HIV In Pregnancy Several thousand HIV positive pregnant women give birth in the US annually. With proper management, these women can achieve viral suppression to undet ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
HIV Prophylaxis HIV prophylaxis is divided into two categories: post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). PEP is the administration of anti ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Holoprosencephaly Holoprosencephaly occurs as a result of anomalous signaling interactions between the neural crest and neural ectoderm. This primarily results in the a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hormone Replacement Therapy Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is supplementing women with hormones that are lost during the menopausal transition. To relieve the symptoms associa ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hot Flashes Hot flashes are sudden-onset, spontaneous, and episodic sensations of warmth usually felt on the chest, neck, and face immediately followed by an outb ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Human Papilloma Virus Vaccine The 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine (9vHPV) is a vaccine used in the management and prevention of infection with human papillomavirus (HPV ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Human Papillomavirus The human papillomavirus (HPV) is a non-enveloped, double-stranded, circular DNA virus that is responsible for causing multiple epithelial lesions and ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hydatidiform Mole A hydatiform mole (also known as a molar pregnancy) is a gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD), which originates from the placenta and can metastasi ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hydranencephaly Hydranencephaly is a rare congenital abnormality in which the cerebral hemispheres are absent with the basal ganglia, brainstem and meninges preserved ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hydrocephalus Hydrocephalus is the symptomatic accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid inside the cerebral ventricles. It has complex pathogenesis and different causes. ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hydrops Fetalis Hydrops fetalis, also known as fetal hydrops, is not a disease but rather a symptom of an underlying health problem that affects the fetus. If left un ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Therapy In Blood Loss Anemia Red blood cells contain hemoglobin; hemoglobin is the major carrier of oxygen throughout the human body. When hemoglobin levels decrease, anemia resul ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypercalcemia Calcium is the most abundant cation found in the human body and plays an integral role in neural transmission, enzyme activity, myocardial function, c ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypercoagulability Hypercoagulability or thrombophilia is the increased tendency of blood to thrombose. A normal and healthy response to bleeding for maintaining hemosta ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypercortisolism Hypercortisolism refers to the clinical state resulting from excess tissue exposure to cortisol and/or other glucocorticoids. When such exposure is su ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperemesis Gravidarum Hyperemesis gravidarum refers to intractable vomiting during pregnancy that leads to weight loss and volume depletion, resulting in ketonuria and/or k ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperesthesia Hyperesthesia occurs as a symptom of neuropathic pain and can be present in any disease process that affects the somatosensory nervous system. Treatme ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperglycemia The term "hyperglycemia" derived from the Greek hyper (high) + glykys (sweet/sugar) + haima (blood). Hyperglycemia is blood glucose greater than 125 m ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperkeratosis Of The Nipple And Areola Hyperkeratosis of the nipple and areola is an uncommon, benign skin condition characterized by a warty thickening and pigmentation of the nipple, areo ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperprolactinemia When the amount of serum prolactin exceeds the upper limit, we call it hyperprolactinemia. The common causes of hyperprolactinemia can be physiologica ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypertension In Pregnancy Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, including chronic hypertension with or without superimposed pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, gestational hypertension, pr ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypertensive Urgency Hypertensive urgency is a marked elevation in blood pressure without evidence of target organ damage, such as pulmonary edema, cardiac ischemia, neuro ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperthyroidism The thyroid gland is a bilobed structure located in the anterior aspect of the trachea between the cricoid cartilage and the suprasternal notch. Each ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperthyroidism In Pregnancy Hyperthyroidism is an uncommon condition that complicates approximately 0.1% to 0.4% of pregnancies. The condition is marked by increased levels of ci ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia is often defined by a plasma glucose concentration below 70 mg/dL; however, signs and symptoms may not occur until plasma glucose concent ... Read the Article 1.5 22 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a type of congenital heart disease that results in the underdevelopment of the left-sided structures of the ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypoplastic Lung Disease Pulmonary hypoplasia is a relatively uncommon medical condition characterized by incomplete development of the lungs that can affect the overall devel ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypotension Hypotension is a decrease in systemic blood pressure below accepted low values. While there is not an accepted standard hypotensive value, pressures l ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypothalamic Dysfunction The hypothalamus is the central command center for hormonal regulation, and its effects are primarily carried out by the hormones released from the hy ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypothyroid Myopathy Hypothyroid myopathy is characterized by myalgia and weakness and affects almost 80 percent of patients with hypothyroidism. Patients with severe or u ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism results from low levels of thyroid hormone with varied etiology and manifestations. The drug of choice for the treatment of hypothyroid ... Read the Article 1.75 27 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ichthyosis Fetalis Harlequin ichthyosis (HI) is an extremely rare, autosomal recessive congenital disorder of the epidermal skin layer. Neonates with HI have a high mort ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ichthyosis X-Linked X-linked ichthyosis (XLI), known as steroid sulfatase (STS) deficiency and X-linked recessive ichthyosis, is a genetic skin disorder recognized in 196 ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Imiquimod Imiquimod is a medication used in the management and treatment of anogenital warts, superficial basal cell carcinomas, and actinic keratoses. It is in ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Imperforate Hymen When the hymen, a thin membrane of stratified squamous epithelium circumscribing the vaginal introitus, does not spontaneously rupture during neonatal ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
In Vitro Fertilization In vitro fertilization (IVF) is the most common form of assisted reproductive technology and is used in the management of patients with difficulty und ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Incomplete Abortions An incomplete abortion is the partial loss of the products of conception within the first 20 weeks. Incomplete abortion usually presents with moderate ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Induction of Labor There are indications for late preterm, early term, late term, and post-term inductions depending on a patient's obstetrical and medical history. Obst ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Infant Apnea Apnea in infants is the term used to describe episodes of cessation of breathing and may be due to many physiologic or pathophysiologic processes. Bri ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Inferior Vena Cava Filter Inferior vena cava filters (IVC filters) are indicated as a treatment to prevent pulmonary embolism in a select group of patients that have venous thr ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Inferior Vena Cava Syndrome Inferior vena cava syndrome (IVCS) is caused by physical invasion or compression by a pathological process or by thrombosis within the vein itself. Th ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Influenza Vaccine Influenza viruses belong to Orthomyxoviridae RNA virus family and classify into three distinct types based on their major antigenic differences; influ ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Innocent Murmur Murmurs are the most common reason for pediatric cardiologist referral and evaluation. There are reports that up to 72% of children will have a murmur ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Internal Jugular Vein Thrombosis Internal jugular vein thrombosis occurs when a thrombus develops in the lumen of the internal jugular vein (IJV). Hereditary and acquired risk factors ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intestinal Fistula A fistula is an abnormal communication between two epithelial surfaces. An intestinal fistula is a fistula that connects the intestine to an adjacent ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intracardiac Shunts Intracardiac shunts are abnormal pathways for blood flow in the heart that form either in addition to or in place of normal pathways for blood flow. T ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intraductal Papilloma Intraductal papilloma is a benign tumor found within breast ducts. The abnormal proliferation of ductal epithelial cells causes the growth. A solitary ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intrathecal Morphine Morphine is an opioid administered for acute and chronic pain conditions. The advantage of intrathecal (IT) morphine over intravenous (IV), oral (PO), ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intrauterine Device Intrauterine devices (IUDs) are one of the most effective forms of contraception available today with rates of failure similar to various forms of ste ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intrauterine Fetal Demise Stillbirth has many causes: intrapartum complications, hypertension, diabetes, infection, congenital and genetic abnormalities, placental dysfunction ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Inverted Nipple An inverted nipple is a condition with a prevalence of 10%-20% in the general population. Though not life-threatening, it is psychologically and physi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ionizing Radiation Ionizing radiation has been proven to be a risk factor for malignancy in the future. Evidence from studies conducted following the Chernobyl accident, ... Read the Article 2.25 38 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Irritable Bowel Syndrome Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most commonly diagnosed gastrointestinal diseases. IBS, in the absence of any other causative disease, is ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Isotretinoin Isotretinoin is an oral prescription medication that affects sebaceous glands and is used in the treatment of severe acne. The drug was approved by th ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Jacobs Syndrome Jacob's syndrome is a rare genetic abnormality in which a male receives an extra Y chromosome from his father. While many patients go undiagnosed due ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Jaundice Jaundice, also known as hyperbilirubinemia, is defined as a yellow discoloration of the body tissue resulting from the accumulation of excess bilirubi ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), otherwise known as Janz syndrome and impulsive petit mal, is an idiopathic, hereditary, and generalized form of