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Surgery-General

Surgery-General

Stay up to date on the latest medical knowledge with this Surgery-General activity. In this online self-assessment activity, you'll read our reference articles and test your knowledge with 1547 activities in Surgery-General for 1399 total CME hours.


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Featured Article Activities

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Wound Healing Phases

Wound healing is a natural physiological reaction to tissue injury. However, wound healing is not a simple phenomenon an ...
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Hours: 0.75

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Napalm Toxicity

Napalm is a weaponized mixture of chemicals designed to create a highly flammable and gelatinous liquid. Detonation the ...
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Hours: 0.75

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Median Nerve Palsy

This activity addresses the topic of median nerve palsy in great detail. The median nerve is a critical neurological str ...
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Hours: 0.75

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Acute Abdomen

An acute abdomen is a condition that demands urgent attention and treatment. The acute abdomen may be caused by an infec ...
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Rating: 5.00
Hours: 1

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Clinodactyly

Clinodactyly is defined as a congenital curvature of a digit distal to the metacarpal phalangeal joint in the coronal pl ...
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Hours: 0.75

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Mastodynia

Mastodynia or breast pain, also called mastalgia can occur both in women and men, but it presents more commonly in women ...
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Hours: 0.75

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Surgery-General Activities

Title Description Hours Questions
5 Alpha Reductase Inhibitors The 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (finasteride and dutasteride) are a class of medication used in the management and treatment of benign prostatic hype ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
A Review Of Hereditary Colorectal Cancers Colorectal cancer is the fourth leading cause of death in the world. Many cases of colorectal cancer are associated with lifestyle factors such as obe ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominal Abscess Abdominal abscesses contain cellular debris, enzymes, and liquid and can be from an infectious or non-infectious source. They are a common and serious ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominal Angina Abdominal angina is postprandial pain that occurs in mesenteric vascular occlusive disease when blood flow to the colon is unable to meet visceral dem ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominal Aorta Repair Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair is performed because the mortality rates are as high as 78% following rupture. Open and endovascular surgery are the ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm An abdominal aortic aneurysm is a life-threatening condition which requires monitoring or treatment depending upon the size of the aneurysm and/or sym ... Read the Article 1.5 23 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Imaging Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAAs) are a relatively common pathology. Ruptured aneurysms have an exceptionally high mortality rate. Early diagnosis an ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Rupture Abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture represents a catastrophic emergency and if not recognized and appropriately treated, carries significant morbidity a ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominal Aortic Repair Abdominal aortic repair is a major surgical procedure done to treat an aortic aneurysm. Elective surgery on an abdominal aortic aneurysm is indicated ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominal Compartment Syndrome Abdominal compartment syndrome occurs when the pressure in the abdominal cavity elevates beyond 20 mmHg. It is associated with multiorgan dysfunction. ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominal Hematoma A hematoma is a blood collection in an extravascular space, and is named according to the location of the blood collection. Rectus sheath hematomas r ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominal Hysterectomy This activity describes the current status of abdominal hysterectomy, which represents the most common gynecologic surgical procedure performed in the ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominal Thrust Maneuver The abdominal thrust maneuver, also known as the Heimlich maneuver, is used to treat upper airway obstructions caused by foreign bodies. This maneuver ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominal Wall Reconstruction The management of abdominal wall defects is challenging and complex. To achieve good outcomes, the goals and objectives of abdominal wall reconstructi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominoplasty The abdominoplasty, commonly referred to as a "tummy tuck", is a procedure to reduce excess skin and fat around the abdomen and strengthen the abdomin ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Above the Knee Amputations Above-the-knee amputations are performed in patients of all ages for a variety of reasons. The amputation is performed through the femur and allows pa ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abrasion Abrasion is the superficial denudation of the epithelium due to scraping, impact or pressure. While the management of abrasions is relatively simple, ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acalculous Cholecystitis Acalculous cholecystitis is a hypokinetic condition of gallbladder emptying. It often presents as an acute ailment (acute cholecystitis), but it can a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Achalasia Achalasia is an esophageal smooth muscle motility disorder that occurs due to a failure of relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter. This conditio ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acne Keloidalis Nuchae Acne keloidalis nuchae is a disease characterized by persistent folliculitis at the nape of the neck that forms keloid like scars and ultimately cicat ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Actinomycosis Actinomyces are gram-positive filamentous non-acid fast anaerobic to microaerophilic bacteria that typically colonize the human mouth, urogenital trac ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Abdomen An acute abdomen is a condition that demands urgent attention and treatment. The acute abdomen may be caused by an infection, inflammation, vascular o ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute and Chronic Thermal Burn Evaluation and Management Thermal burns are a significant cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality. They can lead to debilitating, lifelong injuries and have serious psycholo ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Arterial Occlusion Acute arterial occlusion is synonymous with acute limb ischemia and is considered a vascular emergency. Acute limb ischemia is defined as a sudden los ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Cardiac Tamponade Cardiac tamponade occurs when excessive fluid accumulates in the pericardium, in turn compressing the heart and restricting the filling of the cardia ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Cholecystitis Acute cholecystitis is inflammation of the gallbladder that occurs due to occlusion of the cystic duct or impaired emptying of the gallbladder. Often ... Read the Article 1.5 22 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Compartment Syndrome Acute compartment syndrome is a condition in which there is increased pressure within a closed osteofascial compartment, resulting in impaired local c ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Diverticulitis Acute diverticulitis is inflammation of a diverticulum, a sac-like protrusion from the colon wall, due to micro-perforation. Diverticulitis presents i ... Read the Article 1.25 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Kidney Injury Acute kidney injury, previously known as acute renal failure, denotes a sudden and often reversible reduction in the kidney function, as measured by ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Mastitis Mastitis can be broken down into lactational and non-lactational causes. While non-lactational causes of mastitis are less common, lactational mastiti ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Mesenteric Ischemia Acute mesenteric ischemia is caused by a sudden decline in blood flow through the mesenteric vessels. Diagnosis can be difficult because symptoms are ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Nerve Injury Peripheral nerve injuries (PNIs) can present in approximately 3% of trauma patients. They vary in severity and complexity, necessitating different app ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute On Chronic Liver Failure Acute on chronic liver failure is a clinical syndrome of sudden hepatic decompensation observed in patients with pre-existing chronic liver disease. A ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Pancreatitis Acute pancreatitis is the leading cause of gastrointestinal-related hospitalization in the United States, and its frequency continues to rise in the ... Read the Article 2 35 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Pneumothorax Evaluation and Treatment A pneumothorax is an accumulation of gas in the pleural space (the space between the visceral and parietal pleura of the chest cavity), which can imp ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Porphyria Acute porphyrias are a group of rare disorders characterized by an enzymatic defect in the heme biosynthetic pathway. Patients present with acute, deb ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Pulmonary Embolism Acute pulmonary embolism is a common clinical condition with a variable clinical presentation, making its diagnosis challenging. This activity outline ... Read the Article 2 30 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening that is characterized by poor oxygenation and non-compliant or "stiff" lungs. The dis ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Scrotum Pain Acute scrotum pain is an umbrella term that includes a wide variety of unique disease processes. Patients may describe the rapid onset of symptoms wit ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Traumatic Ischemia Hyperbaric Evaluation and Treatment Trauma to a limb leads to direct tissue damage and local hypoxia due to edema, resulting in acute traumatic peripheral ischemia. The trauma can vary f ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adenocarcinoma Adenocarcinomas are malignant tumors formed from glandular structures in epithelial tissue. They can arise from a variety of tissues. This activity re ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adenomyomatosis Adenomyomatosis is a benign condition that can present with right upper quadrant pain and is characterized by hyperplasia of the gallbladder wall muco ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adhesiolysis Intra-abdominal adhesions are commonly formed after surgery, but can also be congenital. They are the most common cause of bowel obstruction. The majo ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adrenal Adenoma Adrenal adenomas are benign neoplasms of the adrenal cortex. Non-secreting adrenal adenomas secrete low levels of hormones, are usually asymptomatic a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adrenal Cancer Adrenal masses are a frequent observation in the adrenal gland. While most lesions are benign, adrenocortical carcinoma should be a consideration when ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adrenal Cortical Nodular Hyperplasia A number of heterogeneous disorders can result in adrenal cortical nodular hyperplasia. Cortical hyperplasia is a benign enlargement of the gland. Nor ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adrenal Crisis Adrenal crisis is an acute life-threatening condition precipitated by an internal or external process in the setting of known or unknown adrenal insuf ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adrenal Hemorrhage Adrenal hemorrhage represents a rare disease of variable etiologies. The disease often presents in a wide variety of clinical settings and presents a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adrenal Myelolipoma Adrenal myelolipomas are benign adrenal neoplasm predominantly composed of mature adipose tissue and intermixed myeloid tissue. They comprise 6-16% of ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adrenalectomy Adrenalectomy is performed to adrenal tumors that secret excess hormone and for those that are concerning for malignancy. There are many approached to ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adult Inguinal Hernia Inguinal hernia is one of the most common surgical pathologies encountered by a general surgeon. Worldwide, there are more than 20 million inguinal he ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adverse Events Adverse events (AE) occur frequently in our medical system and at least one in ten patients are affected. An AE is a harmful and negative outcome that ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Afferent Loop Syndrome This activity reviews the etiology, evaluation, and management of afferent loop syndrome (ALS), with particular attention to the difference in managem ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Airway Assessment A thorough, but brief, airway assessment is essential for the proper management of patients requiring advanced airway management. Indications for the ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Airway Foreign Bodies Foreign body aspiration is the fourth leading cause of death in preschool and younger age children and accounts for a significant number of emergency ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Airway Management Interprofessional team members must be familiar with the important anatomical, physiological, and pathological features related to the airway and have ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Airway Suctioning Airway suctioning is a procedure routinely performed in the inpatient and outpatient settings. It is important to maintain patency of the natural or a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Albumin Colloid Albumin is the most abundant protein in the blood and accounts for about 50 percent of all plasma proteins. It gets synthesized by the liver and secre ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alcoholic Pancreatitis Pancreatitis is defined as inflammation of the pancreas, leading to damage and dysfunction of the retroperitoneal organ. It can be classified as Acute ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alkali Toxicity Alkali toxicity, though rare, can lead to serious medical problems. Adult caustic ingestions are usually intentional, involving more substantial amou ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Allen Test The Allen test (AT) is used to assess collateral blood flow to the hands. The radial artery is easily palpable. The need for this test arises from the ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Allopurinol Allopurinol is a urate-lowering medication that is FDA approved for the management of gout, prevention of tumor lysis syndrome, and prevention of recu ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alosetron Alosetron is a medication used in the management and treatment of severe diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D). It is in the class of ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alpha 1 Receptor Agonists Alpha-1 agonists are a class of medications used in the management of many disorders, including vasodilatory shock, hypotension, hypoperfusion, septic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alpha Blockers Alpha-blockers are medications used in the management and treatment of essential hypertension, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and pheochromocytom ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aluminum Hydroxide Aluminum hydroxide is a medication used in the management and treatment of acid indigestion. It is in the antacid class of drugs. This activity outlin ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amebic Colitis Amebic colitis is the result of invasive infection of the colonic mucosa by Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica). Losch first reported disease due t ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amebic Liver Abscess Amebic liver abscess is the most common extra-intestinal manifestation of the protozoan, Entamoeba histolytica. The life cycle involves consumption of ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
American Society of Anesthesiologists Classification The American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status classification system was developed to offer clinicians a simple categorization of a p ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aminocaproic Acid Aminocaproic acid, an antifibrinolytic agent, is a medication used in the management and treatment of acute bleeding disorders. This activity outlines ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ammonia Toxicity Ammonia toxicity occurs when susceptible individuals suffer exposure to external sources of ammonia via ingestion, inhalation, direct contact with ski ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amniotic Band Syndrome Amniotic band syndrome (ABS) comprises a variety of congenital anomalies which includes disruption, deformation, and malformations of organs which wer ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ampullary Cancer Ampullary cancer arises from ampulla of Vater terminal to the confluence of the distal common bile duct (CBD) and the pancreatic duct. It is important ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anaerobic Infections Anaerobic bacteria are part of the normal flora of human skin and mucosal membranes. The site of anaerobic infection is commonly the site of normal co ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anal Cancer Anal cancer is a rare tumor comprising only 2.5% of all digestive system malignancies in the United States. The pathophysiology of the development of ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anal Fistulotomy Seton placement for anal fistulas is an accepted procedure in the treatment of anal fistulas that are deep to the sphincter complex. This activity rev ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is a common etiology of sexual developmental disorders and results in varying phenotypes. These disorders of and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anemia Anemia is a reduction in hemoglobin (Hb) or hematocrit (HCT) or RBC count. It is a presentation of an underlying condition and can be subdivided into ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anesthesia Monitoring Of Mixed Venous Saturation While oxygen saturation refers to the percentage of hemoglobin bound to oxygen within red blood cells, mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) refers to ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anesthetic Gases Anesthetic gases (nitrous oxide, halothane, isoflurane, desflurane, sevoflurane), also known as inhaled anesthetics, are administered as primary thera ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angiodysplasia Angiodysplasia is an abnormal, tortuous, dilated small blood vessel in the mucosal and submucosal layers of the GI tract. It is the most common vascul ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angiography Angiography is performed to image the anatomical and structural details of the vascular system, including the cardiac chambers. Initially used for str ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angiotensin II Angiotensin is a peptide endocrine hormone and an important part of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, an inter-related endocrine system import ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Animal Bites Animal bites account for approximately one percent of all emergency visits in the U.S. yearly and can range from superficial injuries to disfiguring a ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ankle Brachial Index The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is a non-invasive tool for the assessment of vascular status. It consists of the ratio between the systolic blood press ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ankle Dislocation An ankle dislocation occurs when there is an abnormal separation between the talo-tibial joint. This most often occurs concomitantly with an ankle fra ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ankle Fractures Acute ankle fractures can affect many different structures. Classification systems can help delineate the mechanism of injury and the structures damag ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ankle Splinting Splinting is primarily used to immobilize a joint to allow for pain control, injury stabilization, and ultimately tissue healing. In the acute setting ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Annular Pancreas Annular pancreas (AP) is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by encasement of the duodenum by a band of pancreatic tissue. AP is not commonly enco ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anorectal Fistula An anorectal fistula is a connection between the anorectal canal and perianal area. It is a morbid condition that commonly occurs following perianal a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anorectal Malformations The management of anorectal malformations is challenging and exceptionally complex. To achieve appropriate outcomes in children with this diagnosis, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anoscopy Anoscopy is a bedside procedure that is inexpensive and can be performed quickly without bowel preparation or sedation. With this method, the examiner ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anterior Cord Syndrome Anterior cord syndrome is an incomplete cord syndrome that predominantly affects the anterior 2/3 of the spinal cord, characteristically resulting in ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anterior Hip Dislocation Anterior hip dislocations are usually caused by forceful abduction with external rotation of the thigh and most commonly following a motor vehicle acc ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anterior Interosseous Syndrome Anterior interosseus syndrome is an isolated palsy of flexor pollicus longus, the index and long fingers of the flexor digitorum profundus, and the pr ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anterior Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome Anterior tarsal tunnel syndrome occurs due to compression or entrapment of the deep peroneal nerve. Most commonly, the deep peroneal nerve becomes ent ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anthrax Anthrax is an infectious disease caused by an encapsulated, spore-forming, gram-variable bacteria called Bacillus anthracis. This commonly presents wi ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anticoagulation This activity reviews the general principles in anticoagulation therapy, with highlights on the different types, indications, and perioperative impact ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antiemetic Serotonin-5-HT3 Receptor Blockers Select serotonin receptor (5-HT3) antagonists block serotonin both peripherally, on gastrointestinal (GI) vagal nerve terminals, and centrally in the ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antiplatelet Medications Over time, numerous antiplatelet agents have been developed with a multitude of indications. Antiplatelet medications divide into oral and parenteral ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Dissection While uncommon, acute aortic dissection is an infrequent but catastrophic disorder. Patients present with tearing chest pain that radiates to the back ... Read the Article 1.75 27 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Rupture Aortic rupture can occur from multiple causes, which include blunt aortic injury resulting from rapid deceleration, penetrating trauma, and spontaneou ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Transection Aortic transection is an injury encountered with blunt thoracic trauma with substantial morbidity and mortality. Many patients with aortic transection ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Trauma Aortic injury is one of the most time-sensitive, life-threatening conditions. It is second only to head injury as a global leading cause of death. Mos ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortocaval Compression Syndrome Aortocaval compression syndrome is also known as a supine hypotensive syndrome. It typically occurs in pregnant females, usually after 20 weeks of ges ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortofemoral Bypass Aortofemoral bypass surgery has been used in the management of aortoiliac occlusive disease since the 1950s. Today, revascularization with endovascula ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortoiliac Occlusive Disease Aortoiliac occlusive disease is defined by atherosclerotic blockage of the distal abdominal aorta and iliac arteries. Patients commonly present with c ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Apixaban Apixaban is a novel oral anticoagulant (NOAC) that was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2012 for use in patients with non-valv ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Appendicitis Appendicitis is the inflammation of the vermiform appendix. It typically presents acutely, within 24 hours of onset, but can also present as a more ch ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Appendicitis in Pregnancy Appendicitis during pregnancy is a condition in which the appendix becomes inflamed and infected. Its treatment consists of emergent surgery for the r ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Appendix Cancer Appendiceal malignancies are a rare group of tumors often found incidentally during surgical removal of the appendix. Histologically, this malignancy ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Appendix Testes Torsion Torsion of testicular appendages is considered one of, if not the most common cause of acute scrotal pain in the prepubertal children and should be in ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Approach New Breast Mass Breast masses are common and are associated with a wide spectrum of disease, from benign physiological adenosis to advanced malignancy. A structured a ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aprepitant Aprepitant is a medication used in the management and treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) and postoperative nausea and vomiti ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
APUDoma APUDomas, currently known as neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), are a group of heterogeneous tumors that arise from the diffuse neuroendocrine system. They ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Argatroban Argatroban is a medication used in the management of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia(HIT), which is a rare, life-threatening complication of heparin ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aromatase Inhibitors Anastrozole is a medication used in the management and treatment of breast cancer. It is in the aromatase inhibitors class of drugs. This activity des ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arterial Gas Embolism Arterial gas embolism is a rare, life-threatening entity, which requires prompt recognition and early intervention. Failure to diagnose, and initiate ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arterial Pressure Monitoring Arterial pressure monitoring is a form of invasive blood pressure monitoring and is done through the cannulation of a peripheral artery. This form of ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arteriovenous Fistula Arteriovenous fistulas are abnormal connections between arteries and veins. AVFs can be surgically created, can occur as a result of a congenital or g ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Artery Cannulation Arterial cannulation is a procedure frequently performed in acute and critical care settings. It serves as an invasive means to more accurately measur ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ascites Ascites is the pathologic accumulation of fluid within the peritoneal cavity. It is the most common complication of cirrhosis and occurs in about 50% ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Asthma Anesthesia Asthma is characterized by variable and often reversible airway obstruction with bronchial hyperreactivity. An estimated 8.4% of people in the US have ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Asystole Asystole, colloquially referred to as flatline, represents the cessation of electrical and mechanical activity of the heart. Asystole typically occurs ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atelectasis The word "atelectasis" is Greek in origin; It is a combination of the Greek words atelez (Ateles) and ektasiz (ektasis) meaning "imperfect" and "expan ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease in which there is a build up of plaques inside arteries. These plaques are principally composed of l ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atracurium Atracurium is indicated as an addition to general anesthesia to facilitate endotracheal intubation and provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surge ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrophic Gastritis Gastric atrophy (GA) and intestinal metaplasia of the gastric mucosa (GIM) are collectively known as chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG). These early con ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atypical Breast Hyperplasia Atypical hyperplasia of the breast is defined as abnormal epithelial proliferative lesions of the breast which are not qualitatively or quantitatively ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atypical Ductal Hyperplasia Atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) is a pathology finding, usually found incidentally on biopsy of the breast. ADH is associated with an increased risk ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atypical Mycobacterial Disease Atypical mycobacteria or nontuberculous mycobacteria are organisms that cause a variety of diseases such as skin and soft tissue infection, lymphadeni ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Auricular Hematoma An auricular hematoma is a collection of blood underneath the perichondrium of the ear and typically occurs secondary to trauma. Auricular deformity, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Autoimmune Hepatitis Autoimmune hepatitis refers to a chronic and progressive inflammation of the liver from an unknown cause. Proposed mechanism for the development of au ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Autoimmune Pancreatitis Autoimmune pancreatitis is a clinical condition characterized by inflammation of the pancreas from an autoimmune etiology. It is an uncommon cause of ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Autologous Fat Grafting For Facial Rejuvenation Fat grafting is a technique where the harvested adipose tissue is injected into various compartments underneath the skin. The term autologous fat graf ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Autotransfusion Autotransfusion has not always been a safe procedure. The first known documented procedure of autotransfusion was performed in 1818 by Dr. James Blund ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Avascular Necrosis Osteonecrosis is a degenerative bone condition characterized by death of cellular components of bone secondary to an interruption of the subchondral b ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Avulsed Tooth Dentoalveolar trauma are injuries caused by an external impact on the teeth, palate, mandible, maxilla, and gums. These injuries can result in anythin ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Avulsion Fractures Avulsion fractures can happen anywhere in the body where soft tissue attaches to the bone. The failure of bone most commonly results from an acute eve ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Axial Flaps Trauma and resection of tumors often leave large defects requiring coverage, which have historically meant multi-stage procedures. However, axial patt ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Axillary Lymphadenectomy Axillary lymphadenectomy is a procedure performed most commonly for breast cancer lymph node metastasis, and this activity focuses on breast cancer sp ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Axillary Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy Sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer is an essential part of staging patients with early-stage breast cancer. This activity reviews the indica ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Axonotmesis This activity reviews the etiology, epidemiology, anatomy, physiology, and prognosis of peripheral nerve injury with a particular focus on axonotmesis ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Azathioprine Azathioprine (AZA) is a medication used in the management and treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the prevention of kidney transplant r ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacterial Gastroenteritis Gastroenteritis is a diarrheal disease characterized by an increase in bowel movement frequency with or without fever, vomiting, and abdominal pain. T ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacteroides Fragilis The human colon possesses the largest population of bacteria in the body, and the majority of these organisms are anaerobes; of these, about 25 percen ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bag Mask Ventilation Bag valve mask ventilation is a difficult skill to master. This activity explains how to improve this skill. This activity describes the technique of ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Balanitis Balanitis is an inflammation of the glans penis. Men with balanitis often present with penile pain and erythema. This activity explains the risk facto ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Balanoposthitis Balanoposthitis is a common disease process involving the glans penis and prepuce. It affects up to 12% to 20% of pediatric and adult males. This acti ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bancroftian Filariasis Bancroftian filariasis is a leading cause of disability worldwide and a significant public health problem. The chronic sequelae of the disease are cri ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Barium Swallow The barium swallow study, also known as a barium esophagogram or esophagram, is a contrast-enhanced radiographic study commonly used to assess structu ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Barotrauma And Mechanical Ventilation Pulmonary barotrauma is a potentially life-threatening complication in patients on mechanical ventilation. It is important to recognize and quickly ac ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Barrett Esophagus Barrett esophagus (BE) is a pre-malignant condition characterized by conversion of the normal esophageal squamous epithelium into metaplastic columnar ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Barrett Metaplasia Barrett's esophagus is the condition in which a specialized columnar epithelium replaces the normal stratified squamous epithelium of the esophagus. P ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Basal Cell Cancer Basal cell carcinoma a common cutaneous malignancy that occurs mostly on sun-damaged skin of the head, neck, and trunk. Basal cell carcinoma can be di ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Basic Flap Design Flaps are sometimes used to close skin defects and vary from simple local flaps to complex free flaps. The design of a flap is a key step in treating ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Basilar Skull Fractures Basilar skull fractures, usually caused by substantial blunt force trauma, involve at least one of the bones that compose the base of the skull. Basil ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Battle Sign Battle Sign is bruising over the mastoid process that is typically the result of head trauma. Battle sign typically requires significant head trauma a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Below Knee Amputation A below the knee amputation (BKA) is a transtibial amputation that involves removing the foot, ankle joint, distal tibia, fibula, and corresponding so ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Benign Breast Calcifications Benign breast calcifications are common. If benign breast calcifications are not appropriately identified, unnecessary intervention and use of finite ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Benign Florid Vascular Proliferation Mimicking Vascular Neoplasm Florid vascular proliferation (FVP) is a benign pseudo-neoplastic reactive proliferation of small vessels in the colon, which can mimic other benign o ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Benign Salivary Gland Tumors Salivary gland neoplasms encompass a wide array of different histologies and locations, including the parotid, submandibular gland, sublingual gland, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biceps Tendon Dislocation and Instability The long head of the biceps brachii tendon (LHBT) is a common source of pain in the shoulder. Biceps tendon pathology is often associated with rotator ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biceps Tendon Rupture The biceps tendon consists of 2 heads originating from the coracoid process (short head) and supraglenoid tubercle of the scapula (long head). The ten ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biceps Tendon Rupture of the Lower Limb Rupture of the biceps femoris tendon can be treated conservatively or surgically, depending on the severity of the tendon retraction. Most of the pati ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biceps Tendon Sheath Injection Shoulder pain is a common patient complaint encountered both by primary care physicians and orthopedic surgeons. Many structures in the shoulder can a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bier Block The Bier block, also known as intravenous local anesthesia (IVRA), is a safe, effective, and cost-efficient way to provide short-term anesthesia and a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bilateral Vocal Cord Paralysis Vocal cord paralysis refers to the immobility of a vocal cord, which can be due to pathology of the vocal ford (also known as the vocal fold) itself, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bile Duct Injury Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is performed over 750,000 times in the United States annually. As laparoscopic cholecystectomy has been increasingly used ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bile Duct Repair Injuries to the bile duct are almost universally iatrogenic and occasionally are due to trauma. The most common procedure leading to bile duct injury ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bile Duct Stricture Bile duct strictures are segments of the narrowing of the intrahepatic and/or extrahepatic biliary ductal system. The narrowing impedes the normal ant ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biliary Atresia Biliary atresia is a disease of the intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts with an unknown etiology. It presents in neonates with jaundice, clay colo ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biliary Colic Biliary colic is defined as pain in the abdomen, due to obstruction usually by stones in the cystic duct or common bile duct of the biliary tree. It t ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biliary Duct Hamartoma Biliary duct hamartomas, otherwise known as Von Meyenburg complexes, are dilated cystic bile ducts, which are embryologic remnants that failed to invo ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biliary Obstruction Biliary obstruction refers to blockage of the bile duct system preventing bile from flowing from the liver into the intestinal tract. Bile obstructio ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biliary Stenting Biliary stenting refers to the insertion of stents which are tubes made of plastic or metal to relieve obstruction in the biliary tree or to treat bil ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biliary Tract Cancer Biliary tract cancer consists of tumors that arise from epithelial cells lining the biliary tract, which consists of the intrahepatic bile duct, extra ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biliary Tract Cholangiocarcinoma The diagnosis and management of cholangiocarcinoma are challenging and complex. To achieve good results and provide appropriate patient care, the trea ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biliopancreatic Diversion With Duodenal Switch The biliopancreatic diversion was first described by Scorpinaro in 1979. This procedure combined a horizontal gastric resection with the closure of a ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bipedicled TRAM Breast Reconstruction Bipedicled TRAM is performed for individuals that have an acquired breast absence desiring unilateral autologous tissue breast reconstruction. The pri ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bladder Cancer Bladder cancer is any neoplasm that arises from the urinary bladder. It is the most common urinary tract neoplasm with urothelial carcinoma (UC) being ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bladder Catheterization Bladder catheterization is a commonly performed procedure in all hospitals. It can be performed by external, urethral, and suprapubic techniques. It i ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bladder Rupture Bladder rupture is most commonly due to abdominal and/or pelvic trauma but may be spontaneous or iatrogenic in association with surgical or endoscopic ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bladder Stones Bladder stones are solid calculi that are primarily found in the urinary bladder. While often calcified, they may also be composed of non-calcific mat ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bladder Trauma Bladder injury is broadly divided into extraperitoneal and intraperitoneal injuries. Extraperitoneal bladder injuries generally occur with pelvic frac ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blast Injuries Explosions are unique in their ability to inflict acute injuries on many people at the same time, resulting in high levels of mortality and morbidity. ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bleach Toxicity Bleach refers to a large class of compounds used to whiten or color-lighten materials. They are frequently used for cleaning and disinfection; bleache ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blister Agents Sulfur mustard (dichlorethylsulphide) and nitrogen mustard are blistering agents, or vesicants, that have been used in chemical warfare since before t ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blistering Distal Dactylitis Blistering distal dactylitis (BDD) is a bacterial infection of the fingers presenting as multiple fluid-filled lesions. This condition is common in ch ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blood Donation Blood donation is a vital part of worldwide healthcare. It allows for blood transfusion as a life-sustaining and life-saving procedure. Over one hundr ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blood Gas Temperature Correction Blood gas temperature correction is an important process to implement when assessing blood gas laboratory values. The laws of physics concerning gas s ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blood Product Safety Transfusion of blood products is one of the most commonly performed clinical procedures in healthcare today. Blood product safety has been an improvin ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blood Transfusion Blood transfusions are a relatively common medical procedure and while typically safe, there are multiple complications that practitioners need to be ... Read the Article 1.25 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blue Nevus Blue nevi are melanotic dermal lesions that commonly presents as a blue nodule on the scalp, extremities, sacrococcygeal region, or buttocks. Its char ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus Syndrome Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome is also known as Bean syndrome. It is a rare syndrome of venous malformations that arise in the skin and gastrointesti ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blunt Abdominal Trauma Abdominal trauma caused by blunt force is a common presentation in the emergency room seen in adults and children. The chief cause of blunt abdominal ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blunt Cardiac Injury A cardiac contusion is a misnomer used to indicate injury to the heart after blunt chest trauma. Because of the term's ambiguity in describing a spect ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blunt Force Trauma Trauma is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients under 35-years of age and the sixth leading cause of death worldwide. The majority ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bochdalek Hernia Bochdalek hernia is a developmental defect in the posterolateral diaphragm, allowing herniation of abdominal contents into the thorax causing mechanic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Body Fluid Exposures Health care workers have serious concerns about exposures to bodily fluids. Accidental exposures to bodily fluids present a wide variety of issues to ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Body Piercing Infections Body piercings have become increasingly popular and are a socially acceptable form of body modification. Common site of piercings are the ears, mouth, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Boerhaave Syndrome Boerhaave syndrome is also known as spontaneous esophageal rupture or effort rupture of the esophagus. Although vomiting is thought to be the most com ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bone Metastasis The skeleton is the third most common site of metastatic disease after lung and liver. Eighty percent of bone metastases originate from prostate, brea ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bone Nonunion Nonunion of bone is the body's inability to heal a fracture. The most agreed-upon standard definition of nonunion made by the FDA is a fracture that p ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Botfly Bot fly is a term referring to any member of the Oestridae family of flies. To reproduce, these flies rely on myiasis, the infestation of host skin fo ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bouveret Syndrome Bouveret syndrome is caused by a large stone passing through a bilioduodenal fistula causing gastric outlet obstruction. Morbidity and mortality rates ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bowel Adhesions Bowel adhesions are irregular bands of scar tissue that form between bowel loops, which are normally not bound together. The bands of tissue can devel ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bowel Ischemia Bowel ischemia can classify as small intestine ischemia, which is commonly known as mesenteric ischemia and large intestine ischemia, which generally ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bowel Necrosis Bowel necrosis is a late stage finding of several different disease processes characterized by cellular death due to reduced blood flow to the gastroi ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bowel Obstruction A bowel obstruction can either be a mechanical or functional obstruction of the small or large intestines. Obstruction frequently causes abdominal pai ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bowel Perforation Bowel perforation results from insult or injury to the mucosa of the bowel wall caused due to a violation of the closed system. Bowel perforation can ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bowel Preparation Clinicians can use a range of methods to prepare the bowel for colonoscopy, the gold standard for imaging the mucosa of the colon to identify concerni ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brachial Plexitis Brachial plexitis is a condition characterized by acute onset of shoulder pain followed by weakness and/or sensory loss of the shoulder and/or upper e ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brachial Plexus Injuries The earliest written description of a brachial plexus injury (BPI) is attributed to Homer circa 800 BC in his depiction of a battle during which Hecto ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brain Death Criteria Brain death accounts for about 2% of deaths in the United States and caused most likely by traumatic brain injury. Criteria of Brain death determinati ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brainstem Death The revised memorandum in 1979 correlated the brain stem death with death itself. This activity outlines current recommendations set for diagnosing br ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Branchial Cleft Cyst Branchial cleft cysts, also known as branchial cleft anomalies, are congenital anomalies arising from the first through fourth pharyngeal pouches. The ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Branchial Cleft Cysts Branchial cleft cysts are congenital epithelial cysts that comprise approximately one-third of congenital neck masses. They are benign lesions and can ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