epi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Kallmann Syndrome Kallmann Syndrome (KS) is a congenital form of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) that manifests with hypo- or anosmia. This decrease in gonadal funct ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Kernicterus Kernicterus, or bilirubin encephalopathy, is bilirubin-induced neurological damage, which is most commonly seen in infants. It occurs when the unconju ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ketamine In Acute and Chronic Pain Management Acute and chronic pain remain important health problems both in the United States and worldwide. With the rise in the prevalence of many chronic degen ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Kienbock Disease Kienböck disease refers to avascular necrosis of the lunate carpal bone, known as lunatomalacia. It was first recognized and described by Austrian rad ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Krukenberg Tumor Krukenburg tumor is a metastatic malignancy of the ovary characterized by mucin-rich signet-ring adenocarcinoma that primarily arises from a gastroint ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Labial Adhesions Labial adhesion is the fusion of the labia minora or majora, and it is mostly located near the clitoris. It also may be known as synechia vulvae or la ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Labiaplasty Minora Reduction Labia minora reduction is indicated for any patient wishing to reduce the size of their labia minora. This can be for cosmetic reasons or due to physi ... Read the Article 0.75 2 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lactose Intolerance Lactose intolerance is a clinical syndrome that manifests with characteristic signs and symptoms upon the consumption of food substances containing la ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Late Decelerations Late decelerations are one of the precarious decelerations among the three types of fetal heart rate decelerations during labor. They are caused by de ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Latex Allergy Latex comes from a sap found in rubber trees, Hevea brasiliensis, which is used to make many products used today. It is allergenic and causes symptoms ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Laxatives Constipation is a common diagnosis that requires proper evaluation and appropriate treatment. The approach to a patient with chronic constipation incl ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Leech Bite Leeches are hermaphroditic parasites of phylum Annelida and class Hirudinea. There are over 600 species of leeches. A minority of these are sanguinivo ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Leiomyoma Leiomyomas, also known as fibroids, are a group of benign smooth muscle tumors commonly present in premenopausal women. These tumors are of monoclonal ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Leiomyosarcoma This activity reviews the evaluation, diagnosis, treatment, and latest advances in the field of leiomyosarcoma. In this activity, we will discuss the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Leopold Maneuvers The Leopold maneuvers are used to palpate the gravid uterus systematically. This method of abdominal palpation is of low cost, easy to perform, and no ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Leucovorin Leucovorin is a medication used in the treatment of methotrexate toxicity and chemotherapy regimens. Leucovorin is a folate analog. This activity revi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Leukocytosis Leukocytosis has a variety of etiologies with which clinicians of all backgrounds should be familiar. This activity outlines the evaluation of leukocy ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Leuprolide Leuprolide is a medication used in the management and treatment of prostate cancer, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, precocious puberty, and other sex ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Levonorgestrel Levonorgestrel, also known as the morning-after pill, is a first-line oral emergency contraceptive pill that has approval from the World Health Organi ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Levothyroxine Oral levothyroxine is primarily indicated for the treatment of primary, secondary, and tertiary hypothyroidism. Primary hypothyroidism is when the pro ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Libman Sacks Endocarditis Libman-Sacks endocarditis, also known as murantic or verrucous endocarditis, is a form of nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE) which involves t ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lichen Planus Erosive Form Erosive lichen planus (ELP) is a variant of lichen planus which involves chronic and painful ulceration of the skin and mucosal surfaces. ELP is thoug ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lichen Sclerosus Lichen sclerosus is an uncommon autoimmune condition characterized by skin atrophy and hypopigmentation. It mostly affects the genital skin and occurs ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Liddle Syndrome Resistant hypertension is a condition in which blood pressure continues to be greater than 140/90 mm Hg despite compliance with a regimen of 3 antihyp ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lidocaine Lidocaine is a local anesthetic agent that is commonly used for local and topic anesthesia, but which also has antiarrhythmic and analgesic uses and c ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Liver Disease In Pregnancy Managing liver disease during pregnancy is quite challenging and requires a multispecialty approach. Physiological and anatomical changes during pregn ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lobular Breast Carcinoma Invasive lobular carcinoma is the second most common histologic form of breast cancer, representing 5% to 15% of all invasive breast cancers. It is co ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Local Anesthetic Toxicity Local anesthetics are commonly used in most medical and dental practice. While adverse effects are rare, the rising prevalence of local anesthetics in ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Losartan Losartan is FDA approved for the treatment of several medical conditions, which include the following: hypertension, diabetic nephropathy. ARBs are kn ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lovastatin Lovastatin is a lipid-lowering medication part of the statin drug class used in the treatment and prevention of coronary heart disease, hypercholester ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Low Molecular Weight Heparin (LMWH) Low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs), for example, dalteparin, enoxaparin, among others, are anticoagulants. These drugs are used in the prophylaxis ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lower Genitourinary Trauma Trauma is a major cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. Trauma to the lower genitourinary tract presents unique challenges as there are u ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lumbosacral Plexopathy Lumbosacral plexopathy is a relatively uncommon occurrence that can be difficult to diagnose and manage. When an injury occurs to the lumbosacral plex ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lymphangioma Lymphangiomas are uncommon, benign malformations of the lymphatic system that can occur anywhere on the skin and mucous membranes. Lymphangiomas can b ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lymphocytic Hypophysitis Lymphocytic hypophysitis is a rare, autoimmune condition of the pituitary gland. It causes the pituitary gland to be infiltrated by lymphocytes and ca ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lymphogranuloma Venereum Lymphogranuloma venereum is an ulcerative sexually transmitted infection of the genital area caused by Chlamydia trachomatis that is transmittable by ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lymphogranuloma Venereum Proctocolitis Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) proctocolitis is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the L1, L2, and L3 serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis. ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lymphoscintigraphy Lymphoscintigraphy is a powerful diagnostic imaging tool that can be obtained with little risk of adverse events. This activity reviews the applicatio ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Macrocytosis Macrocytosis refers to the finding of enlarged red blood cells (RBCs). The measurement of RBC size is reported in the complete blood count (CBC) as me ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Macrosomia Macrosomia is commonly encountered during obstetric practice. It is associated with a higher likelihood of obstetric as well as neonatal complications ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Magnesium Magnesium use is indicated for a variety of diseases. This is due to the variety of effects magnesium has within the body. Administration of magnesium ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Magnesium Sulfate Magnesium sulfate is a medication used in the management and treatment of multiple clinical conditions and holds several on and off label uses. This ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Magnesium Toxicity Magnesium toxicity is commonly caused by the overuse of magnesium-containing medication or under-excretion of magnesium by the kidneys. Early recognit ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Major Depressive Disorder Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been ranked as the third cause of the burden of disease worldwide in 2008 by WHO, which has projected that this di ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Malaria Prophylaxis Malaria is an infection caused by Plasmodium species endemic to most parts of Africa, South America, East Asia, and parts of Europe and the Middle Eas ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Malignant Hyperthermia Malignant Hyperthermia (MH) is a hereditary disorder of skeletal muscle that classically presents as a hypermetabolic response to halogenated anesthet ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mallory Weiss Syndrome Mallory-Weiss syndrome is one of the common causes of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding and is characterized by the presence of longitudinal super ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mammary Duct Ectasia Mammary duct ectasia is a benign non-proliferative breast disease. It affects the large duct system. The exact cause is still unknown, but it may be c ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mammary Paget Disease Paget's disease of the breast is an uncommon manifestation of underlying breast cancer in postmenopausal female patients. Underlying breast lesion is ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mammography Aside from skin cancer, breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and represents 14% of all new cancers in the United States. Breast cancer ris ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mammoscintigraphy Breast cancer is increasing in incidence and is one of the leading types of cancer. Once thought to be mostly a disease of elderly females, there is a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Massive Transfusion Massive transfusion is traditionally defined as transfusion of 10 units of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) within a 24 hour period. The goal of massive ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mastalgia Mastalgia refers to a common breast pain that a female suffers from during her lifetime. Approximately two-thirds of women develop this pain during t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mastodynia Mastodynia or breast pain, also called mastalgia can occur both in women and men, but it presents more commonly in women. While most patients do not r ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
May Hegglin Anomaly May-Hegglin anomaly (MHA) is a rare autosomal dominant disease characterized by neutrophils with abnormal cytoplasmic inclusions, large platelets, and ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