BRCA 1 and 2 Breast cancer genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 are tumor suppressor genes whose mutations significantly increase the likelihood of developing particular types of ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Abscess Breast abscesses are a common problem, especially in lactating women. Most breast abscesses are benign, however when a non-lactating patient presents ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Augmentation Breast augmentation is a surgical procedure where the breast size is enhanced. Augmentation can be from the placement of an implant, or less commonly, ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Biopsy With improved screening and diagnostic techniques, the incidence and prevalence of breast cancer are rising worldwide. In 2018 alone, there were 2.2 m ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Cancer Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women, accounting for more than 1 in 10 new cancer diagnoses each year. It is the second most com ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Cancer Conservation Therapy Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths among females in the world. The rapid growth of breast conservation therapy has significantl ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Cancer Surgery Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in the U.S. with constantly evolving treatment guidelines. The treatment of breast cancer often invo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Cyst Breast cysts are a common diagnosis among women and one of the most common reasons for a referral to a breast clinic. These cysts can be entirely asym ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Examination Techniques The ability to perform a thorough and accurate breast exam is an important skill for medical practitioners of many levels and across many specialties. ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Fat Necrosis Breast fat necrosis is a non-suppurative inflammation of adipose tissue caused by the disruption of oxygen supply to fat cells, ultimately leading to ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Fibroadenoma A breast fibroadenoma is a painless, unilateral, benign tumor that presents as a solid lump. It commonly occurs in women between the age of 14 to 35 y ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Implant Rupture Breast augmentation is a surgical procedure where a saline or silicone implant is placed retroglandular or retropectoral within the breast. A possible ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Implants Breast implants are used for breast augmentation in aesthetic as well as oncoplastic surgery. The various types of implants over the years have had di ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Lymphatics Breast cancer is the most commonly seen cancer diagnosis in women worldwide. Lymph node involvement is one of the most important prognostic factors in ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging Over the past several years, magnetic resonance imaging of the breast has become an increasingly important modality for screening for and diagnosing b ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Nipple Discharge Nipple discharge is fluid that leaks from one or both nipples of non-pregnant and non-breastfeeding women. Nipple discharge can at times be a complex ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Reconstruction Breast cancer is the most common cancer, and the second leading cause of cancer death, in women in the United States. Treatment has progressively impr ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Reconstruction Expander Implant Breast reconstruction with implants was first described in the 1960s. While initially described as a single-stage procedure of permanent breast implan ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Reconstruction Free Flaps The invention of silicone implants in the 1960s started the age of prosthetic breast reconstruction. Free flaps were not used until the late 1970s wh ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Reduction This activity reviews breast reduction surgery and the multiple step approach needed to achieve aesthetically pleasing outcomes. The patient must be f ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Transverse Rectus Abdominus Muscle Procedure Free tissue transfer has become a common technique for breast reconstruction following oncologic resection. Free transverse rectus abdominis muscle (T ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Ultrasound Breast ultrasound is performed due to the high incidence rate of breast cancer amongst women globally. Ultrasound is typically used as an adjunct to m ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bronchial Atresia Congenital bronchial atresia is a rare condition characterized by focal obliteration of a proximal segment of a bronchus. The apicoposterior segmental ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bronchoalveolar Cancer Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) is a variant of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that in recent years has received a new identity and nomenclatur ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bronchogenic Cyst Bronchogenic cysts are foregut-derived cystic malformations of the respiratory tract. They are usually located within the mediastinum at an early stag ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bronchopleural Fistula Bronchopleural fistula (BPF) is a sinus tract between the main stem, lobar, or segmental bronchus and the pleural space. Treatment for BPF ranges from ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bronchoscopy A bronchoscopy is an essential tool for clinicians and health care providers treating patients with lung diseases. Since its introduction to clinical ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Budd Chiari Syndrome Hepatic venous outflow obstruction due to any cause except the cardiac ones regardless of the level of obstruction is known as Budd-Chiari syndrome. T ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Buerger Disease Buerger disease is a nonatherosclerotic, progressive, segmental inflammatory disease affecting the small and medium-sized arteries of upper and lower ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bullous Emphysema The definition of a bulla is an air-filled space of 1 cm in diameter within the lung which has developed because of emphysematous destruction of the l ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bupivacaine Bupivacaine is a potent local anesthetic with unique characteristics from the amide group of local anesthetics. Local anesthetics are used in regional ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Burn Debridement, Grafting, and Reconstruction When treating patients with thermal burns, the major surgical procedures will be debridement/excision, grafting, and reconstruction. This activity rev ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Burn Evaluation And Management Burns are injuries of the skin involving the two layers: the thin, outer epidermis and the thicker, deeper dermis. 86% of burns are caused by thermal ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Burn Fluid Management In the United States, approximately 500,000 people seek care for burn injuries each year. For civilians, these injuries are typically sustained in hou ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Burn Resuscitation And Management Severe burns cause not only significant injury at the local burn site but also a systemic response throughout the body. Inflammatory and vasoactive m ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
C1 Fractures The craniocervical junction is comprised of C1 (atlas) and C2 (axis). The occipito-atlantal and atlantoaxial articulations provide 50% of the flexion ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
C2 Fractures Registry study places the incidence of C2 fracture at 6 per 100000 people. In Sweden, across 6370 patients with C2 fractures: 51% were male, and the a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Calcifying Epithelioma of Malherbe A pilomatrixoma, or calcifying epithelioma of Malherbe, is a benign tumor of the hair follicle matrix that exclusively occurs in heat-bearing areas. T ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Calcineurin Inhibitors Calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) are composed of three drugs (cyclosporine, tacrolimus, and pimecrolimus). They are primarily used as immunosuppressive dr ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Canalicular Laceration Canalicular lacerations occur in people of all age groups, with causes ranging from fistfights to dog bites. In order to avoid the high morbidity asso ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cancer Breast Screening In women, breast cancer is number one in incidence and mortality when compared to all cancers. It is the most common non-skin cancer and second deadli ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cancer Prostate Screening This activity describes the current burden of prostate cancer, various expert recommendations on prostate cancer screening, PSA, and other pre-biopsy ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cancer Screening Cancer screening is pivotal in reducing the mortality and morbidity from cancer. Some of the screening methods, like a pap smear, has been successful ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Candidiasis Candidiasis is an opportunistic infection due to Candida, which can affect the oral cavity, vagina, penis, or other parts of the body. Untreated Candi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Capsule Endoscopy Capsule endoscopy, also known as wireless capsule endoscopy or video capsule endoscopy, is a gastrointestinal study that uses a pill camera to take im ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carbon Dioxide Embolism Laparoscopic surgery has gained increasing popularity in clinical practice. As part of laparoscopic surgeries, gas insufflation is usually adopted to ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carbuncle A carbuncle is an infection of the hair follicle(s) that extends into the surrounding skin and deep underlying subcutaneous tissue. They typically pre ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Risk Assessment This activity reviews the presurgical cardiac risk assessment and highlights the role of the interprofessional team in optimizing presurgical fitness ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Tamponade Cardiac tamponade is a medical emergency that takes place when abnormal amounts of fluid accumulate in the pericardial sac compressing the heart and l ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Trauma Cardiac trauma can be categorized as either blunt or penetrating according to the mechanism of injury. Outcomes range from spontaneously-resolving arr ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiopulmonary Arrest In Adults Cardiopulmonary arrest is the cessation of adequate heart function and respiration and results in death without reversal. Often this condition is foun ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) comprises a group of interventions performed to provide oxygenation and circulation to the body during cardiac arr ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Care Of A Chest Tube There are variable practice patterns used to manage chest tubes. Care and management of the chest tube are subject to the direction of the responsible ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Caroli Disease Caroli disease is a rare inherited disorder involving segmental dilatation of large, intrahepatic bile ducts which appear as cysts on imaging and hist ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotid Artery Stenting Traditionally, carotid endarterectomy (CEA) has been the primary method of treating high-grade asymptomatic and symptomatic carotid artery stenosis. A ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotid Artery Surgery Symptoms of extracranial carotid disease are usually caused by embolization. Arterial emboli account for approximately 25 percent of strokes in Europe ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotid Bruit A carotid bruit is a vascular sound usually heard with a stethoscope over the carotid artery because of turbulent, non-laminar blood flow through a st ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotid Contusion The neck has several important anatomical structures which include the carotid arteries bilaterally. While the injury to the carotid artery is not a c ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotid Endarterectomy Atherosclerosis can lead to a build-up of plaque in the carotid artery, causing narrowing and carotid artery disease, which increases the risk for cer ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carpal Tunnel Injection Carpal tunnel injections are performed because of the extremely high prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome in the general population. Carpal tunnel syn ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Caudal Anesthesia A caudal block is a type of central neuraxial block, most commonly used in pediatrics to provide analgesia for surgeries up to the umbilicus, and in a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Caustic Ingestions Caustic ingestion is the term given to describe the ingestion of an extremely toxic substance such as lye. Caustic ingestions are serious medical emer ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cavernous Hepatic Hemangiomas Hepatic hemangiomas are benign, hypervascular, venous malformations that occur in the liver. They are the most common benign mesenchymal tumors of the ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cecal Volvulus Volvulus occurs when portions of the bowel get entangled upon a mesenteric axis, which can cause impairment of the blood supply or can result in compl ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Celiac Artery Compression Syndrome Celiac artery compression syndrome is also known as Dunbar syndrome or median arcuate ligament syndrome. It is a rare condition characterized by recur ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cellulitis Cellulitis is a common bacterial skin infection, with over 14 million cases occurring in the United States annually. This activity educates the learne ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central Line Central venous catheterization (CVC) is a procedure frequently required in acute or critical care resuscitation. Indications include patients with mul ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central Line Management Central venous access is required for many hospitalized patient. Placement of central line catheters is done for many reasons, including inadequate pe ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central Line Placement A central line is a large-bore central venous catheter that is typically placed using a sterile technique unless a patient is unstable, in which case ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central Venous Access of The Subclavian Vein In the United States, more than 5 million central venous catheters are inserted every year in both hospitalized and surgical patients. Once an indicat ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central Venous Catheter Central venous catheter insertion is a common and often, necessary procedure for the care of critically ill patients. Central venous access may be att ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cephalexin Cephalexin is an FDA approved antibiotic. Cephalexin is a first-generation cephalosporin utilized in the treatment of urinary tract infections, respir ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cephalosporins Cephalosporins are beta-lactam antimicrobials used to manage a wide range of infections from gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The five genera ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebral Contusion Traumatic brain injury includes several types of insults to the parenchyma of the brain. One of the most severe forms of damage is a hemorrhagic cereb ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Dislocation Cervical dislocations have classically been associated with traumatic spinal cord injuries. These injuries can cause spinal cord compression and drama ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Injury Cervical spine injuries, although uncommon, can result in significant and long-term disability. The cervical spine encompasses seven vertebrae and ser ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Polyps Cervical polyps are abnormal growths that appear in the cervix. Although cervical polyps are commonly benign, malignant polyps can be seen in 0.2 to 1 ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Radiculopathy Neck pain is widespread and causes significant pain and disability. Workers with a history of neck pain account for up to 40% of work absenteeism. In ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Spine Fractures Overview The cervical spine is a dynamic structure tasked with protecting nervous innervation to the entire body while also maintaining a range of motion for t ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cesarean Section This activity reviews the cesarean section, and it highlights ways in which an interprofessional care team can impact the health of women and their ne ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chagas Disease Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) is a zoonotic disease caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. This is a vector-borne illness spread by the ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chance Fractures A Chance fracture is an unstable spine fracture that typically occurs at the thoracolumbar junction. It is a horizontal fracture extending from poster ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chancroid Chancroid is an exceedingly rare sexually transmitted infection, both in the United States and globally. Knowledge regarding its true prevalence is ma ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cherry Red Spot A cherry-red spot refers to a red-tinted region at the center of macula surrounded by retinal opacification. Cherry-red spots may be present in a vari ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chest Trauma Chest trauma has quickly risen the second most common traumatic injury in non-intentional trauma. Trauma to the chest comes with the highest mortality ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chest Tube A chest tube, also known as a thoracostomy tube, is a flexible tube that can be inserted through the chest wall and into the pleural space. This activ ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chest Wall Tumors The chest wall refers to the structures surrounding and protecting the lungs, enclosed by the spine, and separated from the abdomen by the diaphragm. ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Child Intussusception Intussusception is a condition in which part of the intestine folds into the section next to it. Intussusception usually involves the small bowel and ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cholangitis Acute cholangitis, also known as ascending cholangitis, is a life-threatening condition that is caused by an ascending bacterial infection of the bili ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cholecalciferol Cholecalciferol is a medication used in the management and treatment of osteoporosis and Vitamin D insufficiency/ deficiency in both healthy patients ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cholecystocutaneous Fistula Cholecystocutaneous fistulas are a rare surgical condition. This activity reviews their clinical presentation, underlying causes, pathophysiology, and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Choledochal Cyst A choledochal cyst (CC) or biliary cyst is a congenital or acquired anomaly affecting the biliary tree. It involves the dilation of the biliary tree t ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Choledocholithiasis Choledocholithiasis is the presence of stones within the common bile duct. It is estimated that common bile duct stones are present in anywhere from 1 ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cholelithiasis Cholelithiasis or gallstones are hardened deposits of digestive fluid that can form in your gallbladder. The gallbladder is a small organ located just ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cholestatic Jaundice Cholestasis is defined as stagnation, or at least a marked reduction, in bile secretion and flow. Cholestasis can be due to a functional impairment of ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cholesterol Emboli Cholesterol embolization syndrome occurs when atheromatous plaques in large arteries release cholesterol emboli and atheromatous debris into the circu ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chondrosarcoma Chondrosarcomas are malignant cartilaginous neoplasms with diverse morphological features and clinical behavior. They account for about 20 percent of ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chromaffin Cell Cancer Pheochromocytoma is a tumor that arises from chromaffin cells present in the adrenal medulla or paraganglion cells. It can present with vague symptoms ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Cholecystitis Chronic cholecystitis is a prolonged, subacute condition caused by the mechanical or functional dysfunction of the emptying of the gallbladder. It pre ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Diarrhea Chronic diarrhea is defined as loose/watery stools, which occur three or more times within 24 hours and lasts for 4 or more weeks. This activity outli ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Inflammation Chronic inflammation is also referred to as slow, long-term inflammation lasting several months to years. Generally, the extent and effects of chronic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Liver Disease Chronic liver disease is a progressive deterioration of liver functions. Liver functions include the production of clotting factors and other proteins ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Mesenteric Ischemia Mesenteric ischemia is a manifestation of peripheral vascular disease in which the blood supply fails to meet the metabolic demands of visceral organs ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Pain Over one-quarter of United States citizens suffer from chronic pain. It is among the most common complaints seen in an outpatient clinic. The failure ... Read the Article 2.5 41 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Pancreatitis Chronic pancreatitis is a progressive inflammatory disorder that leads to irreversible destruction of exocrine and endocrine pancreatic parenchyma cau ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chylothorax A chylothorax is the accumulation of chyle in the pleural space. This is most commonly seen following traumatic disruption of the thoracic duct, and i ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chylous Ascites Chylous ascites (CA) is defined as a milky appearing, triglyceride-rich peritoneal fluid in the abdominal cavity. It is characterized by the accumulat ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cilostazol Cilostazol is a quinolone derivative primarily used for the treatment of intermittent claudication due to peripheral vascular disease; this is the FDA ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Circumcision Male circumcision is the surgical removal of the prepuce, or foreskin, that covers the glans of the penis. Over the past decades, cultural changes and ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clavicle Fractures Fractures of the clavicle are quite common, accounting for up to 10% of all fractures. It is the most common fracture of childhood. A fall onto the la ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clear Liquid Diet A clear liquid diet is a specific dietary plan that only includes liquids that are fully transparent at room temperature. Some items that may be allow ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clinodactyly Clinodactyly is defined as a congenital curvature of a digit distal to the metacarpal phalangeal joint in the coronal plane. Curvatures with an angula ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clonorchis Sinensis Clonorchis sinensis is also known as the Chinese liver fluke. These are most commonly found in Eastern Asia but are also commonly found in Russia. The ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Closed Head Trauma Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an injury to the brain from an external mechanical force. TBI can generally be classified as either closed or penetrat ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clostridial Cholecystitis Emphysematous cholecystitis is a fulminant variety of acute cholecystitis that differs in its pathology and epidemiology from cholecystitis induced by ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clostridium Difficile Clostridium difficile is a gram-positive bacterium that is the cause most implicated in antibiotic-associated diarrhea. The emergence of a newer hyper ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clostridium Perfringens Clostridium perfringens is an anaerobic Gram-positive spore-forming bacillus that is associated with acute gastrointestinal infection ranging in sever ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Colitis Colitis is an increasingly common condition in which the mucosal lining of the colon becomes acutely or chronically inflamed. Patients with colitis ma ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Collagenous And Lymphocytic Colitis Microscopic colitis is a common cause of chronic watery diarrhea that becomes more common as we age. Two types of microscopic colitis are collagenous ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Colles' Fracture This activity outlines the evaluation, treatment, and management of Colles fractures. Colles fractures are forearm injuries that require medical manag ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Colon Cancer Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common diagnosis and second deadliest malignancy for both sexes combined. The incidence of new cases and mor ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Colon Diverticulitis Diverticulitis has increased in incidence over the past few decades and represents a significant healthcare burden in western countries. In the United ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Colon Polyps Colon polyps are protrusions occurring in the colon lumen most commonly sporadic or as part of other syndromes. Polyps are classified as diminutive if ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Colon Resection Colon resection is the removal of either a portion of or the entire colon. This activity reviews the indications and contraindications for colon resec ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Colonoscopy A colonoscopy is a vital tool utilized in modern medicine today. Its versatility and utility make it a vital life-saving procedure, both in the short ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Colostomy Care Colostomy care, as the name suggests, is an all-encompassing term referring to colostomy management, from its creation to peristomal skin management, ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Colovesicular Fistula The most common cause of colovesicular fistulas is the sequelae of complicated diverticulitis and accounts for over two-thirds of cases. The second mo ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Competency and Capacity This article reviews the concepts of capacity and competency with regard to clinical practice. More specifically, it discusses the foundational ethica ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Complex Ear Lacerations Facial lacerations are a common patient presentation, and the ear presents a unique challenge due to its structure. The ear is particularly susceptibl ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Comprehensive Shoulder Evaluation Strategies Shoulder pathology is very common. A comprehensive history should be acquired by clinicians evaluating patients with acute or chronic shoulder dysfunc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a condition resulting from the herniation of abdominal contents into the thoracic cavity resulting in lung hypoplas ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Lobar Emphysema Congenital lobar emphysema is a rare developmental anomaly of lungs that occurs mostly due to defective bronchial cartilages. It is diagnosed with a c ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Pulmonary Airway Malformation Congenital pulmonary airway malformation is a congenital lung disease that can present from the prenatal period to childhood. Though rare overall, it ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Unilateral Lower Lip Palsy Congenital unilateral lower lip palsy is a congenital anomaly that is caused by agenesis or hypoplasia of depressor anguli oris muscle. Unilateral dep ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congestive Heart Failure Heart failure is a complex clinical syndrome in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the requirements of the body. It results from a ... Read the Article 1.5 24 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Conjugated Hyperbilirubinemia Conjugated hyperbilirubinemia is usually secondary to hepatocellular disease or cholestasis (intrahepatic and extra-hepatic ). Early workup and diagno ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Contrecoup Brain Injury Contrecoup brain injury occurs at sites remote to the actual impact site on the head. The etiology and significance of this type of injury have been d ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Corns A corn, also known as a "heloma" or "focal intractable plantar hyperkeratosis," is a type of callosity. This latter is a common, uncomfortable, thicke ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Of The Gastroepiploic Artery Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has been the mainstay for the treatment of coronary artery disease for several decades. Various vessels have be ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronoid Fractures Coronoid fractures are believed to occur due to a shearing force when excess stress is placed on the elbow. They are often the result of an associate ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Costochondritis Costochondritis is a benign cause of chest wall pain that results from inflammation of the costal cartilage, the cartilage that connect the ribs to th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
COX Inhibitors COX inhibitors are medications used in the management and treatment of chronic pain syndromes. They are in the anti-inflammatory class of drugs. This ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Craniotomy A craniotomy is a surgical procedure in which a part of the skull is temporarily removed to expose the brain and perform an intracranial procedure. Th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cricothyrotomy Today, the emergency cricothyroidotomy is the surgical rescue technique of choice for the failed airway in adults. It is considered a more straightfor ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Crocodile Tears Syndrome The term “crocodile tears” is derived from the ancient belief that crocodiles weep after killing their victims. “crocodile tears syndrome,” also known ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Crohn Disease Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are two conditions commonly referred to as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). They are immunologically m ... Read the Article 2 34 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Crohn Disease Stricturoplasty Stricturoplasty is a surgical procedure performed to alleviate bowel narrowing due to scar tissue that has built up in the intestinal wall from an inf ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Crotalidae Envenomation Crotalid envenomations cause a spectrum of disease, with both localized and systemic toxicity, which can result in both prolonged morbidity and rarely ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cryptorchidism Cryptorchidism is the absence of at least one testicle from the scrotum. It is the most common birth defect involving the male genitalia. About 3% of ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Crystalloid Fluids Crystalloid fluids are a subset of intravenous solutions that find frequent use in the clinical setting. Crystalloid fluids are the first-line choice ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cultural Competence in the Care of Muslim Patients and Their Families Delivering high-quality care to patients of the Muslim faith requires knowledge of the differences in cultural and spiritual values. Important differe ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cultural Religious Competence In Clinical Practice The diversity of religion within our world's population brings challenges for health care providers and systems to deliver culturally competent medica ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Curling Ulcer Stress ulcers is a well-known clinical entity described as stress-induced gastritis or gastropathy where the gastric and sometimes esophageal or duode ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cutaneous Endometriosis Cutaneous endometriosis can be divided into primary and secondary lesions. They comprise less than 1% of the total cases of endometriosis. However, wi ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cutaneous Leiomyomas Piloleiomyomas are a type of cutaneous leiomyoma. Patients with one or more piloleiomyomas should be evaluated for Reed syndrome, also known as Heredi ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cutaneous Melanoacanthoma Cutaneous melanoacanthoma is a rare benign epithelial lesion that typically presents as a solitary black plaque or nodule, usually on either the head ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cutis Laxa Cutis laxa (CL) is a group of rare diseases of connective tissue characterized by redundant skin with loss of elasticity and premature aging. Heritabl ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cystic Hygroma Cystic hygromas are the most common subtype of lymphangiomas, presenting at birth and in early infancy. Enlargement of cystic hygromas is common, and ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cystocele Bladder prolapse (cystocele) is a chronic condition during which a bladder herniates to the anterior vaginal wall. Due to the condition's progressive ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cystoscopy Cystourethroscopy is one of the most common procedures performed by a urologic surgeon. It allows for direct visualization of the urethra, urethral sp ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cytomegalovirus Colitis The management of cytomegalovirus colitis is complex, and new approaches have been introduced. To achieve satisfactory outcomes, the basic and clinica ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cytomegalovirus Esophagitis Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a member of the Herpesviridae family, which has the largest genome of any herpes virus. It is spread through bodily fluids su ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Decubitus Ulcer Decubitus ulcers are skin or soft tissue injuries that form due to prolonged pressure exerted over specific areas of the body. They should receive pro ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Deep Neck Infections Deep neck infections are a serious but treatable group of infections affecting the deep cervical space and characterized by rapid progression and life ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Deep Peroneal Nerve Block The deep peroneal nerve is one of 5 nerves that are often blocked or anesthetized to perform ankle surgery. It can be performed as a regional block an ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Deep Vein Thrombosis A deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) is a blood clot that forms within the deep veins, usually of the leg, but can occur in the veins of the arms and the mese ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Deep Venous Thrombosis Of The Lower Extremity A deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) is a blood clot that forms within the deep veins usually of the leg but can occur in the veins of the arms and the mesent ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Deep Venous Thrombosis Prophylaxis Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is the formation or presence of a thrombus in the deep veins. DVT occurs mostly in the lower extremities and to a lesser ex ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Degloving Injuries Internal degloving injuries are usually associated with high energy trauma and can be devastating. This injury occurs when a tangential shearing occur ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Delirium Tremens Alcohol abuse is a common condition that has been associated with severe impairments in social functioning and medical problems. As high as 20% of the ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Depolarizing Neuromuscular Blocking Drugs Neuromuscular blocking agents are commonly used to paralyze patients requiring intubation whether in an emergency as a life-saving intervention or for ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Desflurane The FDA-approved indications for desflurane are induction or maintenance of anesthesia in adults. It may also be used for maintenance of anesthesia in ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Desmoid Tumor Desmoid tumors , also known as aggressive fibromatosis, are mesenchymal neoplasms that are considered to be locally invasive but do not metastasize. D ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dexamethasone Dexamethasone has a wide variety of uses in the medical field. As a treatment, dexamethasone has been useful in the treatment of acute exacerbation of ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dextran Dextran is a medication used in the management and treatment of various clinical conditions, including during hemorrhage, shock, surgical procedures, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetes Intraoperative Management According to CDC data, the incidence of diabetes in the United States in the year 2015 was 30.3 million and predicted to increase yearly with an alrea ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease of inadequate control of blood levels of glucose. It has many subclassifications, including type 1, type 2, maturi ... Read the Article 1.75 28 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetic Foot Care Proper diabetic foot care is an essential part of limb preservation. Patients with diabetes are at increased risk for foot ulceration secondary to neu ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetic Foot Infections There are approximately 29 million people with diabetes in the United States, and approximately 25% of people older than age of 65 have diabetes. The ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetic Foot Ulcer Diabetic foot ulcers are among the most common complications of patients who have diabetes mellitus which is not well controlled. It is usually the re ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetic Gastroparesis Gastroparesis is defined by objective delaying of gastric emptying without any evidence of mechanical obstruction. Diabetic gastroparesis is a potenti ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetic Perioperative Management With the rising prevalence of diabetes mellitus; an increasing number of people with diabetes undergo surgery each year. This activity highlights the ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetic Ulcer Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic endocrine disorder due to an overall deficiency of insulin (Type 1) or defective insulin function (Type 2) which caus ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dialysis Catheter Dialysis catheters are artificial indwelling transcutaneous conduits used to access the intravascular space or intraperitoneal space for renal replace ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dialysis Fistula Dialysis fistula creation is a commonly performed procedure for patients with end-stage renal disease who require permanent vascular access for hemodi ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diaphragm Disorders The diaphragm is a vital organ for mammals as it is the primary muscle for respiration. Diaphragmatic paralysis is the loss of its muscular power and ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diaphragm Injury The diaphragm is composed of the central tendon, costal, sternal, and lumbar components, the lateral parts of which are a continuation of the oblique ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diaphragm Rupture Diaphragmatic injuries are relatively uncommon, representing less than 1% of traumatic injuries. They are typically considered a marker of severe trau ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diaphragm Trauma The diagnosis of traumatic diaphragm injuries (TDI) can be difficult but is critical, as a delayed diagnosis can carry significant sequelae. TDIs can ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diaphragmatic Hernia A diaphragmatic hernia (DH) is a protrusion of abdominal contents into the thoracic cavity as a result of a defect within the diaphragm. It is most co ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diaphragmatic Pacing Diaphragm pacing is a procedure that is performed to stimulate the phrenic nerve to cause diaphragm contraction. This diaphragm contraction helps in g ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diclofenac Diclofenac is a medication used in the management and treatment of inflammatory conditions and pain. It is in the class of non-steroidal anti-inflamma ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dieulafoys Lesion Causing Gastrointestinal Bleeding Dieulafoy lesion is a developmental vascular malformation of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). It is an enlarged submucosal blood vessel that bleeds i ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Difficult Airway The difficult airway algorithm has been outlined by the American Society of Anesthesiology and provides a basic pathway for difficult intubation. It i ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Difficult Foley Catheterization Urinary catheterization is a common clinical intervention to ensure adequate urinary drainage when patients cannot void effectively. When a urinary ca ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diffuse Axonal Injury Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a type of traumatic brain injury (TBI) that results from a blunt injury to the brain. In the United States, traumatic b ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diffuse Esophageal Spasm Diffuse esophageal spasm is an esophageal motility disorder that often manifests as dysphagia. If the diagnosis is delayed, diffuse esophageal spasm i ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is a systemic condition characterized by characteristic ossification patterns that can occur in the sp ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Digit Amputation Digital amputation is often associated with traumatic injuries but is also seen within the elective surgery setting, such as in the case of cancer res ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Digital Mucous Cyst Digital mucous cysts are a type of ganglion commonly found on the hand. They commonly have an association with underlying DIP joint osteoarthritis. Th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Digital Nerve Block Digital nerve block is a simple procedure that can be performed to provide immediate anesthesia for a multitude of injuries and procedures, such as fr ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Direct Brow Lift With aging, the periorbital soft tissues migrate inferiorly, which may create both functional and cosmetic concerns for the patient. Many techniques, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Direct Laryngoscopy Direct laryngoscopy allows visualization of the larynx. It is used during general anesthesia, for surgical procedures of the larynx, and during resusc ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Disk Battery Ingestion Disk batteries (or button batteries) are found in many consumer electronics. The last few decades have seen an increase in demand for compact electron ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Disseminated intravascular coagulation can be defined is a widespread hypercoagulable state that can lead to both microvascular and macrovascular clot ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Distal Femur Fractures Distal femur fractures include fractures of the supracondylar and intercondylar region of the distal femur and are relatively common injuries. To avo ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Distal Radius Fractures Emergency Department and primary care clinics are frequently called on to evaluate orthopedic complaints. It is essential for most providers to feel c ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Disulfiram Disulfiram is one of three drugs approved by the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of alcohol dependence. It is a second-line option ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diverticulosis Diverticulosis is a clinical condition in which multiple sac-like protrusions (diverticula) develop along the gastrointestinal tract. Though diverticu ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Docusate Docusate is a medication used in the management and treatment of constipation. It is in the stool softener class of drugs. This activity reviews the i ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dopamine Dopamine is a peripheral vasostimulant used to treat low blood pressure, low heart rate, and cardiac arrest. Low infusion rates (0.5 to 2 micrograms/k ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dorsal Penile Nerve Block The dorsal penile nerve block is an effective technique for gaining regional anesthesia of the penis with small volumes of a local anesthetic. The tec ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Drug Induced Esophagitis Drugs can be damaging to the esophageal wall by having a direct toxic effect on the esophageal mucosa. They may produce a caustic effect by creating a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) has sustained a niche for measuring bone mineral density since its approval by the Food and Drug Administratio ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dumping Syndrome Dumping syndrome can occur after a variety of gastric procedures and occurs due to the rapid movement of hyperosmolar chyme from the stomach into the ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Duodenal Atresia And Stenosis Duodenal atresia is a congenital intestinal obstruction that can cause bilious or nonbilious vomiting within the first 24 to 38 hours of neonatal life ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Duodenal Biopsy A duodenal biopsy is performed during endoscopy in either a directed or random manner. The biopsy results further characterize visualized areas on en ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Duodenal Perforation Duodenal perforations can either be free or contained. Free perforation arises when bowel contents leak freely into the abdominal cavity and causing d ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Duodenal Ulcer Duodenal ulcers occur when there is a disruption to the surface of the mucosa of the duodenum. These ulcers are part of peptic ulcer disease, which in ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Duplex Ultrasound Duplex ultrasound is an integral tool for medical diagnosis and therapy. Duplex ultrasonography combines the principles of anatomic and flow ultrasono ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dupuytren Contracture Dupuytren contracture is a myofibroplastic disease that affects the hands. It results in painless cords that eventually leads to flexion contracture o ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dysphagia Dysphagia is defined as objective impairment or difficulty in swallowing, resulting in an abnormal delay in the transit of a liquid or solid bolus. Th ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dyspnea on Exertion Dyspnea, also called shortness of breath, is a patient's perceived difficulty to breathe. Sensations and intensity can vary and are subjective. It is ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dystrophinopathies This activity covers a group of X-linked muscle disorders, with their most recognized pathology being Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), followed by B ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dysuria Dysuria is a symptom of pain and/or burning, stinging, or itching of the urethra or urethral meatus with urination. It is one of the most common sympt ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ecchinococcus Echinococcus is a parasite that leads to cyst formation in different viscera of the human body particularly the liver and lungs. These cysts can ruptu ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Echinococcus Granulosus Echinococcosis (Echinococcus granulosis) is a zoonotic larval infection that infects humans globally. Patients with this condition may be asymptomatic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Echocardiogram Cardiac echocardiography is a safe and non-invasive test that provides the clinical team with important cardiac function data. This functional data is ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ectopic Thyroid The thyroid gland is the first endocrine gland that develops during fetal embryology, which starts between the third and fourth gestational weeks. The ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ehlers Danlos Syndrome Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a genetic disorder affecting collagen formation and function. It affects virtually every organ system, which can resul ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Elbow Dislocation Elbow dislocations are a common large joint dislocation experienced in children and adults. They can occur with associated fractures or damage to surr ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Elbow Fractures Overview The most common type of fracture in the pediatric population is elbow fractures. Most commonly, individuals fall on their outstretched hand. Prompt a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Elbow Trauma Elbow trauma is a common occurrence in children and athletes and can cause a broad array of injury patterns ranging from mild soft tissue injuries and ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Electrical Burns Electrical injuries are when high-energy current travels through the body due to contact with an electrical source. Injuries occur due to either the f ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Electrical Injuries Electrical injuries are a complex form of trauma that is often associated with high morbidity and mortality. The severity of the injuries depends upon ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Electrodiagnostic Evaluation Of Tarsal Tunnel Neuropathy Tarsal tunnel syndrome is a relatively rare mononeuropathy of the lower extremities that can be difficult to diagnose. Clinical evaluation, electroneu ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Electrosurgery Electrosurgery is a technique often used in surgery to control bleeding and to rapidly dissect soft tissue in surgery. The electrical resistance of th ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Elevated Hemidiaphragm Elevated hemidiaphragm occurs most commonly from direct or indirect injury to the phrenic nerve. It is often found as an incidental finding on diagnos ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Emergency Room Thoracotomy An emergency room thoracotomy is performed in selected cases of direct thoracic injury concurrently with ACLS/ATLS resuscitation. Survival rates are l ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Empyema Empyema is defined as a collection of pus in the pleural cavity, gram-positive, or culture from the pleural fluid. Empyema is usually associated with ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
EMS Chest Injury Chest injuries account for nearly one-fourth of all trauma-related mortality, second only to head and neck injuries. They often require rapid interven ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
EMS Pneumothorax The majority of emergency medical service (EMS) providers in the United States have protocols for rapid assessment and treatment of pneumothorax. Ther ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
EMS Pneumothorax Identification Without Ancillary Testing Pneumothorax is a principal diagnosis for emergency medical services (EMS) providers to identify, which is a potentially life-threatening condition. I ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
End of Life Care Unlike other conditions and life experiences, which only affect a certain percentage of the world’s population, the end-of-life is a stage in the proc ... Read the Article 2 33 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Endocarditis Infective endocarditis is a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality in children and adolescents despite new advantages in management and prophyla ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Endometrial Cancer Uterine endometrial cancer is the most prevalent gynecologic malignancy in American women and a major cause of both morbidity and mortality. Over 60,0 ... Read the Article 1.75 19 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Endometrial Polyp Endometrial polyps refer to overgrowths of endometrial glands and stroma within the uterine cavity. Endometrial polyps vary in size from few millimete ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Endometritis Endometritis is inflammation of the uterine lining. It can affect all layers of the uterus. The uterus is typically aseptic. However, the travel of mi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a combined endoscopic and fluoroscopic procedure in which an endoscope is advanced into the s ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Endoscopic Vein Harvesting Endoscopic vein harvesting (EVH) is a procedure to harvest the greater saphenous vein (GSV), the most widely used conduit in coronary artery bypass gr ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Endotracheal Tube In its simplest form, the endotracheal tube is a tube constructed of polyvinyl chloride that is placed between the vocal cords through the trachea. It ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Endotracheal Tube Intubation Techniques Endotracheal intubation is an essential resuscitative procedure in the emergency setting. Direct and video laryngoscopy are the two most common approa ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Enflurane Enflurane is a medication used in the induction and maintenance of general anesthetics. It is in the inhaled anesthetics class of drugs. This activit ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Entamoeba Histolytica Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan that causes intestinal amebiasis as well as extra-intestinal manifestations. Although 90 percent of E. histolytic ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Enteric Feedings Enteral nutrition is nutrition delivered using the gut. This can refer to oral, gastric, or postpyloric feeds. There are many indications requiring a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Enterocutaneous Fistula Enterocutaneous fistula mortality rates vary from 6 to 33 percent. Associated morbidity and complications can also be significant. Enterocutaneous fis ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Enterovesical Fistula An enterovesical fistula is a pathologic connection between the bowel and the bladder. This activity reviews the evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Entropion Entropion is an inversion or inward turning of the eyelid margin. This can result in trichiasis, where the eyelashes are directed posteriorly toward t ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Eosinophilic Esophagitis The esophagus physiologically lacks eosinophils, and when present, the condition is considered to be pathologic. Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) was on ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ephedrine Ephedrine is a medication used in the management and treatment of clinically significant hypotension. It is in the sympathomimetic class of medication ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidermal Inclusion Cyst Epidermal inclusion cysts are the most common cutaneous cysts and can occur anywhere on the body. These cysts typically present as fluctuant nodules u ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidermoid Cyst Epidermoid cysts, also known as a sebaceous cysts, are encapsulated subepidermal nodules filled with keratin. Although most commonly located on the fa ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epididymitis Epididymitis is an inflammation of the epididymis, a tubular structure on the testis where sperm mature. Epididymitis is a relatively common condition ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidural This activity reviews epidural analgesia and anesthesia and highlights used medications, indications, contraindications, uses, and techniques. It ment ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidural Anesthesia Epidural anesthesia is a technique that may be used as a primary surgical anesthetic or as a resource for postoperative pain management. It is safe an ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidural Catheter Epidural catheters are widely used in the surgical, obstetric, and chronic pain settings as they serve as an excellent adjunct or alternative to gener ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidural Hematoma An epidural hematoma (EDH) is an extra-axial collection of blood within the potential space between the outer layer of the dura mater and the inner ta ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidural Steroid Injections Epidural steroid injections have been utilized for pain relief since 1952. When indicated, they are an invaluable non-surgical treatment for low-back ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epilepsy Surgery Epilepsy surgery is indicated in 30% to 40% of patients with refractory seizure disorders despite being on one year of therapy with an adequate dosage ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epiphrenic Diverticula Epiphrenic diverticulum, also known as a pulsion diverticulum, is a rare type of esophageal diverticulum occurring in the distal 10 centimeters of the ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epithelioid Sarcoma Epithelioid sarcoma is a rare soft tissue sarcoma of young adults that presents as a painless, slow growing mass. Complete surgical resection can be c ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Erectile Dysfunction Erectile dysfunction is a widespread condition in males over 40 years of age all over the world. It has a variety of causes and is often treatable. Le ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is a common hematology test that measures how quickly red blood cells settle to the bottom of an elongated tu ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Escharotomy Burns commonly present acutely . They can be due to many modalities, including thermal, chemical, electrical or radiation. Often, burns result in supe ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esmolol Esmolol (esmolol hydrochloride) is an intravenous cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic antagonist. Esmolol is used in various settings including urgent c ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophageal Atresia The trachea and esophagus arise from a separation of a common foregut tube during early fetal development. Failure of separation or complete developme ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophageal Cancer Esophageal cancer is a deadly malignancy with a very low survival, even with treatment. In the United States, esophageal cancers represent the fifth m ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophageal Cyst Esophageal cysts are rare congenital malformations that categorize as being epithelial-lined or duplication in nature. They are usually diagnosed in c ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophageal Diverticula An esophageal diverticulum is a relatively rare disease in which there is an outpouching of the esophageal mucosa. Patients typically present if they ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophageal Hematoma Intramural hematoma of the esophagus (IHE) or dissecting intramural hematoma of the esophagus is an uncommon condition which presents with acute esoph ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophageal Intramural Pseudodiverticulosis Dysphagia is a common symptom with multiple possible etiological factors, one of which is diffuse intramural esophageal diverticulosis. This activity ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophageal Leiomyoma Esophageal leiomyomas are the most common benign tumors of the esophagus. This activity explains how to properly evaluate for esophageal leiomyoma, a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophageal Motility Disorders Major disorders of motility are usually universally symptomatic and have a deleterious impact o the quality of life of the patient. Prompt action is n ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophageal Perforation And Tears Esophageal perforation poses a significant interprofessional challenge to the entire therapeutic team. It can occur in three different anatomical comp ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophageal Stricture An esophageal stricture is an abnormal narrowing of the esophageal lumen. It often presents with difficulty swallowing and has many potential etiologi ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophageal Trauma Esophageal injury (EI) is a rare but challenging clinical finding in the setting of trauma. Esophageal injuries or perforations are transmural disrupt ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophageal Varices Esophageal varices are dilated submucosal distal esophageal veins connecting the portal and systemic circulations. They form due to portal hypertensio ... Read the Article 1.25 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophageal Webs And Rings Esophageal webs and rings are usually asymptomatic but can occasionally present with intermittent dysphagia to solids. Some patients may develop food ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophagial Foreign Body Most patients who present for evaluation of a foreign body in the esophagus do so after accidental ingestion of a known object, and the patient has mi ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophagitis Esophagitis refers to inflammation or injury to the esophageal mucosa. One of the most common causes is gastroesophageal reflux, which can lead to ero ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophagogastroduodenoscopy Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) is a diagnostic endoscopic procedure used to visualize the oropharynx, esophagus, stomach, and proximal duodenum. It ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esthesioneuroblastoma Esthesioneuroblastoma, or olfactory neuroblastoma, is a rare malignant neoplasm of the sinonasal tract originating from the olfactory neuroepithelium ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Etomidate Etomidate is an ultrashort-acting, non-barbiturate hypnotic intravenous anesthetic agent. It is administered only by intravenous route. Etomidate has ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Euglycemic Diabetic Ketoacidosis Euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis (EDKA) is an uncommon diabetic complication associated with several risk factors such as fasting, surgery, pregnancy, ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Euthyroid Sick Syndrome Euthyroid sick syndrome is also known as nonthyroidal illness syndrome and refers to changes in thyroid function tests that were administered in the i ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Evaluation And Management of Perioperative Hypertension This activity reviews the role of the interprofessional team involved in the perioperative care of patients with hypertension (HTN). These providers i ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ewing Sarcoma Ewing sarcoma is the second most common primary malignant bone tumor, mostly affecting adolescents in the second decade of their life, and it is a hig ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Excisional Biopsy In dermatology, skin biopsies are essential to assist in making a correct diagnosis and for therapeutic planning. Several types of skin biopsy techniq ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Excited Delirium Delirium is understood as a complex neuropsychiatric syndrome that is characterized by disturbances in consciousness, orientation, memory, thought, pe ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Exertional Compartment Syndrome Exertional compartment syndrome is a commonly underdiagnosed entity which occurs secondary to elevated intra-compartmental pressures in the absence of ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Exophthalmos Exophthalmos is the protrusion of one or both eyes anteriorly out of the orbit due to an increase in orbital contents within the rigid bony orbit. It ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
External Hemorrhoid Hemorrhoid disease is a common pathology that can yield symptoms ranging from minimal discomfort or inconvenience to excruciating pain and significant ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Extrapyramidal Symptoms Extrapyramidal side effects (EPS), commonly referred to as drug-induced movement disorders are among the most common adverse drug effects patients exp ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Extubation Extubation is the removal of an endotracheal tube (ETT), which is the last step in liberating a patient from the mechanical ventilator. To discuss the ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Facial Burns Burn injuries are a significant health issue and are a leading cause of accidental death or injury in the U.S. Burns to the face can affect many speci ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Facial Nerve Palsy Facial nerve palsies are a common and essential presentation specifically to ear, nose, and throat (ENT) surgeons but also in general medical practice ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Facial Nerve Repair Facial paralysis is a condition that has a detrimental effect on the quality of life of individuals. The social and psychological implications of faci ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Facial Nerve Trauma Facial nerve palsy is a common presentation to family doctors, the emergency department, and otolaryngologists. Trauma accounts for 10% to 23% of all ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Facial Reconstruction For Mohs Defect Repairs Facial reconstruction encompasses an array of techniques used to correct both cosmetic and functional deficits of the face, a large proportion of whic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Familial Adenomatous Polyposis Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) or familial polyposis coli (FPC) is an autosomal dominant polyposis syndrome with varying degrees of penetrance. ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Familial Mediterranean Fever Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autoinflammatory genetic disorder that mainly affects people of Mediterranean origin. FMF is characterized by ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fascial Dehiscence Fascial dehiscence is a significant complication of abdominal surgery, particularly cases done in an emergent setting. Associated bowel obstructions a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fasciocutaneous Flaps This activity reviews the reconstructive option of fasciocutaneous flaps and highlights the role of the interprofessional team in evaluating and impro ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fasciotomy A fasciotomy procedure is a procedure used to decompress acute compartment syndrome. Most commonly, acute compartment syndrome occurs in the leg and t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fat Embolism Fat embolism (FE) and fat embolism syndrome (FES) are a clinical phenomenon that are characterized by systemic dissemination of fat emboli within the ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fecal Impaction Fecal impaction occurs because of hardened fecal matter retained in the large bowel which cannot be evacuated by regular peristaltic activity. If this ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fecal Incontinence Fecal incontinence is a highly prevalent problem resulting in an inability to control the discharge of bowel contents. Its severity can range from the ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Feeding Jejunostomy Tube The feeding jejunostomy tube is a method of delivering feeds through jejunal access in the small bowel. It is used when there is a contraindication to ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Feeding Tube Feeding tubes are tubes inserted into the gastrointestinal tract to provide a patient with enteral nutrition or for decompression. Tubes come in a var ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Felon A felon is an infection that occurs within the closed-space compartments of the fingertip pulp. The swelling leads to intense throbbing pain. The sur ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Female Urinary Retention Urinary retention, or the inability to voluntarily void urine, is one of the most prevalent presenting urologic complaints in the emergency department ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Femoral Aneurysm Femoral artery pseudoaneurysm consists of an outpouching of 1 or 2 layers of the vessel wall. A true aneurysm, on the other hand, involves all the 3 l ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Femoral Aneurysm Repair A vessel is considered to be aneurysmal when it enlarges to about one and a half to two times the size of the normal vessel. True femoral artery aneur ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Femoral Head Avascular Necrosis Avascular necrosis of the femoral head is a type of osteonecrosis due to disruption of blood supply to the proximal femur. There are approximately 100 ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Femoral Hernia Femoral hernias are less frequent than inguinal hernias. Recognition of a femoral hernia is an important factor in the workup and evaluation of a pati ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Femoral Nerve Block Peripheral nerve blocks inhibit the propagation of impulses in nerve terminals to inhibit the perception of pain by the cerebral cortex. Local anesthe ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Femoral Shaft Fractures Femoral shaft fractures are a common orthopedic injury occurring in high energy trauma or low energy trauma in the elderly. Femoral shaft fractures ar ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Femur Immobilization The need to immobilize the femur is primarily due to fractures and dislocations. Each of these injuries dictates a specific immobilization and stabili ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fentanyl Fentanyl is a potent synthetic opioid, which, similar to morphine, produces analgesia but to a greater extent. This robust pharmacologic agent is typi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fibrinogen Fibrinogen is a 340kDa hexameric plasma glycoprotein synthesized by the liver and is the major structural component of a clot. The type of fibrinogen ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fibrocystic Breast Disease Fibrocystic breast disease is the most common benign type of breast disease, diagnosed in millions of women worldwide. Certain hormonal factors underp ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fibula Fractures Isolated fibula fractures are quite rare, much less common than fibula fractures with associated ligamentous involvement and/or tibia fractures. Fortu ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fibula Tissue Transfer Fibular grafts are used for no of indicqation e.g. mandibular defects, LLD, pseduarthrosis etc. Graft is harvested through either postrolateral or lat ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fifth Metacarpal Fractures Metacarpal fractures account for 40% of all hand fractures. A fracture of the neck of the fifth metacarpal, or boxer's fracture, named for the classic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Filarial Hydrocele Filarial hydrocele is a scrotal swelling resulting from a parasitic infection with Wuchereria bancrofti, endemic to tropical regions around the world. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Filler Rhinoplasty The nonsurgical rhinoplasty technique using injectable filler material serves to mainly correct the shape and overall appearance of the nose. This ac ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fine Needle Aspiration Fine-needle aspiration is a minimally invasive way to obtain a cell sample to confirm a diagnosis or to guide treatment. Fine-needle aspiration is an ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fine Needle Aspiration Of Breast Masses Fine needle aspiration of breast masses is a type of biopsy performed using a small needle to obtain samples of tissue and fluid from solid or cystic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Finger Dislocation Finger joint dislocation is a common hand injury. Finger dislocation can occur at the proximal interphalangeal (PIP), distal interphalangeal (DIP), or ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fingertip Injuries The fingertip is the most distal portion of the finger providing the tactile and sensory functions that are then relayed to the brain. It is anatomica ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Finkelstein Sign Harry Finkelstein, an American surgeon, described the Finkelstein's test or Finkelstein's sign in 1930. It is a provocative test for diagnosis of De Q ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fistula In Ano Fistula-in-ano is a tract connecting the anal canal to the perianal skin. It requires surgical treatment in the majority of cases. Proper management i ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fitz-Hugh-Curtis Syndrome Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome is inflammation of the liver capsule with adhesion formation resulting in right upper quadrant pain. It is an uncommon chron ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Flail Chest Flail chest is a traumatic condition of the thorax. It may occur when 3 or more ribs are broken in at least 2 places. It is considered a clinical di ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Flaps, Muscle And Musculocutaneous Muscle and myocutaneous flaps are common reconstructive options for patients with acquired traumatic or oncologic defects. While fasciocutaneous and p ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Flexor Tendon Lacerations Flexor tendon injury is frequently seen in household accidents involving knives, glass, or mirror injuries, but also can be due to chainsaw injuries, ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fluid Management Hospitalized patients often have conditions that impair their ability to regulate their hydration status. Improper fluid management leads to significa ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fluid Resuscitation The primary role of fluid resuscitation is to maintain organ perfusion (hemodynamics) and substrate (oxygen, electrolytes, among others) delivery thro ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fluorescein Fluorescein is a diagnostic contrast agent particularly used in various ophthalmic procedures, such as checking for any corneal or vessel abnormalitie ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Focal Nodular Hyperplasia In 1958, pathologist, Hugh Edmondson, MD, first described focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) as a solid, benign hepatic mass of non-vascular origin. Unli ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma Traumatic injury is the leading cause of death among individuals younger than 45 years old. Eighty percent of traumatic injury is blunt with the major ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Folinic Acid Folinic acid is a medication used in the treatment of various cancers in combination with 5-FU. It is also commonly used as an antidote to folic acid ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Follicular Adenoma Follicular adenomas are a common benign neoplasm encountered in clinical practice. They usually present as a solitary thyroid nodule, but other presen ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Follicular Thyroid Cancer The thyroid is an endocrine gland located just below the cricoid cartilage in the neck, and it is composed of both the right and the left lobes separa ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Foot Dislocation Foot dislocations are uncommon injuries that can occur at multiple different joints of the foot. The three most common joints involved include the sub ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Foot Drop Foot drop is a clinical entity that is not frequently seen in primary care settings. There are multiple etiologies of foot drop. Careful neurological ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Foot Ulcer Foot ulceration is among the most common health issues, and its prevalence has increased recently. It is one of the major causes of amputations, parti ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Forearm Amputation Forearm amputations are a life-changing but often unavoidable procedure, most commonly needed secondary to trauma. These are a complicated process, an ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Forearm Compartment Syndrome Compartment syndrome is a condition in which increased tissue pressure within a limited space compromises the circulation and function of the contents ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Forearm Splinting The main goal of forearm splinting is to prevent pronation and supination of the forearm. There are a variety of indications for forearm splinting, in ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Foreign Body Airway Obstruction According to the National Safety Council’s statistics, foreign-body airway obstruction (FBAO) is the fourth leading cause of unintentional death, resu ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Foreign Body Aspiration Foreign body aspiration remains a significant cause of death in children for anatomic as well as developmental reasons. Choking is typically defined a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fournier Gangrene Fournier gangrene is a rapidly progressive, life-threatening infectious process that involves the genital and perineal areas. The disease is one of th ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Free Tissue Transfer Of The Lateral Thigh And Anterolateral Thigh The Anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap is a versatile flap with broad indications and can cover almost any defect in the body from head to foot. It has be ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Freiberg Infarction Freiberg infarction pattern results in flattening and collapse of the head of the second metatarsophalangeal joint, leading to degenerative changes an ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fresh Frozen Plasma (FFP) Fresh frozen plasma is indicated for the deficiency of coagulation factors with abnormal coagulation tests in the presence of active bleeding. Fresh f ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Frey Syndrome Frey syndrome usually occurs with auriculotemporal nerve injury secondary to surgical intervention or trauma in the parotid region. Prevention of this ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Frontal Sinus Fractures Fractures of the frontal sinus are most commonly seen in the emergency department after motor vehicle accidents (MVA's), falls, assaults, falling obje ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Frostbite Frostbite, also known as freezing cold injury is tissue damage that occurs due to cold exposure, occurring at temperatures below zero degrees celsius. ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Full Thickness Skin Grafts Skin grafts consist of fully detached pieces of skin taken from one anatomic site and placed in a wound elsewhere. Full-thickness skin grafts include ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fungemia Candidiasis Candidemia describes the presence of the yeast species Candida in the bloodstream. It is the most common fungal bloodstream infection, and the fourth ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fusiform Incision Fusiform incision is commonly used to remove lesions that are roughly round or oval. Fusiform incisions involve the surgical removal of tissue in a ma ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gadolinium Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast agents are pharmaceuticals that increase the information content of diagnostic images. They serve to improve the sensitivity and specificity ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Galactorrhea Galactorrhea is milk production from the breast unrelated to pregnancy or lactation. Milk production one year after cessation of breastfeeding is non- ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Galeazzi Fractures A Galeazzi fracture is a fracture of the middle to distal third of the radius associated with dislocation or subluxation of the distal radioulnar join ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gallbladder Cancer Gallbladder cancer (GC) is a rare malignancy but represents almost 50% of all biliary tract cancer. Biliary cancers are highly fatal malignancies with ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gallbladder Empyema Empyema of the gallbladder is the most severe complications of acute cholecystitis. It is usually the result of the progression of acute cholecystitis ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gallbladder Mucocele Mucocele of the gallbladder is a condition caused by the prolonged blockage of the cystic duct, usually by an impacted gallstone. Another name for thi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gallbladder Polyp Gallbladder polyps describe several conditions that present as projections into the gallbladder lumen. They may be asymptomatic, or they may be relate ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gallbladder Volvulus Gallbladder volvulus (GV) is an uncommon condition presenting as an acute abdomen. Urgent surgical intervention is necessary. In a majority of cases, ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gallstone Ileus Gallstone ileus is one of the rarest forms of all mechanical bowel obstructions and is a complication of cholelithiasis. Patients have non-specific sy ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gallstones (Cholelithiasis) Gallstones or cholelithiasis are stones that form in the gallbladder composed of cholesterol, bilirubin, and bile. These stones are asymptomatic in mo ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gamekeepers Thumb The metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint of the thumb plays an important role in functional hand movements such as gripping and pinching. The radial and ul ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ganglion Cyst Ganglion cysts are synovial cysts that are filled with gelatinous mucoid material and commonly encountered in orthopedic clinical practice. Although t ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gangrene Gangrene is tissue damage secondary to infection, ischemia, or both. It is a relatively uncommon condition, and early recognition is essential. Gangre ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gardner Syndrome Gardner syndrome is a phenotypic variant of familial adenomatous polyposis. It is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by numerous adenomatous ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gas Gangrene Gas gangrene is a highly lethal infection of soft tissue, caused by Clostridium species, with Clostridium perfringens being the most common. This is s ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastric Cancer Gastric cancer is the fifth most frequently diagnosed cancer and the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. The only potentially curative tre ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastric Emptying Scan This activity describes the use of gastric emptying scintigraphy in the evaluation of gastric motility and related disorders. It discusses its role in ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastric Outlet Obstruction Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) is a result of any disease process that causes a mechanical impediment to gastric emptying. It can be caused by mecha ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastric Perforation Perforation of the stomach is a full-thickness injury of the wall of the organ. Since peritoneum completely covers the stomach, perforation of the wal ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastric Polyp Gastric polyps are intraluminal projections of mucosal or submucosal tissue. They are generally asymptomatic and, as such, are typically found inciden ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastric Resection Gastric resection remains the preferred surgical treatment option for many diseases of the stomach including malignancy, peptic ulcer disease, and bar ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastric Stasis Gastroparesis (gastric stasis) is derived from Greek words gastro/gaster or stomach, and paresis or partial paralysis. It is a clinical condition resu ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastric Ulcer Gastric ulcers are a break in the mucosa of the stomach lining that penetrates through the muscularis mucosa and extends more than 5 mm in diameter. W ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastric Volvulus Gastric volvulus is a rare, clinical event that occurs in both adults and pediatric patients. In 1886, Berti was the first to describe a gastric volvu ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastrinoma Gastrinomas are neuroendocrine tumors characterized by the secretion of gastrin with resultant excessive gastric acid production causing severe peptic ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastritis The current classification of gastritis is based on time course (acute versus chronic), histological features, anatomic distribution, and underlying p ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastrocnemius Strain The gastrocnemius muscle consists of two heads. The medial head originates from the posterior medial femoral condyle while the lateral head arises fro ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition that develops when there is a retrograde flow of stomach contents back into the esophagus. It ca ... Read the Article 2 31 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastrointestinal Bleeding Gastrointestinal bleeding can fall into two broad categories: upper and lower sources of bleeding. The anatomic landmark that separates upper and low ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastrointestinal Foreign Body Foreign body (FB) and food impaction are one of the most common gastrointestinal complaints seen in the emergency department. Foreign bodies tend to p ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastrointestinal Stromal Cancer Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are typically benign tumors that most commonly occur along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. While only compris ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastrointestinal Tuberculosis Gastrointestinal (GI) tuberculosis (TB) accounts for 1% to 3 % of all TB cases worldwide. It can occur in the context of active pulmonary disease or a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastrojejunostomy Gastrojejunostomy is a procedure that connects the stomach to the jejunum. It is typically performed in either an open or laparoscopic manner. This ac ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastroparesis Gastroparesis is an uncommon condition in the community that can be associated with significant morbidity, healthcare burden and could have poor outco ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastroschisis Gastroschisis is a paraumbilical abdominal wall defect associated with protrusion of the bowel through the defect. A membrane does not cover the bowe ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastrostomy Tube Replacement A gastrostomy tube (G-tube) is indicated in patients that need long-term pre-pyloric feeding. Endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement is now the preferr ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
General Anesthesia for Surgeons The primary goal of general anesthesia is rendering a patient unconscious and unable to feel painful stimuli while controlling autonomic reflexes. The ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizure This activity reviews generalized tonic-clonic seizures. A generalized tonic-clonic seizure, formerly known as grand mal seizure, is defined as a seiz ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Genu Valgum Genu valgum (knocked knees) is part of the coronal plane deformities of the lower extremity. The majority of patients are asymptomatic and have no fun ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Geriatric Head Injury Elderly patients with head trauma represent a large proportion of patients seeking medical attention. There are special considerations and challenges ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Geriatric Trauma Assessment of the geriatric trauma patient is unique, and this population requires special attention. As the elderly population increases, the number ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Giant Condylomata Acuminata Of Buschke And Lowenstein Giant condylomata acuminata of Bushke-Löwenstein (GCBL) is a rare, slow-growing verrucous tumor of the penis and anogenital region which can grow up t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glenoid Fractures The glenohumeral joint is a complex joint that lacks innate stability; the humeral head relies heavily on the ligaments of the shoulder and the rotato ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Globe Rupture Globe rupture is a vision-threatening emergency. It is essential that clinicians have a high index of suspicion for globe rupture when treating patien ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glottic Cancer Laryngeal cancers are one of the most common head and neck malignancies. Glottic cancers arise from true vocal cords and similarly to other laryngeal ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glottic Stenosis Glottic stenosis describes a narrowing of the portion of the larynx containing the vocal cords and glottic opening, otherwise known as the glottis. Gl ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glycogenic Hepatopathy Glycogenic hepatopathy (GH) is a rare or possibly under-diagnosed complication seen in children and young adults with poorly controlled type 1 diabete ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Goiter Patients with goiter commonly present to outpatient facilities with a variety of complaints. Goiter encompasses many different causes and morbidities, ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gracilis Tissue Transfer Free gracilis transfer is a procedure used for a number of different reconstructive issues. The gracilis free flap is considered one of the reconstruc ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Graft Versus Host Disease Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) occurs due to the presence of immunocompetent T lymphocytes in the graft attacking the immunodeficient recipient tiss ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gram Positive Bacteria Gram-positive organisms have highly variable growth and resistance patterns. The SCOPE project (Surveillance and Control of Pathogens of Epidemiologic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Granular Cell Tumor Granular cell tumors are rare neoplasms derived from Schwann cells with characteristic pathologic findings. They can exhibit either benign or malignan ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Granulomatous Hepatitis Granulomatous hepatitis refers to the presence of granulomas in the liver. Etiologies of this condition cover a broad range that may be infectious, no ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Graves Orbitopathy Graves orbitopathy occurs in patients with Graves disease and is an autoimmune disease of retro-ocular tissue. Complications can be serious and sight- ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gynecomastia Gynecomastia is an increase in male breast volume. This condition most often occurs during times of hormonal change such as at birth, during adolescen ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hallux Rigidus Hallux rigidus is a condition that refers to degenerative arthritis of the first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint. Davies-Colley first described the co ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hamartoma A hamartoma is a local malformation made up of an abnormal mixture of cells and tissue. Although most hamartomas are benign, they cause morbidity by v ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hand Amputation This activity reviews the presentation and evaluation of patients with hand amputations. Additionally, it highlights the treatment options and associa ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hand Extensor Tendon Lacerations Extensor tendon lacerations are relatively common injuries and, when not treated appropriately, may result in a lasting impairment of hand function. T ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hand High Pressure Injury High-pressure injection injuries of the hand occur when the hand comes into contact with the nozzle of a high-pressure injecting system such as a pain ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hand Infection Hand infections comprise a broad spectrum of pathology, dependent upon which superficial or deep structures are involved. Given the anatomical complex ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hand Nerve Compression Syndromes Nerve compression syndrome is a common complaint in the general population. The severity of the disease can range from mild to severe. This activity w ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hangman's