McRobert's Maneuver A common complication that arises during regular spontaneous vaginal deliveries is shoulder dystocia. Shoulder dystocia occurs when the shoulders of ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Meconium Plug Syndrome Meconium plug syndrome is a condition that predominantly affects preterm-neonates of low birth weight. It presents with an inability to pass meconium ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Medroxyprogesterone This article highlights medroxyprogesterone as it is used as contraception to prevent pregnancy. This activity discusses the mechanism of action, adve ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Megaloblastic Anemia Megaloblastic anemia (MA) encompasses a heterogeneous group of anemias characterized by the presence in the bone marrow of large red blood cell precur ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Meigs Syndrome Meigs syndrome is an uncommon presentation, where a benign ovarian tumor present along with ascites and pleural effusion. About 1 % of ovarian tumors ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Melasma Melasma is a common skin problem caused by brown to gray-brown patches on the face. Most people get it on their cheeks, chin, nose bridge, forehead, a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Melatonin Synthetic melatonin is a dietary supplement. The FDA does not regulate supplements. Therefore, melatonin is not officially FDA-approved for any indica ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mendelson Syndrome The standard use of regional anesthesia for most laboring women and increased awareness among anesthesia providers regarding high risk of aspiration ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Meningococcal Vaccine Meningococcal disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. This activity will describe how to deal with this disease as a serious ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Meningomyelocele Myelomeningocele or open spina bifida is a devastating congenital malformation of the central nervous system associated with significant morbidity. Ti ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Menopause Menopause is a routine, non-pathologic condition involving the permanent cessation of menses for at least 12 months. Menopause occurs in all menstruat ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Menorrhagia Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is the name given to describe any deviation from the normal menstrual cycle. The average cycle lasts 29 days with a ra ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Menstrual Related Headache Menstrual related headaches (MRH) are a common class of headaches that occur in women related to a decline in estrogen during the menstrual cycle. To ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Meralgia Paresthetica Meralgia paresthetica is a clinical condition that includes pain and dysesthesia in the anterolateral thigh associated with lateral femoral cutaneous ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Metformin Metformin, FDA-approved in 1994, is an antidiabetic agent used in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metformin comes in both immediate-release and extended-rel ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Based on the antibiotic susceptibilities, Methicillin resistance in S. aureus is defined as an oxacillin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of gre ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Methimazole Methimazole has effects in the production of thyroid hormone and is useful in treating conditions related to thyroid hormone, especially thyrotoxicosi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Methotrexate Methotrexate (MTX) is an anti-metabolite most commonly used in chemotherapy and also as an immunosuppressant in auto-immune diseases. This activity d ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Methyldopa Methyldopa is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension. It is in the centrally acting anti-hypertensive class of drugs. This ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Metoprolol Metoprolol is FDA-approved for the treatment of angina, heart failure, myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation/flutter, and hypertension. Off-label ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Microcytic Hypochromic Anemia Microcytic, hypochromic anemia, as the name suggests, is the type of anemia in which the circulating RBCs are smaller than the usual size of RBCs (mic ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Midgut Malrotation Midgut malrotation is a defect in the normal embryonic rotation of the gut, which causes an abdominal obstruction that presents acutely or with chroni ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mifepristone Mifepristone is a synthetic steroid. It is a medication most commonly used for medically induced abortions. Mifepristone can also be used in the manag ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Migraine Headache Migraine is a genetically influenced complex disorder characterized by episodes of moderate-to-severe headache, most often unilateral and generally as ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Migraine Medications This activity will review treatments for acute migraines and migraine prophylaxis. It will highlight various classes of medications and their mechanis ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Migraine Prophylaxis Recurrent migraines can be functionally disabling and can impair quality of life. After the treatment of acute migraines, all migraine patients should ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Migraine with Aura Migraine is one of the common types of headache disorders affecting approximately 12% of the general population. Timely diagnosis is essential to avoi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Miscarriage Spontaneous abortion, also known as miscarriage, is defined as the loss of pregnancy less than 20 weeks gestation. The American College of Obstetricia ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Misoprostol Misoprostol has four primary effects: cytoprotection of the gastrointestinal mucosa, uterotonic, diarrhea, and abdominal pain (diarrhea and abdominal ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mitral Valve Prolapse Mitral valve prolapse (MVP), also known as floppy mitral valve syndrome, systolic click-murmur syndrome, and billowing mitral leaflets, is valvular he ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mixed Urinary Incontinence Urinary incontinence is the involuntary leakage of urine. It ranges in its severity and in its impact on patients' quality of life. Symptoms may force ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
MMR Vaccine The measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine is a live-attenuated combined vaccine used in the prevention and, in specific patient populations, post-exposu ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Modafinil Modafinil is a non-amphetamine central nervous system (CNS) stimulant with wakefulness-promoting properties. It is used in the treatment of conditions ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Molluscum Contagiosum Molluscum contagiosum, also called water warts, is a benign condition of the skin. The skin lesions of molluscum contagiosum are called mollusca. The ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mondor Disease Initially described in 1939 by Henri Mondor, Mondor's disease classically describes a syndrome of sclerosing superficial thrombophlebitis of the veins ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Motion Sickness Motion sickness is a common and complex syndrome that occurs in response to either real or perceived motion. Its presentation can be diverse and may i ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mucinous Breast Carcinoma Mucinous carcinoma of the breast is a relatively rare subtype of breast cancer accounting for about 2% of all breast carcinomas. According to the late ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 Multiple endocrine neoplasia Type 1 (MEN1), also known as Wermer syndrome, is a rare hereditary endocrine tumor syndrome. The most common tumors seen ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Myelomeningocele Neural tube defects are a spectrum of congenital anomalies that includes cranial defects and open or closed spinal dysraphism. Open spinal dysraphism ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Myocardial Infarction Myocardial infarction (MI), colloquially known as "heart attack," is caused by decreased or complete cessation of blood flow to a portion of the myoca ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Myofascial Pain The fascia is made up of a solid (muscles) and liquid (blood, lymph) elements and components. The myofascial system comprises contractile muscle tissu ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nabothian Cyst Nabothian cysts (also called mucinous retention cysts or epithelial cysts) are common and benign gynecological condition located at the uterine cervix ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nalbuphine Nalbuphine is FDA indicated for moderate to severe pain in which an opioid agent is required when other alternative treatments have been insufficient. ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) is a spectrum of clinical manifestations seen in neonates due to withdrawal from intrauterine drug exposure. It is ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neonatal Evaluation The initial examination within the first 24 hours of birth is critical in determining the general well-being of newborns, but also to identify any red ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neonatal Lupus Erythematosus Neonatal lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease that takes place due to the passive maternal transfer of autoantibodies of Sjogren syndrome auto ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neonatal Sepsis Neonatal sepsis refers to an infection involving bloodstream in newborn infants less than 28 days old. It continues to remain a leading cause of morbi ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neural Tube Disorders Neural tube defects are the most common severe central nervous system anomalies only second to cardiovascular abnormalities resulting in congenital mo ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neurapraxia Neurapraxia is the mildest form of peripheral nerve injury commonly induced by focal demyelination or ischemia. In neurapraxia, the conduction of nerv ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neurogenic Bladder The micturition process is usually controlled by the central nervous system, which coordinates the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system acti ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nipple Areola Reconstruction Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosis in women with surgical treatment being a tenant of its care. Following breast cancer resection, brea ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nisoldipine Nisoldipine is a medication used in the management of hypertension. It falls under the class of dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers. This activit ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nitrofurantoin Nitrofurantoin is an antibiotic medication that is used for the treatment of uncomplicated lower urinary tract infection. It is effective against most ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nitrous Oxide Nitrous oxide is an odorless, colorless, non-flammable gas. While nitrous oxide is not flammable, it will support combustion to the same extent as ox ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nocturia Nocturia is defined as the need for patients to get up at night on a regular basis to urinate. A period of sleep must precede and follow the urinary e ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nongonococcal Urethritis Non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU), inflammation of the urethra, is the most common sexually transmitted illness in men. Urethritis can be infectious or ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) NSAIDs are a class of medications used to treat pain, fever, and other inflammatory processes. This activity describes the indications, mechanism of a ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nutcracker Syndrome Nutcracker syndrome is a venous compression syndrome involving the left renal vein. It is an uncommon, although possibly underdiagnosed, condition tha ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Obesity Obesity is the excessive or abnormal accumulation of fat or adipose tissue in the body that may impair health. Obesity has become an epidemic which ha ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) involves intrusive thoughts with or without compensatory actions to alleviate the stress brought on by these thoug ... Read the Article 1.5 23 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Obstetric Ultrasound Ultrasound is a noninvasive diagnostic modality that can quickly confirm an intrauterine pregnancy at the bedside, significantly shortening the length ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ogilvie Syndrome Acute colonic pseudo-obstruction (ACPO), known as Ogilvie syndrome, is a distinct form of colonic dilatation occurring in the absence of underlying me ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Oligohydramnios Oligohydramnios is a disorder of amniotic fluid resulting in decreased amniotic fluid volume for gestational age. Low amniotic fluid volumes can be th ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Oligomenorrhea Oligomenorrhea is defined as irregular and inconsistent menstrual blood flow in a woman. Some change in menstrual flow is normal at menarche, postpart ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Olmesartan Olmesartan is a medication used in the management of hypertension. It is in the angiotensin receptor blocking (ARB) class of drugs. This activity revi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Omphalocele Omphalocele is a rare congenital abdominal wall defect with a reported prevalence of 3.38 per 10,000 pregnancies. It is a protrusion of the abdominal ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Oophorectomy Oophorectomy is the surgical removal of one or both ovaries and can be done laparoscopically unless otherwise indicated. It may be performed for ovari ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Opioid Toxicity Opioids and opiates together comprise a class of medications widely used primarily to control severe pain. If first-line agents are not effective in c ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Opioid Use Disorder Opioid use disorder has a significant impact on the quality of life. It is an epidemic in the United States. The persistent use of opioids should be d ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Oral Contraceptive Pills Currently, there are three types of oral contraceptive pills: combined estrogen-progesterone, progesterone only and the continuous or extended use pil ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Oral Hypoglycemic Medications The most effective management of diabetes mellitus demands an interprofessional approach involving both lifestyle modifications with diet and exercise ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Osteogenesis Imperfecta Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic disorder of connective tissues caused by an abnormality in the synthesis or processing of type I collagen. I ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Osteoporosis Osteoporosis is defined as low bone mineral density caused by altered bone microstructure ultimately predisposing patients to low-impact, fragility fr ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Osteoporosis In Females Osteoporosis is commonly encountered in older women with no underlying risk factors. This activity provides an overall basic and specialist knowledge ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ovarian Cyst Ovarian cysts are fluid-filled sacs that may be simple or complex. They are common findings that are usually discovered incidentally on physical exami ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ovarian Cystadenoma Epithelial neoplasms of the ovary account for 60 percent of all ovarian tumors and 40 percent of benign tumors. They are classified as benign, borderl ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ovarian Torsion Ovarian torsion is caused by twisting of the ligaments that support the adnexa, cutting off the blood flow to the organ and represents a true surgical ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Oxytocin Oxytocin is indicated and approved by the FDA for two specific time frames in the obstetric world: antepartum and postpartum. In the antepartum period ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Paget Disease Paget disease is a skeletal growth disorder in which abnormalities such as unusual bone growth can occur in several multifactoral ways. This is often ... Read the Article 1.5 22 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pancrelipase Therapy Pancrelipase, which is a combination of lipase, protease, and amylase, has been shown to benefit patients with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. The ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Paraneoplastic Cerebellar Degeneration Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration, also known as paraneoplastic cerebellar ataxia is one of the most commonly occurring paraneoplastic neurologic ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Paraneoplastic Limbic Encephalitis Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis is thought to be caused by an onconeural antibody to cancer that cross-reacts with self-antigen in the neurons and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Parvoviruses Parvovirus B19 is a virus that only infects humans. It is known to cause Fifth Disease, also known as erythema infectiosum or slapped cheek syndrome, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Patau Syndrome Patau syndrome, also called trisomy 13, is a clinical syndrome that occurs when all or some cells of the body contain an extra copy of chromosome 13. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Patent Ductus Arteriosus The ductus arteriosus is a fetal vessel that allows the oxygenated blood from the placenta to bypass the fetal lungs in utero. At birth, a newborn inh ... Read the Article 1.5 24 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Patient Controlled Analgesia Patient-controlled analgesia is used to treat acute, chronic, postoperative, and labor pain. A variety of medications can be used for patient-controll ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pediatric Hearing Loss Pediatric hearing loss is a broad category that covers a wide range of pathologies. Early detection and prompt management are essential, as the develo ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pediatric Preoperative Management The preoperative management of anesthesia in children differs from that in adults. These differences include employing cognitive and age-appropriate l ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pelvic Abscess A pelvic abscess is potentially a life-threatening condition. It can lead to sepsis and rupture and poor prognosis, especially in women of reproductiv ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pelvic Congestion Syndrome Pelvic congestion syndrome (PCS) is a common cause of chronic pelvic pain in women of reproductive age. Pain that is intermittent or constant lasting ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pelvic Exenteration Pelvic exenteration is performed as a palliative or curative option for patients with recurrent or locally invasive pelvic cancer. Pelvic exenteration ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pelvic Floor Dysfunction Pelvic floor dysfunction involves the abnormal activity or function of the pelvic floor musculature. This activity reviews the anatomy of the pelvic f ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is defined as an inflammation of the upper genital tract due to an infection in women. The disease affects the uteru ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pelvic Organ Prolapse Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a gynecological condition in which the pelvic organs herniate into the vagina due to ligament or muscular weakness. POP ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pelvic Ring Injuries The pelvic ring is made of the sacrum and two innominate bones each containing an ilium, ischium, and pubis. There is no inherent stability to the bon ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pelvic Ultrasound The ultrasound is a critical modality for the evaluation of the contents of the female pelvis. It allows ready and portable imaging of the uterus, ova ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pemphigoid Gestationis Pemphigoid gestationis, formerly known as herpes gestationis, is a rare autoimmune sub-epidermal bullous dermatosis of pregnancy that shares some clin ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Perimortem Cesarean The perimortem cesarean section, as described in its name, is the surgical delivery of the fetus, performed during or near the time of death of the mo ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Perimortem Cesarean Delivery Delivery by Cesarean section dates to 800 BCE. Unfortunately, at the time, the procedure was only done on a deceased or dying pregnant patient. It was ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Perinatal Drug Abuse And Neonatal Drug Withdrawal Drug abuse and addiction have significantly increased over the last few decades; specifically, opioid abuse and dependence have increased to epidemic ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Perineal Lacerations Lacerations occur frequently in childbirth and can involve the perineum, labia, vagina and cervix. Most lacerations will heal without long term compli ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Perioperative Acute Kidney Injury Perioperative acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common yet under-recognized problem that increases mortality, morbidity, and increases the cost of hospit ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Perioral Dermatitis Perioral dermatitis is a benign eruption that occurs most commonly in young, female adults, consisting of small inflammatory papules and pustules or p ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Peripartum Cardiomyopathy Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a rare cause of cardiomyopathy that occurs during late pregnancy or in the early postpartum period. It is characte ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Peripheral Arterial Disease Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a circulatory problem causing a reduced blood flow through the arteries. This typically reduces blood flow to the ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Peripheral Edema Peripheral edema is a very common finding in daily medical practice both in outpatient and inpatient settings. It can vary from benign condition to se ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Peritoneal Cancer Peritoneal cancer is the invasion of the serous membrane lining the peritoneal cavity by malignant cells. The malignant cells originate de novo in the ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Phenylketonuria Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inborn error of metabolism (IEM) most often caused by missense mutations in the gene encoding phenylalanine hydroxylase (P ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Phenytoin Phenytoin is a medication used in the management and treatment of epilepsy, generalized tonic-clonic seizures, complex partial seizures, and status ep ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Phocomelia Phocomelia is a rare congenital anomaly where the proximal aspect of an extremity is absent with the hand or foot attached directly to the trunk. This ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Phyllodes Tumor Of The Breast Phyllodes tumor of the breast is a relatively rare fibroepithelial neoplasm that presents a morphologic continuum from benign to malignant. Most phyll ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pica The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) defines pica as eating non-nutriti ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pierre Robin Syndrome Pierre Robin sequence is a constellation of micrognathia, glossoptosis, and upper airway obstruction. It is a clinical diagnosis that can range in sev ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pioglitazone Pioglitazone is a drug used in the management and treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM-2). It belongs to the class of medications called thiazoli ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pituitary Adenoma Pituitary adenomas are tumors of the anterior pituitary. Most pituitary tumors are slow-growing and benign. They are classified based on size or cell ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Placenta Abnormalities The placenta attaches to the uterine wall and allows metabolic exchange between the fetus and the mother. The placenta has both embryonic and maternal ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Placenta Accreta Placenta accreta spectrum (PAS) disorders are considered to be iatrogenic conditions. They are more common in women with previous cesarean deliveries. ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Placenta Previa Placenta previa is the complete or partial covering of the internal os of the cervix with the placenta. It is a major risk factor for postpartum hemor ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Placental Abruption Placental abruption is the early separation of the placenta from the lining of the uterus before the completion of the second stage of labor. It is on ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Placental Insufficiency Placental insufficiency is a condition whereby there is a failure of placental vascular remodeling, leading to a failure of placentation resulting in ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Plaque Psoriasis Psoriasis is the most prevalent immune-mediated inflammatory disease. It involves skin and in some cases, joints, and can be associated with abnormali ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pneumomediastinum Pneumomediastinum is defined as air present in the mediastinum and less frequently referred to as mediastinal emphysema. The mediastinum is the space ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Polio Vaccine Poliomyelitis is a vaccine-preventable disease caused by the poliovirus. This virus is highly infectious, spreading from person to person mainly thro ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Polycystic Ovarian Disease Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common hormonal disorder in females of reproductive age. It is characterized by two or more of the foll ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Polyhydramnios Polyhydramnios is an increase in amniotic fluid in pregnancy associated with increased maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. The severity of ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postcoital Contraception Emergency contraception (EC), otherwise known as postcoital contraception is the intervention that allows women to avoid unintended pregnancy after un ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postdural Puncture Headache Postdural puncture headache is a potential complication of a lumbar puncture, with symptoms caused by traction on pain-sensitive structures from low c ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Posterior Urethral Valve This article contains a synopsis of the anatomy, embryology, and classification of posterior urethral valves with a brief discussion of the theories a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postmenopausal Bleeding Postmenopausal bleeding is a common complaint with a broad differential, which includes both benign and malignant conditions. This activity describes ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postmenopausal Syndrome Menopause is a significant event that all women experience in their lifetime. This brings in significant physiological changes and symptoms that are f ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postoperative Delirium Post-operative delirium (POD) can occur from anywhere between 10 minutes after anesthesia up until discharge from the hospital. It is commonly recogni ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postoperative Fever Postoperative fever is defined as a temperature higher than 38 C (or greater than 100.4 F) on two consecutive postoperative days or higher than 39 C ( ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postoperative Nausea Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a common occurrence following anesthesia and leads to patient dissatisfaction and discomfort. In certain s ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postoperative Pain Control Postoperative pain is experienced by the vast majority of patients who undergo surgical procedures. Control of postoperative pain plays an essential r ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postoperative Wound Infection Postoperative wound infection is a common problem. The process of wound infection is complex and involves an interplay between several biological path ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postpartum Blues Postpartum “blues” is defined as low mood and mild depressive symptoms that are transient and self-limited and are extremely common in the perinatal p ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postpartum Cardiomyopathy Postpartum cardiomyopathy, also known as peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM), is defined as new onset heart failure between the last month of pregnancy a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postpartum Depression Around one in seven women can develop postpartum depression (PPD). While women experiencing baby blues tend to recover quickly, PPD tends to last long ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postpartum Headache Headaches are a frequent presenting complaint that disproportionally affects women of childbearing age. The incidence of headaches increases in the pu ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postpartum Infection Postpartum infections account for a significant, and often preventable, portion of the global healthcare burden. Puerperal sepsis is one of the top fi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postpartum Psychosis Postpartum psychosis is an acute illness of multifactorial origin and is considered a psychiatric emergency. In this activity, the common presentation ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postpartum Pubic Symphysis Diastasis Pubic symphysis diastasis (PSD) following childbirth via vaginal delivery is a rare but debilitating condition. Widening of the cartilaginous joint du ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postpartum Thyroiditis Postpartum thyroiditis is rather a common problem during the postpartum period. Postpartum thyroiditis has found in approximately 5% of mothers in the ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Potassium Potassium is an essential mineral constituent of the human body and is the chief cation found within the intracellular fluid of all cells. The chief i ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Potter Syndrome Potter syndrome is a fatal congenital disorder characterized by the changes in physical appearances of neonate due to oligohydramnios caused by renal ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Precocious Puberty Precocious puberty is an early onset of puberty and secondary sexual characteristics in children. It is a very challenging diagnosis as the differenti ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Preconception Counseling Preconception counseling is defined as health education and promotion. The goal of preconception care is health education and promotion, risk assessme ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pregnancy Globally, there are more than 200 million pregnancies each year. Of these pregnancies, more than 40% are unintended. Unintended does not imply unwante ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pregnancy And Viral Hepatitis The common cause of jaundice in pregnancy is acute viral hepatitis. Hepatitis could be caused by diseases distinctively associated with pregnancy and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pregnancy Dating The most important step in the initial evaluation of any pregnant patient is establishing an accurate delivery date (due date). Accurate knowledge of ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pregnancy Intrahepatic Cholestasis Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is the most common liver disorder in pregnancy and is associated with an increased risk of adverse obstetr ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pregnancy Medications The treatment of common medical conditions during pregnancy frequently becomes complicated due to the potential effects that medications can have on f ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pregnancy Trauma Trauma in pregnancy can ranges from mild, for example trauma associated with a single fall from standing height or hitting the abdomen on an object su ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pregnancy Ultrasound Evaluation The use of ultrasound in the setting of pregnancy is vast and has become the standard of care during pregnancy. This article describes different appl ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Premalignant Lesions Of The Endometrium Premalignant lesions of the endometrium are a characteristic sequence of atypical endometrial hyperplasia or intraepithelial neoplasia that may give r ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Premature Rupture Of Membranes Premature rupture of membranes (PROM) is the rupture of gestational membranes prior to the onset of labor. When membrane rupture occurs before 37 wee ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder Premenstrual symptoms include a constellation of mood, behavioral, and physical indications that occur in a cyclic pattern prior to menstruation and t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Premenstrual Syndrome This activity is a review of the existing literature on premenstrual syndrome (PMS). It summarizes the management of PMS by outlining the importance o ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Prenatal Non-stress Test Prenatal non-stress test, popularly known as NST, is a method used to test fetal wellbeing before the onset of labor. A prenatal non-stress test funct ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Prenatal Screening Historically, pregnancy was a very tenuous part of a woman's life because of the high mortality rate associated with gestation. In the early 1900s, ma ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Preoperative Antibiotic Prophylaxis Preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis is the administration of antibiotics before performing surgery to help decrease the risk of postoperative infectio ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Preterm Labor Preterm labor is labor occurring between after 20 and before 37 weeks gestation. Preterm labors are subcategorized as early or late preterm. Early pre ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Primary Amenorrhea Amenorrhea is defined as the absence of menarche in females of reproductive age. Primary amenorrhea is defined as the failure of initiation of menses ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Primidone Primidone is an aromatic anticonvulsant used to treat complex, partial, and generalized seizures. This activity reviews the indications, contraindicat ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Procidentia Procidentia is the severe stage of pelvic organ prolapse. Pelvic organ prolapse is usually a non-life-threatening condition with the most common sympt ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Progestin Progestins, or progestogens, are a class of synthetic hormone drugs that mimic progesterone's endogenous hormone. These drugs each act on the progeste ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Prolactinoma Prolactin-secreting tumors of the pituitary gland, also known as prolactinomas, are the most common secretory tumors of the pituitary gland, accountin ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Promethazine Promethazine is a medication used in the management and treatment of allergic conditions, nausea and vomiting, motion sickness, and sedation. It also ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Propranolol Propranolol can be used to ameliorate the sympathetic response in angina, tachyarrhythmias, prevention of acute ischemic attacks, migraine prophylaxis ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Propylthiouracil (PTU) Propylthiouracil is an anti-thyroid drug used in the management of Graves disease and hyperthyroidism. This activity will highlight the mechanism of a ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Prostaglandin E2 (Dinoprostone) Prostaglandin E2 is an FDA-approved medication used both for the evacuation of uterine contents and for the induction of labor. It is in the prostagla ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Prostaglandins Prostaglandins are a group of endogenously produced compounds that play essential roles in regulating human physiology. Synthetically derived prostagl ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Protein S Deficiency Protein S deficiency is a rare but serious condition that can be congenital or acquired. Patients with this condition have higher propensity to develo ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pruritic Urticarial Papules And Plaques Of Pregnancy Pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy (PUPPP), also known as polymorphic eruption of pregnancy (PEP) is the most common gestational der ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pruritus Gravidarum Pruritus is a common symptom in pregnancy. The causes of pruritus can be unrelated or specific to pregnancy. Pruritus specific to pregnancy must be ad ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pseudomyxoma Peritonei Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is a rare clinical entity characterized by diffuse intra-abdominal gelatinous ascites with mucinous implants on peritonea ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Psychosis Psychosis is a loose description of an amalgamation of psychological symptoms resulting in a loss of contact with reality. It is thought that although ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pudendal Nerve Block A pudendal nerve block is a method utilized to diagnose and treat pudendal neuralgia. The pudendal nerve block is also commonly used as a regional ane ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pudendal Nerve Entrapment Syndrome Pudendal neuralgia caused by pudendal nerve entrapment is chronic, severely disabling, neuropathic pain in the distribution of the pudendal nerve in b ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pudendal Neuralgia Pudendal neuralgia (PN) is a chronic pelvic pain syndrome that originates from damage or irritation to the pudendal nerve. Few providers examine speci ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformation (AVMs) Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (AVMs) is a rare clinical problem in which abnormal communications develop between a pulmonary artery and a pulmo ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulmonary Atresia With Ventricular Septal Defect Pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect is a rare congenital anomaly with poor prognostic outcomes. It is a serious anomaly affecting the dev ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulmonary Idiopathic Hypertension Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is defined as mean pulmonary artery pressure greater than 25 mm Hg measured during right heart catheterization. The term p ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulmonic Stenosis Pulmonic stenosis is a typically benign condition in most patients. While generally non-life-threatening after the neonatal period, complications and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pustular Psoriasis Pustular psoriasis is a rare, immune-mediated systemic skin disorder characterized by yellowish pustules on an erythematous base with a variety of cli ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pyloric Stenosis Pyloric stenosis, also known as infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS), is an uncommon condition in infants characterized by abnormal thickeni ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pyogenic Granuloma Pyogenic granuloma, sometimes known as granuloma pyogenicum, refers to a common, acquired, benign, vascular tumor that arises in tissues such as the s ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Quadratus Lumborum Block Healthcare providers have used many regional, anesthetic modalities to provide analgesia for the thorax, abdomen, and pelvis. While each of these moda ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Quinidine Quinidine is one of the oldest known antiarrhythmics; an interprofessional approach is necessary when using this drug, including specialties such as c ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radiation Effects On The Fetus Cancer management during ongoing pregnancy poses a clinical challenge in itself, especially when administering radiotherapy; if indicated, it can seve ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radiation Therapy For Early Stage Breast Cancer Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women worldwide. In the United States, it is the most common cancer (excluding skin cancer) a ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Raloxifene Raloxifene is a medication used in the treatment of post-menopausal osteoporosis and the risk reduction of invasive breast cancer in post-menopausal w ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Raynaud Disease In response to cold temperatures, the body adapts by restricting blood flow to the skin. This is done as a thermoregulating mechanism to prevent furth ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Reactive Arthritis Reactive arthritis (ReA) is inflammatory arthritis which manifests in several days to weeks after a gastrointestinal or genitourinary infection. It is ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rectocele Rectoceles are a type of pelvic organ prolapse where the rectal tissue herniates through a defect in the rectovaginal septum into the vaginal lumen. T ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rectovaginal Fistula A fistula is an abnormal connection between 2 epithelial surfaces. This is a general definition that applies to most of the known fistula but not all ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rectus Sheath Hematoma Rectus sheath hematoma is a relatively uncommon entity that is most often associated with abdominal wall trauma or anticoagulation. Although it is a w ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Recurrent Pregnancy Loss The definition of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) in the United States is two or more consecutive failed clinical pregnancies documented by ultrasound ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common cause of morbidity, especially in young women. With appropriate care, they can be easily treate ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Regional Anesthetic Blocks A regional block is a specific anesthetic technique that inhibits nerve transmission to avoid or relieve pain. This activity reviews the indications, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Renal Extracorporeal Lithotripsy Renal extracorporeal lithotripsy is a procedure that utilizes shockwaves to fragment kidney stones that can then pass through the urinary tract and be ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors Reverse transcriptase inhibitors are medications used in the management and treatment of HIV. It is in the antiretroviral class of drugs. This activit ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndromes Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is a medical condition in which there is multifocal arterial constriction and dilation in the cer ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rh Incompatibility Rhesus (Rh) incompatibility refers to the discordant pairing of maternal and fetal Rh type. It is associated with the development of maternal Rh sensi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rh-Hemolytic Disease Rh-hemolytic disease develops due to the conception of an Rh-negative female with an Rh-positive fetus and can cause a broad range of symptoms in the ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rhinitis Medicamentosa Rhinitis medicamentosa (RM), also known as; rebound congestion is inflammation of the nasal mucosa caused by the overuse of topical nasal decongestant ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rho(D) Immune Globulin Rh(D) Immune Globulin is a medication used in the management and treatment of Rh-negative pregnancies and ITP. It is in the immune globulin biologic c ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rifampin Rifampin is a medication used in the management and treatment of various mycobacterial and gram-positive bacterial infections. It belongs to the antim ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rosacea Rosacea is a common chronic inflammatory disease that presents with recurrent flushing, erythema, telangiectasia, papules, or pustules on nose, chin, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rubella Rubella is a mild viral disease that typically occurs in children and non-immune young adults. In pregnant women, rubella infection can produce a cons ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rubella Vaccine The rubella vaccine is a vaccine that aims to prevent rubella. Rubella, also known as German measles, is an acute, self-limiting, contagious viral inf ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rubeola (Measles) This activity reviews the epidemiology and pathophysiology of measles to further understand its epidemiological situation. This will hopefully lead to ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sacroiliac Joint Pain The sacroiliac (SI) joint lies between the sacrum and the ilium bones of the pelvis. There are two joints, one on each side of the sacrum. The joint s ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Saddle Anesthetic Block Saddle block anesthesia is the mainstay method of anesthesia for numerous surgical procedures. It is the desired procedure owing to its simplicity and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Salpingitis Isthmica Nodosa Salpingitis isthmica nodosa (SIN) occasionally referred to as diverticulosis of the fallopian tube is a common finding in patients investigated for ec ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Schizencephaly Schizencephaly is a rare congenital neuronal migration disorder characterized by cleft lined by the heterotopic gray matter, which connects the surfac ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder characterized by hallucinations, delusions, and disturbances in thought, perception, and behavior. Traditionally ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Scleroderma And Primary Myocardial Disease Systemic scleroderma is a connective tissue disease that can affect internal organs. Cardiac manifestations of the disease can be a result of the prim ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Scopolamine Scopolamine is a medication used in the management and treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and motion sickness. It is in the anticho ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Secondary Amenorrhea Secondary amenorrhea occurs when a patient who has passed menarche goes six months or longer without menses. While some sources only require three mon ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Secondary Hypertension Secondary hypertension is elevated blood pressure (BP), which is secondary to an identifiable cause. This activity outlines the causes, history, and p ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Seizure Medications The mainstay treatment strategy for seizures is medication management. However, much like the prescription of any other pharmaceutical agent, a clinic ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sellick Maneuver Cricoid pressure is a technique that has become part of rapid sequence intubation to prevent aspiration of gastric contents. The technique has limited ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Septic Thrombophlebitis Suppurative (septic) thrombophlebitis describes thrombosis in a vein that occurs in the setting of inflammation and infection. This condition is chara ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sevoflurane Sevoflurane is a halogenated inhalational anesthetic that is FDA approved for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia in adults and pediat ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sexual Assault Clothing Collection and Documentation Medical management should be the first and top priority in caring for sexual assault victims. After the patient is clinically stable, proper assault p ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sexual Assault Evidence Collection Sexual assault evidence collection is the process of collecting specimens and documenting injuries of sexual assault victims to be used in the court o ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sexual Assault Infectious Disease Prophylaxis Patients presenting for medical treatment after a sexual assault may be concerned about the possibility of acquiring an infectious disease. For many t ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sexually Transmitted Infections Sexually transmitted infections are disease processes from close physical contact between males and females by transmission through sexual contact. Se ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sheehan Syndrome Sheehan syndrome which is also called post-partum pituitary necrosis refers to the necrosis of cells of the anterior pituitary gland following signifi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Shock Resuscitation At its most basic definition, the term “shock” means that there is a lack of adequate tissue oxygenation throughout the body. Typically, this lack of ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Shoulder Dystocia Shoulder dystocia is a complication of vaginal delivery in which the baby's shoulder gets caught above the mother's pubic bone. It is characterized by ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sickle Cell Crisis Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of inherited red blood cell disorders affecting about 1 in 500 African American children and 1 in 36,000 Hispanic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sinus Bradycardia Sinus bradycardia is a cardiac rhythm with appropriate cardiac muscular depolarization initiating from the sinus node and a rate of fewer than 60 beat ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Small for Gestational Age Small for gestational age (SGA) is defined as a birth weight of less than 10th percentile for gestational age. The burden of fetal growth-restricted ( ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Smoking Tobacco smoking is a practice of burning tobacco with the smoke inhaled to be tasted and absorbed into the bloodstream. Around 23 percent of the world ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Somatic Syndrome Disorders According to the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V), somatic symptom disorder (SSD) involves one or mo ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spina Bifida Spina Bifida is a generalized term for the neurologic condition resulting from the failure of neural tube closure of varying degrees during fetal deve ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spinal Anesthesia Development of regional anesthesia started with the isolation of local anesthetics, the first being cocaine (the only naturally occurring local anesth ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spinal Cord Compression Spinal cord compression can result from a myriad of both atraumatic and traumatic causes. The spinal column is vulnerable to a variety of compressive ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spontaneous Abortion Spontaneous abortion is the loss of pregnancy naturally before twenty weeks of gestation. There are several different types of spontaneous abortion. D ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spoon Nails This activity outlines the evaluation and management of koilonychia and highlights the role of the interprofessional team in evaluating, treating and ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
St. John's Wort St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum) is an invasive, flowering plant native to Europe and Asia. It is also known as Amber, Goatweed, Hardhay, and o ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Stages of Labor Labor is a process that subdivides into three stages. The first stage starts when labor begins and ends with full cervical dilation and effacement. Th ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Stevens Johnson Syndrome Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis are acute, rare and potentially fatal skin reactions involving loss of skin and in some cases ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Strangulation Injuries Strangulation injuries occur when external forces are applied to the neck leading to a variety of traumatic pathology. If the injury is severe enough ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Streptococcal Pharyngitis Group A streptococcus is a gram-positive, non-motile bacteria that is the most common etiology for acute pharyngitis accounting for 5 to 15 percent of ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Streptococcus Group B Group B Streptococcus (GBS) commonly appears in up to 35% of healthy women's reproductive or gastrointestinal tracts. Pregnant women colonized with GB ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Stress Incontinence Stress urinary incontinence is the sudden, involuntary loss of urine secondary to increased intraabdominal pressure that is affecting the patient’s qu ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Stretch Marks Striae, or stretch marks, are indented streaks that often affect the abdomen, buttocks, thighs, back, breasts, axillae and groin. They are divided int ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Stroke Prevention There is a significant overlap between the risk factors accounting for cardiovascular events and cerebrovascular events. The INTERHEART study looked a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Subchorionic Hemorrhage Subchorionic hemorrhage is bleeding beneath the chorion membranes that enclose the embryo in the uterus. It is thought to occur due to partial detachm ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Subclinical Hypothyroidism Subclinical hypothyroidism characteristically presents with normal thyroxine (T4) levels and elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. The in ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Subfalcine Herniation Herniation occurs when brain tissue is displaced across a structure within the cranium. Subfalcine herniation is the most common form of brain herniat ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Substance Use In Pregnancy Substance use disorder (SUD) in pregnancy is a growing concern in the United States. Patients with substance use disorders in the peripartum period fa ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sucralfate Sucralfate is a medication used in the treatment of duodenal ulcers, epithelial wounds, chemotherapy-induced mucositis, radiation proctitis, ulcers in ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Suicide Risk Suicide is the tenth most common cause of death in the United States, but it can often be prevented with appropriate intervention. This activity re ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Superficial Thrombophlebitis Superficial thrombophlebitis, increasingly known as superficial venous thrombosis, is no longer considered a benign entity. It is often associated wit ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Surfactant Pulmonary surfactant is a lipoprotein complex that lines the alveoli and decreases the surface tension to prevent lung atelectasis. Surfactant deficie ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Surgical Access Incisions A well-planned surgical incision is one of the most crucial steps in any surgical procedure. It is always essential to determine the proper location o ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone ADH release (SIADH) is a condition defined by the unsuppressed release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) fr ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Syphilis Syphilis is a systemic, bacterial infection caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum. Due to its many protean clinical manifestations, it has been ... Read the Article 2.5 46 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Syphilis Ocular Manifestations Syphilis is caused by infection by the spirochete, Treponema pallidum. Ocular manifestations can occur at any stage of the disease with varied clinica ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease with multisystem involvement and is associated with significant morbidity and mort ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Systemic Sclerosis Scleroderma is a rare connective tissue disorder with unknown and complex pathogenesis. Scleroderma can be divided into two forms, Localized Scleroder ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tamoxifen Tamoxifen is indicated for the treatment of breast cancer in a variety of settings. It should be noted that evidence suggests that patients with estro ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tetanus Prophylaxis This activity reviews and outlines the role of tetanus prophylaxis. It will outline the basics of immunization and prophylaxis and will discuss types ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Therapeutic Exercise This activity outlines the modalities, underpinnings, anatomy, and physiology of exercise as a tool for treating various illnesses such as musculoskel ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Threatened Abortion A threatened abortion is vaginal bleeding during pregnancy that does not meet diagnostic criteria for spontaneous abortion. In a threatened abortion, ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thrombocytopenia in Pregnancy Thrombocytopenia, defined as a platelet count of under 150 x 10^9/L, is the second most common hematological abnormality in pregnancy. This CME activi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thyroid Disease And Pregnancy Thyroid disease is the second most common endocrine disorder after diabetes in pregnancy. Thyroid disease poses a substantial challenge on the physiol ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thyroidectomy This activity describes indications and techniques of thyroidectomy and reviews the role of the healthcare team in evaluating and treating patients wh ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thyroiditis This activity reviews the different types of thyroiditis, their presentation, evaluation, diagnosis and treatment and highlights the role of the inter ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thyrotoxicosis Thyrotoxicosis is the clinical state associated with excess thyroid hormone activity, usually due to inappropriately high-circulating thyroid hormones ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tocolysis Tocolysis is an obstetrical procedure to prolong gestation in patients, some of which are experiencing preterm labor. This is achieved through various ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tolterodine Tolterodine is a medication used in the management and treatment of overactive bladder. It is in the antimuscarinic class of medications. This activit ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Topiramate Topiramate is a medication used in the management and treatment of epilepsy and migraine. It is in the second-generation anti-epileptic drugs class of ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Topiramate And Phentermine Phentermine and extended-release (ER) topiramate have been used separately in a variety of ways. Phentermine was first introduced in 1959 as part of a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
TORCH Complex The term TORCH complex or TORCHes infection includes toxoplasmosis, others (syphilis, hepatitis B), rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex. These ar ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis is caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan. Although many people are infected worldwide, the disea ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Trastuzumab Trastuzumab is a biologic antineoplastic agent that, at the time of its FDA approval in 1998, was among the first available targeted chemotherapies. I ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tretinoin Tretinoin is a valuable medication in the treatment of mild, moderate, and severe acne that can be used topically or systemically. Tretinoin also used ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Trichomoniasis Trichomonas vaginalis is a protozoan responsible for trichomoniasis, one of the most prevalent non-viral sexually transmitted infections in the United ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tubal Ligation Tubal ligation is the most common method of contraception worldwide. While the indication, desire for permanent sterilization, is clear, the ethics su ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tubo-Ovarian Abscess A tubo-ovarian abscess (TOA) is a complex infectious mass of the adnexa that forms as a sequela of pelvic inflammatory disease. Classically, a TOA man ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Turner Syndrome Turner syndrome, also referred to as congenital ovarian hypoplasia syndrome is the most common sex chromosomal abnormality found in females. It result ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Twin Births Twin births account for approximately 3 percent of live births in the United States. Barring pregnancies that result from assisted reproductive techno ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Twin-To-Twin Transfusion Syndrome Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a potential complication of monochorionic twin or higher gestations. There are numerous possible outcomes of ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Typhoid Vaccine There are two United States-licensed vaccines available for Salmonella typhi, an oral attenuated live virus, and an injectable polysaccharide vaccine. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Umbilical Cord Prolapse Umbilical cord prolapse is a condition where the umbilical cord exists the cervical os before the fetal presenting part. Compression of the cord resul ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Unconjugated Hyperbilirubinemia Unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia is a condition defined as elevated serum or plasma bilirubin (unconjugated) levels above the reference range of the la ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome Upper airway resistance syndrome, commonly known as UARS, is a disorder included with many others that encompass an umbrella of conditions characteriz ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ureteral Injury Overall, a ureteral injury is rare. The most common cause is iatrogenic trauma during open surgery, laparoscopic, or endoscopic procedures. Penetratin ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Urge Incontinence Urge incontinence is a type of urinary incontinence in adults, which involves sudden compelling urges to void and results in involuntary leakage of ur ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Urinary Tract Infection Forty percent of women in the United States will develop a urinary tract infection (UTI) at some point in her lifetime, making this one of the most co ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Urinary Tract Infection In Pregnancy Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are frequently encountered in pregnant women. Pyelonephritis is the most common serious medical condition seen in preg ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Uterine Atony Uterine atony is a principal cause of postpartum hemorrhage, an obstetric emergency. Globally, it is one of the top 5 causes of maternal mortality. Ut ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Uterine Cancer Uterine cancer arising from the innermost layer of the uterus, the endometrium, is called endometrial carcinoma. Endometrial carcinoma is the most com ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Uterine Fibroid Embolization This activity reviews the minimally invasive medical therapy known as uterine artery embolization (UAE). It discusses which patients may or may not b ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Uterine Inversion Uterine inversion is one of the most serious complications of childbirth. It refers to the collapse of the fundus into the uterine cavity. Although it ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Uterine Leiomyomata Uterine leiomyomata or fibroids are an extremely common benign neoplasm in women of reproductive age. Although they are benign, they can have a signif ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Uterine Rupture A uterine rupture is a complete division of all three layers of the uterus. Most uterine ruptures occur when the uterus is gravid in the setting of a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vaccine (Vaccination) Immunization is a successful use of immunotherapy to treat many infectious diseases by stimulating the immune system to produce specific antibodies or ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vacuum Extraction Operative vaginal delivery is used to expedite vaginal delivery for either maternal or fetal indication. Options for operative delivery include both v ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vaginal Atrophy Vaginal atrophy is thinning of the vaginal epithelium and decreased cervical secretions most closely related to changes in estrogen levels. It is a co ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vaginal Birth After Cesarean Delivery Vaginal birth after cesarean section (VBAC) describes a vaginal delivery in a women who has given birth via cesarean section in a former pregnancy. Pa ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vaginal Bleeding Vaginal bleeding is a common complaint with a broad differential diagnosis. This activity reviews the evaluation and management of vaginal bleeding an ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vaginal Cancer Vaginal cancer is an uncommon gynecologic malignancy. The diagnosis of primary vaginal cancer is rare because most of these lesions will be metastatic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vaginal Candidiasis Vulvovaginitis, or inflammation of the vulva and vagina, most commonly occurs in reproductive-aged women and is usually secondary to infection. Candid ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vaginal Delivery Vaginal delivery is safest for the fetus and for the mother when the newborn is full-term at the gestational age of 37 to 42 weeks. Vaginal delivery i ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vaginal Foreign Body Evaluation and Treatment Vaginal foreign bodies present in female patients of all ages and a wide range of healthcare settings, including the emergency department, primary car ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vaginal Hysterectomy Hysterectomy is the most common nonobstetric surgical procedure among women. As such, it is imperative to continue evaluating trends in the performanc ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vaginitis Vaginal discharge and discomfort are common complaints from women in all stages of life. Vaginitis is a frequently encountered problem for providers t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Valproic Acid Valproic acid is an anticonvulsive and mood stabilizer medication. It is extensively used in the adult population for the treatment of convulsions, mi ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vanishing Twin Syndrome When one of the twins or multiple embryos dies in utero, disappear or get resorbed partially or entirely, with an outcome of a spontaneous reduction o ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Varenicline Smoking is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the human population and poses as one of the most modifiable risk factors towards preventing ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Variable Decelerations Electronic fetal monitoring is widely utilized intrapartum to assess fetal status, to prevent adverse neonatal outcomes such as fetal asphyxia or cere ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Varicella (Chickenpox) Vaccine Varicella-zoster virus (chickenpox) is an acute febrile rash illness that was very common in children in the United States before the universal vaccin ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Varicella Zoster Chickenpox or varicella is a contagious disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV). The virus is responsible for chickenpox (usually primary i ... Read the Article 1.75 29 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Varicella Zoster Immune Globulin Varicella-zoster immune globulin (VZIG) is a medication used for postexposure prophylaxis and treatment of varicella. It is in the "Opportunistic Infe ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vasodilators Vasodilators are useful in the management of hypertension, angina, heart failure, myocardial infarction, and more. This activity reviews the indicatio ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vasomotor Rhinitis Vasomotor rhinitis affects millions of Americans and costs billions of dollars annually in healthcare costs. Vasomotor rhinitis is the most common fo ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) is a mosquito-borne disease endemic in regions of Central and South America that causes sporadic outbreaks of equ ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Venous Sinus Thrombosis Venous sinus thromboses are venous blood clots of the major veins of the brain. They can be provoked or unprovoked, and the signs and symptoms thereof ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ventricular Septal Defect Ventricular septal defects (VSDs) are the most common congenital cardiac anomaly in children and the second most common congenital abnormality in adul ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Verapamil The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved indications for verapamil include angina (chronic stable, vasospastic or prinzmetal variant), unstable ... Read the Article 1.75 26 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Violent Patients Violence in healthcare is a worldwide and critical issue. In 2017, the Bureau of Labor and Statistics reported that healthcare workers are five times ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Viral Arthritis Acute-onset polyarticular arthritis is the most common presentation of viral arthritis. The most commonly implicated viruses are parvovirus, the alpha ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Viral Pneumonia The increasing role of viral pathogens in pneumonia and the increased recognition of bacterial and viral coinfections in patients with pneumonia neces ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vitamin A Toxicity Vitamin A toxicity can due to either topical or oral vitamin A administration. Oral vitamin A toxicity can be acute, due to the ingestion of a large a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vitamin K Deficiency Vitamin K refers to a group of fat-soluble compounds involved in coagulation, bone development, and cardiovascular health. Vitamin K deficiency can co ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vulvar Hematoma Vulvar hematoma is a rare but potentially fatal condition if left undiagnosed and untreated. Hence, prompt recognition of this condition is important. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia is a non-invasive squamous lesion and precursor of squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. This activity reviews the ev ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vulvodynia Vulvodynia is a vulvar pain of at least three months' duration without a clear identifiable cause. It is a diagnosis of exclusion and is considered an ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wernicke Encephalopathy Wernicke encephalopathy is an acute neurological condition characterized by a clinical triad of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and confusion. This disease i ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wound Irrigation Wounds and lacerations are common complaints. Each year in the United States, roughly 12.2 million patients are seen in emergency departments for woun ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Yolk Sac Tumors Yolk sac tumors (also known as endodermal sinus tumors) are malignant primitive germ cell tumors; they are histologically similar to the mesenchyma of ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Young Syndrome Young syndrome, also known as sinusitis-infertility syndrome, is a rare inherited syndrome similar to Kartagener syndrome. Individuals born with this ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Zidovudine Zidovudine is a medication used in the management and treatment of HIV-1. It is in the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor class of medications ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Zika Virus Zika virus is a single-stranded RNA virus of the family and the genus Flavivirus. In the majority of people, infection by the Zika virus is mild and s ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Zolmitriptan Zolmitriptan is a medication used in the management and treatment of acute migraine. It is in the triptan class of drugs. This activity describes the ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO

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