Fractures A hangman’s fracture is a bilateral fracture traversing the pars interarticularis of cervical vertebrae 2 (C2) with an associated traumatic subluxatio ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Head Trauma Traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to head trauma is a common presentation in emergency departments and usually accounts for more than one million visit ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemangioma Hemangiomas, colloquially termed "strawberry marks", are the most common benign tumor of infancy and are caused by endothelial cell proliferation. Con ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemicolectomy This article outlines and reviews hemicolectomy, the operative procedure, and the role of the interprofessional team in improving care for patients wh ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemophilia Hemophilia A and B are the most common severe hereditary hemorrhagic disorders. Hemophilia A and B result from factor VIII and factor IX protein defic ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemorrhage Hemorrhage can manifest in many different ways depending on the mechanism and anatomic location. It is a common and serious medical emergency that req ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemorrhage Control Blood is mandatory to maintain adequate circulation within the cardiovascular system and perfuse the tissues of the body. Hemorrhage is the loss of bl ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemorrhagic Shock Shock refers to the inadequate perfusion of tissues due to the imbalance between oxygen demand of tissues and the body’s ability to supply it. Classic ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemorrhagic Stroke Hemorrhagic stroke is due to bleeding into the brain by the rupture of a blood vessel. Hemorrhagic stroke may be further subdivided into intracerebral ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemorrhoid, Banding The popular technique of rubber band ligation for the treatment of symptomatic internal hemorrhoids is a relatively simple technique that has been use ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemorrhoidectomy Hemorrhoidal disease is a common disorder requiring surgical intervention in approximately 10% of cases. The overall prevalence is unknown because asy ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemothorax Hemothorax is a collection of blood in the space between the visceral and parietal pleura (pleural space). The clinical findings in such patients incl ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Henoch Schonlein Purpura Henoch-Schonlein purpura is an IgA-mediated immune vasculitis involving the small vessels of the joints, kidneys, gastrointestinal (GI) tract, skin, a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Heparin Unfractionated heparin is an anticoagulant indicated for both the prevention and treatment of thrombotic events such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Heparin Induced Thrombocytopenia Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a severe complication that can occur in patients exposed to any form or amount of heparin products. A fall i ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hepatic Adenoma Hepatic adenomas also called hepatocellular adenomas, are rare but benign epithelial tumors of the liver frequently associated with the use of oral co ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hepatic Cirrhosis Cirrhosis is characterized by fibrosis and nodule formation of the liver secondary to chronic injury, leading to alteration of the normal lobular orga ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hepatic Cyst Hepatic cysts are fluid-filled cavities in the liver generally asymptomatic and found incidentally on imaging studies. They can sometimes be associate ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hepatic Cystadenoma Hepatic cystic lesions were once thought to be relatively uncommon; however, they are being diagnosed more frequently with the continued advancement a ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hepatitis B Hepatitis B infection is a serious global healthcare problem. Often transmitted via body fluids like blood, semen, and vaginal secretions, the hepatit ... Read the Article 1.5 23 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hepatitis C Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major public health problem affecting 185 million people worldwide. The percentage of people who are seropositive for ant ... Read the Article 1.5 24 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hepatobiliary Scintigraphy Hepatobiliary scintigraphy is a nuclear imaging technique that permits evaluation of the liver and biliary system for acute and chronic cholecystitis, ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hepatobiliary Tract Cancer In the past, the term cholangiocarcinoma was used to reference intrahepatic bile duct cancer. However, usage of the term has evolved and it is now use ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hepatoblastoma Hepatoblastomas are the most common primary malignant liver tumor in pediatric patients, and most often occur within the first 2 years of life. The hi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hepatocellular Carcinoma Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary tumor of the liver. Hepatocellular carcinoma constitutes more than 90% of the primary tumor of the liver. ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hereditary Spherocytosis Hereditary spherocytosis, a type of congenital hemolytic anemia, is the most prevalent cause of hemolytic anemia due to an abnormal red cell membrane. ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Heterotopic Ossification Heterotopic ossification is frequently observed in the rehabilitation population. It consists of the formation of mature, lamellar bone in extraskelet ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Heyde Syndrome Heyde syndrome is a multisystem disorder characterized by the triad of aortic stenosis (AS), gastrointestinal bleeding, and acquired von Willebrand sy ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hiatal Hernia A hiatal hernia is a condition in which the upper part of the stomach or other internal organ bulges through the hiatus of the diaphragm. When there i ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hidradenitis Suppurativa Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS), also called acne inversus, is a chronic inflammatory skin condition with lesions including deep-seated nodules and absc ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hip Fracture Overview Hip fractures are fractures of the proximal femur and are commonly seen in the elderly population following a fall. This type of injury has a high rat ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hirschsprung Disease Hirschsprung disease (HD) is a congenital disorder characterized by the absence of ganglion cells (GC) at the Meissner's plexus (submucosa) and Auerba ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Horseshoe Kidney Horseshoe kidneys are the most common fusion defect of the kidneys occurring in approximately 1:500 individuals. They are characterized by abnormaliti ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Human Bites Human bites account for a relatively low percentage (3%) of the total bites encountered in the ED, but they have the potential for severe morbidity du ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Humeral Shaft Fractures Midshaft humeral fractures usually occur due to a direct blow to the upper arm, which commonly results from falls, motor vehicle accidents, or motorcy ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Humerus Fractures Overview Humerus fractures account for 4 to 6 percent of all fractures in young patients and 1 to 3 percent of all fractures in elderly patients. In young men, ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hydrocele A hydrocele is a collection of peritoneal fluid between the parietal and visceral layers of the tunica vaginalis, which directly surrounds the testis ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hydrocodone Hydrocodone is a schedule II semi-synthetic opioid medication used to treat pain. Hydrocodone is also an antitussive indicated for cough in adults. In ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hydrofluoric Acid Burns Hydrofluoric (HF) acid is an extremely powerful inorganic acid and a vigorous dehydrating agent that is used in many industrial branches. Domestic con ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hydronephrosis And Hydroureter Hydronephrosis and hydroureter result from obstruction of urine flow in the urinary system at the renal pelvis and ureter level, respectively. This is ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperaldosteronism Hyperaldosteronism occurs due to the excess production of aldosterone from the adrenal gland. Hyperaldosteronism can initially present as essential an ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperamylasemia Hyperamylasemia refers to elevated levels of serum amylase. It is most commonly observed and evaluated in patients with acute pancreatitis to confirm ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Management Of Frostbite Although evidence for treating frostbite with hyperbaric oxygen is sparse and limited to case reports and animal studies, the proposed mechanism of ac ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Therapy For Skin Grafts And Flaps Hyperbaric oxygen therapy has shown promise in salvaging flaps in tissue that has been irradiated or in areas where there is decreased tissue perfusio ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Therapy For Wound Healing The international body that sets the standards for hyperbaric medicine is The Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society. There are currently 14 approved ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Treatment Of Clostridial Myositis And Myonecrosis Clostridial myonecrosis, also called gas gangrene, can rapidly cause death if not immediately detected and treated. It is caused by the anaerobic spor ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Treatment of Crush Injury And Compartment Syndrome Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) occurs when compartment pressures increase to the point that circulation and tissue function is compromised. Human li ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Treatment of Ischemia Reperfusion Injury The ischemia-reperfusion inflammatory reaction can occur with any injury that involves ischemic interruption of vascular flow. This includes many soft ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Treatment Of Thermal Burns Thermal burns are common in the United States, and approximately 2 million people are injured every year, with about 155 per million patients needing ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperkalemia Hyperkalemia is defined as a serum or plasma potassium level above the upper limits of normal, usually greater than 5.0 mEq/L to 5.5 mEq/L. While mild ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Nonketotic Coma Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome (HHS) is a clinical condition that arises from a complication of diabetes mellitus. Type 2 diabetes accounts for a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperprolactinemia When the amount of serum prolactin exceeds the upper limit, we call it hyperprolactinemia. The common causes of hyperprolactinemia can be physiologica ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperthermia for Chest Wall Recurrence Primary breast cancer recurrence to the chest wall is a common. Hyperthermia to the chest wall recurrence, in conjunction with other available treatme ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperthyroidism The thyroid gland is a bilobed structure located in the anterior aspect of the trachea between the cricoid cartilage and the suprasternal notch. Each ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypertonic Fluids Clinicians use hypertonic fluids to increase intravascular fluid volume. Hypertonic saline can be utilized in the treatment of hyponatremia. Hypertoni ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypertrophic Scarring Hypertrophic scarring represents an undesirable variant in the wound healing process. In hypertrophic scars, excess connective tissue is deposited in ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypertrophic Scarring Keloids Hypertrophic scars are contained within the site of injury and may regress over time while keloids spread beyond the borders of the initial injury and ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypoalbuminemia Hypoalbuminaemia is one of the most prevalent disorders in hospitalized and critically ill patients. Hypoalbuminaemia may be a result of decreased pro ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypocalcemia Disorders of calcium metabolism are frequently encountered. Though hypocalcemia is encountered as frequently as hypercalcemia, it can be potentially l ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypokalemic Metabolic Alkalosis Since the first step out of the marine world, the animals had to adapt to the lack of fluid and electrolytes found in abundance in seawater. Over time ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypoparathyroidism Parathyroid hormone deficiency, also called hypoparathyroidism, results in hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and increased neuromuscular irritability. ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypothermia Accidental hypothermia occurs when the body dissipates more heat than it absorbs or creates, leaving the body unable to generate sufficient heat to ma ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism results from low levels of thyroid hormone with varied etiology and manifestations. The drug of choice for the treatment of hypothyroid ... Read the Article 1.75 27 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypovolemic Shock Patients with hypovolemic shock have severe hypovolemia with decreased peripheral perfusion. If left untreated, these patients can develop ischemic in ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Iatrogenic Pneumothorax Pneumothorax is gas in the pleural space. This condition can present in one of three ways: spontaneous (primary), secondary, and traumatic. This activ ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
ICU Delirium Delirium is defined by DSM-5 criteria as an impairment in attention and awareness that develops over a relatively short time interval that is associat ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Idioventricular Rhythm Idioventricular rhythm is a slow regular ventricular rhythm with a rate of less than 50 bpm, absence of P waves, and a prolonged QRS interval. When th ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
IgA Deficiency Immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency is a common primary immunodeficiency characterized by undetectable serum IgA, a concomitant lack of secretory IgA, a ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ileal Atresia Jejunoileal atresia (JIA) is one of the common causes of intestinal obstruction in neonates. It has been generally reported that JIA occurs as a resul ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ileostomy An ileostomy is a procedure in which the lumen of the ileum, part of the small bowel, is brought through the abdominal wall via a surgically-created o ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ileus Ileus refers to the intolerance of oral intake due to inhibition of the gastrointestinal propulsion without signs of mechanical obstruction. The diagn ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ilioinguinal Neuralgia Ilioinguinal neuralgia is a frequent cause of pain in the lower abdomen and the upper thigh and is commonly caused by entrapment or injury of the nerv ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Imatinib Imatinib is a medication used in the management and treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and other malignancies ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Immediate Hypersensitivity Reactions Hypersensitivity reactions are exaggerated or inappropriate immunologic responses occuring in response to an antigen or allergen. Type I, II, and III ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Impaired Wound Healing Wounds of all shapes and sizes have plagued patients and created a significant burden on their caretakers. It has long been noticed that some patient ... Read the Article 0.75 2 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Imperforate Anus Imperforate anus or anal atresia is a congenital anorectal malformation (ARM) where a normal anal opening is absent at birth. ARMs comprise of a broad ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Imperforate Hymen When the hymen, a thin membrane of stratified squamous epithelium circumscribing the vaginal introitus, does not spontaneously rupture during neonatal ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Incision and Drainage Incision and drainage (I&D) is a widely used procedure in various care settings including emergency departments and outpatient clinics. It is the prim ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Incisional Hernia Incisional hernias are a common complication of laparotomy incisions and a major healthcare burden. The management of incisional hernias are challengi ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Infant Nutrition Requirements and Options Infancy is a period of rapid growth second only to the fetal period, with a pressing need to optimize nutrition to ensure adequate growth and organ de ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Inferior Gluteal Nerve Injury The inferior gluteal nerve supplies the gluteus maximus muscle. The inferior gluteal nerve provides motor function to gluteus maximus, a major muscle ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Inferior Vena Cava Filter Inferior vena cava filters (IVC filters) are indicated as a treatment to prevent pulmonary embolism in a select group of patients that have venous thr ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Inferior Vena Cava Syndrome Inferior vena cava syndrome (IVCS) is caused by physical invasion or compression by a pathological process or by thrombosis within the vein itself. Th ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Inferior Vena Caval Thrombosis Inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombosis is a disease associated with high morbidity. Although the condition is considered rare, case reports have shown th ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Inflammatory Bowel Disease Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract and is divided into Crohn disease and ulcerative coli ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Infrainguinal Occlusive Disease Infra inguinal occlusive diseases are amongst the commonest vascular diseases, worldwide. This activity outlines the evaluation, treatment and managem ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ingrown Toenails An ingrown toenail is a common nail problem occurring when the nail plate grows into the periungual skin and causes inflammation and infection. It cau ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Inguinal Hernia Inguinal hernia repair is an extremely common operation performed by surgeons. More than 800,000 repairs performed annually. These groin hernias can b ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Inhalation Injury Inhalation injury is a broad term that includes pulmonary exposure to a wide range of chemicals in various forms including smoke, gases, vapors, or fu ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Inhalational Anesthetic Inhalation anesthetics (nitrous oxide, halothane, isoflurane, desflurane, sevoflurane most commonly used agents in practice today) are used for induct ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Innominate Artery Injury Innominate artery injuries can present either by penetrating or blunt force. A provider must make a quick decision on treatment to avoid the feared mo ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Inotropes And Vasopressors Vasopressors and inotropes are medications used to create vasoconstriction or increase cardiac contractility, respectively, in patients with shock. Th ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Insulinoma Insulinoma is a type of functional neuroendocrine tumor characterized by hypersecretion of insulin causing hypoglycemia. This activity reviews the man ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intercostal Nerve Block An intercostal nerve block is simple to perform and useful for pain management, either as a primary intervention or as an adjunct. In particular, inte ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intercostal Neuralgia Intercostal neuralgia encompasses any painful condition of the intercostal nerves. There are a variety of causes of intercostal neuralgia which cause ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Internal Anal Sphincterotomy An anal fissure is a common benign anorectal condition affecting both children and adults. It is defined as a painful linear tear in the posterior ano ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Internal Hemorrhoid Hemorrhoids are naturally occurring vascular tissues within the submucosa in the anal canal and comprise loose connective tissue, smooth muscle, and b ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Internal Jugular Vein Thrombosis Internal jugular vein thrombosis occurs when a thrombus develops in the lumen of the internal jugular vein (IJV). Hereditary and acquired risk factors ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Interpleural Analgesia The interpleural analgesic technique was first described by Reiestad et al. for the treatment of acute postoperative pain. It is believed that this te ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Interpolated Flaps An interpolated flap is a 2-stage tissue flap in which the base of the flap is not directly adjacent to the recipient defect, and the flap bridges ove ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Interscalene Block An interscalene nerve block anesthetizes most of the territory innervated by the brachial plexus, sparing the inferior trunk. This block is generally ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intertrochanteric Femur Fracture Intertrochanteric femur fractures are a very common injury seen in the elderly. Understanding the pathophysiology as well as the proper treatment opt ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intestinal Carcinoid Cancer Carcinoid tumor refers to a well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor (NET) that originate commonly in the gastrointestinal tract (about 55%) or in oth ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intestinal Fistula A fistula is an abnormal communication between two epithelial surfaces. An intestinal fistula is a fistula that connects the intestine to an adjacent ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intestinal Perforation Intestinal perforation, defined as a loss of continuity of the bowel wall, is a potentially devastating complication that may result from a variety of ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction Intestinal pseudo-obstruction is characterized by the dilation of bowel in the absence of an anatomical obstruction. Patients present with the signs a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intestinal Trauma Intestinal injury is common in both blunt and penetrating abdominal trauma. Due to the potentially life-threatening nature of these injuries, provider ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intradiscal Electrothermal Therapy Intradiscal electrothermal therapy is a procedure of applying heat to the annulus in cases of low back pain due to discogenic conditions that fail to ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Cancer Of The Pancreas Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) are cystic neoplasms of the pancreas that grow within the pancreatic ducts and produce mucin. They ha ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intraductal Papilloma Intraductal papilloma is a benign tumor found within breast ducts. The abnormal proliferation of ductal epithelial cells causes the growth. A solitary ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intramuscular Injection This activity outlines and highlights the role of the interprofessional team in improving care for patients who undergo the intramuscular injection. T ... Read the Article 1.25 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intraosseous Vascular Access Obtaining vascular access is often difficult and delays patient care in the prehospital and hospital setting. Intraosseous (IO) access is a fast and r ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intrapleural Catheter Pleural effusions are common; in the United States, nearly 1.5 million pleural effusions are diagnosed each year. Congestive heart failure is the most ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intrathecal Catheter The placement of an intrathecal catheter is a minimally invasive procedure aimed at releasing drugs directly into the subarachnoid space for the contr ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intrinsic Hand Deformity Intrinsic hand deformities represent a challenging condition that disables the patient if left untreated. A thorough physical examination is essential ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intussusception In Adults The diagnosis of intussusception in adults is rare and challenging. The management, on the other hand, is rather straight forward. To achieve good ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Inverted Nipple An inverted nipple is a condition with a prevalence of 10%-20% in the general population. Though not life-threatening, it is psychologically and physi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Irritable Bowel Syndrome Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most commonly diagnosed gastrointestinal diseases. IBS, in the absence of any other causative disease, is ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Islets Transplantation Pancreatic islet cell transplantation is performed to prevent unrecognized hypoglycemia in type I diabetics. The procedure involves placing Islet cell ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Jaundice Jaundice, also known as hyperbilirubinemia, is defined as a yellow discoloration of the body tissue resulting from the accumulation of excess bilirubi ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Jersey Finger This activity aims to review "jersey finger" injuries. Jersey finger is a distal avulsion of the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendon from its inse ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Jod Basedow Syndrome Jod-Basedow syndrome, also known as iodine-induced hyperthyroidism, is a rare cause of thyrotoxicosis seen typically after the administration of exoge ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Keloid Keloids result from abnormal wound healing in response to skin trauma or inflammation. Keloid development rests on genetic and environmental factors. ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ketamine In Acute and Chronic Pain Management Acute and chronic pain remain important health problems both in the United States and worldwide. With the rise in the prevalence of many chronic degen ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ketorolac Ketorolac is a medication used in the management and treatment of acute moderate to severe pain. It is in the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug clas ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Kidney Trauma Renal trauma can result in injury to the parenchyma or the renal vasculature which can cause bleeding or injury to the collecting system with possible ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Kienbock Disease Kienböck disease refers to avascular necrosis of the lunate carpal bone, known as lunatomalacia. It was first recognized and described by Austrian rad ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Klippel Trenaunay Weber Syndrome Klippel Trenaunay syndrome is cutaneous vascular malformation syndrome involving a triad of capillary and venous malformation and limb hypertrophy. Th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Knee Arthrocentesis Arthrocentesis is a procedure performed to aspirate synovial fluid from a joint cavity. It has both diagnostic and therapeutic utilization. While arth ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Knee Dislocation A knee dislocation is a potentially devastating injury and is often a surgical emergency. This injury requires prompt identification, evaluation with ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Krukenberg Tumor Krukenburg tumor is a metastatic malignancy of the ovary characterized by mucin-rich signet-ring adenocarcinoma that primarily arises from a gastroint ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Laceration Lacerations are a common patient chief complaint, and the understanding of key history and physical exam information can speed patient care. This acti ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lachman Test The Lachman test is a specific clinical exam technique used to evaluate patients with a suspected anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. The test re ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Laminectomy Laminectomy is one of the most common procedures to decompress spinal canal in cases of narrowing secondary to a variety of conditions such as degener ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure used for the removal of a diseased gallbladder. Since the early 1990s, this te ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Laparoscopic Gastric Bypass Gastric Bypass is a common operation to assist patients with severe obesity with weight loss. This surgery was traditionally done with the open approa ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Laparoscopic Inguinal Hernia Repair Inguinal hernia repairs are one of the most common general surgical operations performed in the world. Diagnosis of inguinal hernias is typical perfor ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Laparoscopic Lap Band Placement Extreme obesity is a worldwide epidemic. It is the second most common cause of preventable death in the United States, second only to smoking. Bariatr ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Laparotomy Laparotomy, also known as celiotomy, is performed by making a large incision in the abdomen to gain access to the peritoneal cavity. A standard laparo ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Large Bowel Obstruction Large bowel obstruction usually presents as an emergency with sepsis, dehydration, and hemodynamically compromised state. The most common cause of lar ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Laryngeal Cancer Laryngeal cancers represent one-third of head and neck cancers and may be a significant source of morbidity and mortality. They are most often diagnos ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Laryngeal Fracture A laryngeal fracture requires a considerable impact force. The most common cause of laryngeal trauma is a motor vehicle accident or sports injury, fol ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Laryngeal Injury Laryngotracheal injuries have a high mortality rate although they are infrequently seen. These injuries may be penetrating or blunt and can occur in t ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Laryngeal Mask Airway Laryngeal mask airways (LMA) are supraglottic airway devices. They may be used as a temporary method to maintain an open airway during the administrat ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Laryngomalacia Laryngomalacia ranks as the most prevalent cause of stridor in an infant. It is crucial to make the diagnosis in early infancy as it may affect multip ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Laryngotracheal Stenosis Laryngotracheal stenosis (LTS) is a narrowing of the upper airway between the larynx and the trachea with potentially devastating consequences, includ ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Latent Autoimmune Diabetes Hold for further editing by JH Latent autoimmune diabetes of adults (LADA) is autoimmune diabetes that begins in adulthood and does not need insulin f ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lateral Collateral Ligament Knee Injuries The lateral collateral ligament (LCL), also known as the fibular ligament serves as one of the key stabilizers of the knee joint. Originating on the l ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Latex Allergy Latex comes from a sap found in rubber trees, Hevea brasiliensis, which is used to make many products used today. It is allergenic and causes symptoms ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Latissimus Dorsi Myocutaneous Flap The latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap or myofascial flap is a useful technique with many head, neck, and torso reconstruction applications. When ther ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Le Fort Fractures Le Fort injuries are complex fractures of the midface, named after Rene Le Fort who studied cadaver skulls that were subjected to blunt force trauma. ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Leech Bite Leeches are hermaphroditic parasites of phylum Annelida and class Hirudinea. There are over 600 species of leeches. A minority of these are sanguinivo ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Left Renal Vein Obstruction Left renal vein obstruction, also known as Nutcracker phenomenon (NCP), occurs due to the external compression of the left renal vein (LRV) in between ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Leiomyoma Leiomyomas, also known as fibroids, are a group of benign smooth muscle tumors commonly present in premenopausal women. These tumors are of monoclonal ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Leiomyosarcoma This activity reviews the evaluation, diagnosis, treatment, and latest advances in the field of leiomyosarcoma. In this activity, we will discuss the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Leriche Syndrome Leriche Syndrome also commonly referred to as aortoiliac occlusive disease, is caused by severe atherosclerosis affecting the distal abdominal aorta, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Leser Trelat Sign The sign of Leser-Trelat is considered to be a fairly rare paraneoplastic cutaneous marker of internal malignancy with the hallmark finding being an a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Leukocytosis Leukocytosis has a variety of etiologies with which clinicians of all backgrounds should be familiar. This activity outlines the evaluation of leukocy ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Leydig Cell Cancer Although testicular cancers are relatively rare, accounting for only 1% to 2% of worldwide male cancer diagnoses, it is the most common malignancy in ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lidocaine Lidocaine is a local anesthetic agent that is commonly used for local and topic anesthesia, but which also has antiarrhythmic and analgesic uses and c ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lidocaine Toxicity Lidocaine is a local anesthetic drug that produces transient loss of sensory, motor, and autonomic function when the drug is injected or applied in pr ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Li-Fraumeni Syndrome Li Fraumeni syndrome, also known as sarcoma, breast, leukemia, and adrenal gland (SBLA) syndrome, is a rare inherited autosomal dominant disorder asso ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lightning Injuries Lightning is a frequent occurrence worldwide with an estimated 50 occurrences per second and 20% of those resulting in ground strikes. It is impossib ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Linitis Plastica This activity reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, genetic background, staging, histological assessment, evaluation, treatment, the prognosis of ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lipid Emulsion Therapy Lipid emulsion therapy is a medication used in the management and treatment of Local anesthetic toxicity. This activity reviews the indications, actio ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lipoma Lipomas are common, benign subcutaneous tumors of fat cells (adipocytes) that present as soft, painless nodules that are most commonly seen on the tru ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lipoprotein Lipase Deficiency Lipoprotein lipase deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder of lipid metabolism. It is characterized by severe hypertriglyceridemia a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Liposarcoma Liposarcomas arise from lipocytes found in soft tissues as diverse as the esophagus, retroperitoneum, and popliteal fossa. The cellular subtypes of li ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Liposuction Liposuction represents a well-described and popular surgical procedure used to reduce localized amounts of adipose tissue in certain regions of the bo ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Littoral Cell Splenic Angioma Littoral cell angioma (LCA) is a rare splenic tumor. Both benign and malignant cases have been reported. This activity reviews the clinical presentati ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Liver Abscess A liver abscess is defined as a pus-filled mass in the liver that can develop from injury to the liver or from an intra-abdominal infection disseminat ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Liver Biopsy Liver biopsy remains the gold standard in the diagnosis of several liver disorders. With refinement in techniques, it has emerged as a safe, useful to ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Liver Cancer Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common form of primary liver cancer in the United States with three-quarters of primary and secondary liver cance ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Liver Imaging Liver lesions have a broad spectrum of pathologies ranging from benign liver lesions such as hemangiomas to malignant lesions such as primary hepatoce ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Liver Metastasis The presence of hepatic metastases increases the morbidity and mortality of patients with another site of a primary tumor disease. The majority of pub ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Liver Transplantation Cirrhosis and decompensated liver disease were the ninth leading cause of death for males in 2016 in the United States. Liver transplantation (LT) is ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Liver Trauma The liver is the most regularly injured organ in blunt abdominal trauma. Given its large size in the abdominal cavity, it can also be frequently injur ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lobular Breast Carcinoma Invasive lobular carcinoma is the second most common histologic form of breast cancer, representing 5% to 15% of all invasive breast cancers. It is co ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Local Anesthetic Toxicity Local anesthetics are commonly used in most medical and dental practice. While adverse effects are rare, the rising prevalence of local anesthetics in ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Loperamide Loperamide is a medication used in the treatment of diarrhea. It classifies as an anti-diarrheal agent. The use of loperamide in high doses has been a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Low Molecular Weight Heparin (LMWH) Low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs), for example, dalteparin, enoxaparin, among others, are anticoagulants. These drugs are used in the prophylaxis ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lower Extremity Amputation Approximately 150000 patients per year undergo a lower extremity amputation in the United States. The most common causes leading to amputation are dia ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lower Extremity Blocks The lumbosacral plexus (L1 to S4 nerve roots) innervates the lower extremity. Unlike the brachial plexus in the upper extremity, the lumbosacral plexu ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lower Eyelid Reconstruction Proper function of the eyelids is necessary to maintain healthy globes. Patients with cancer or with traumatic injuries to the eyelids need special at ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a term used to describe any bleeding that occurs within the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to the anus. Any bleed ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lower Genitourinary Trauma Trauma is a major cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. Trauma to the lower genitourinary tract presents unique challenges as there are u ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lumbar Sympatholysis Lumbar sympatholysis can be an effective treatment for individuals suffering from chronic pain in the lower extremity as a result of numerous etiologi ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lung Abscess A lung abscess is a microbial infection of the lung that results in necrosis of the pulmonary parenchyma. Depending on the duration, it can be classif ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lung Adenocarcinoma Lung adenocarcinoma is the most common primary lung cancer seen in the United States. It falls under the umbrella of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lung Biopsy This activity reviews salient details regarding accessing tissue specimens via a puncture through the chest wall into the lung (percutaneous lung lesi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lung Metastasis The lung is one of the most common sites of cancer metastasis. This activity will provide an overview of the common cancers that metastasize to lung, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lung Pancoast Tumor Pancoast or superior sulcus tumor consists of a wide range of tumors invading the apical chest wall and producing a characteristic syndrome named Panc ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lung Torsion Lung torsion is a life-threatening pathology that occurs when the lung or a pulmonary lobe rotates causing vascular and airway obstruction. This is a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lunotriquetral Instability Lunotriquetral joint instability is often misdiagnosed and if left untreated can result in lunotriquetral dissociation. Although patients may lack sym ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lymphadenopathy Lymphadenopathy refers to the swelling of lymph nodes which can be secondary to bacterial, viral, or fungal infections, autoimmune disease, and malign ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a primary disease of the lung parenchyma that is caused by abnormal growth of smooth muscle cells in the lung vascul ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lymphangioma Lymphangiomas are uncommon, benign malformations of the lymphatic system that can occur anywhere on the skin and mucous membranes. Lymphangiomas can b ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lymphocyte Depleted Hodgkin Lymphoma Lymphocyte-depleted classic Hodgkin lymphoma is the rarest subtype of classic Hodgkin lymphoma, accounting for 1% to 1.5% of classic Hodgkin lymphoma ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lymphogranuloma Venereum Lymphogranuloma venereum is an ulcerative sexually transmitted infection of the genital area caused by Chlamydia trachomatis that is transmittable by ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lymphoproliferative Disorders Lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) comprise a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled production of lymphocytes that cause mono ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lymphoscintigraphy Lymphoscintigraphy is a powerful diagnostic imaging tool that can be obtained with little risk of adverse events. This activity reviews the applicatio ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lynch Syndrome Most colorectal cancers occur sporadically; however, inherited cancer syndromes or inherited mutations cause approximately 5 to 10 percent of cases. T ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lytic Bone Lesions Bone tumors are mostly benign. Most important determinants in imaging of bone tumors are morphology on plain radiograph (well defined lytic, ill-defin ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Male Breast Cancer Although breast cancer is typically synonymous as a disease that commonly occurs in women, it does occur in men as well. This is because although mini ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Male Infertility Infertility is usually defined as the inability of a couple to conceive even after one year of unprotected, frequent sexual intercourse. The male is s ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Male Urinary Retention Urinary retention is the inability to void urine voluntarily. It is a common problem around the world and can occur acutely or chronically. Acute rete ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Malignancy-Related Hypercalcemia Hypercalcemia is a common metabolic abnormality seen in both inpatient and outpatient settings. Depending on the serum calcium levels, hypercalcemia i ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Malignant Atrophic Papulosis Malignant atrophic papulosis is a rare vasculopathy affecting the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and central nervous system. The systemic form has an a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Malignant Effusion Pleural effusion is a frequent complication of advanced malignancy with significant associated morbidity and mortality. Recent advances in the managem ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Malignant Hyperthermia Malignant Hyperthermia (MH) is a hereditary disorder of skeletal muscle that classically presents as a hypermetabolic response to halogenated anesthet ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Malignant Melanoma A melanoma is a tumor produced by the malignant transformation of melanocytes. Melanocytes are derived from the neural crest; consequently, melanomas, ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Malignant Otitis Externa Malignant otitis media is a serious infection of the ear canal and temporal bone. It can lead to severe complications if not treated urgently. This ac ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors Salivary gland tumors are a rare group of complex, heterogenous histologies that are located in the parotid gland, submandibular gland, sublingual gla ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mallet Finger Mallet finger injuries are commonly encountered in everyday clinical practice. Mallet, which means hammer, was the term used to describe the hammer-li ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mallet Finger Injuries Mallet finger is the term usually applied to extensor avulsion fractures. However, this entity may also be caused by distal extensor tendon ruptures. ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mallory Weiss Syndrome Mallory-Weiss syndrome is one of the common causes of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding and is characterized by the presence of longitudinal super ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mammary Duct Ectasia Mammary duct ectasia is a benign non-proliferative breast disease. It affects the large duct system. The exact cause is still unknown, but it may be c ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mammary Paget Disease Paget's disease of the breast is an uncommon manifestation of underlying breast cancer in postmenopausal female patients. Underlying breast lesion is ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mammography Aside from skin cancer, breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and represents 14% of all new cancers in the United States. Breast cancer ris ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mammoscintigraphy Breast cancer is increasing in incidence and is one of the leading types of cancer. Once thought to be mostly a disease of elderly females, there is a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Man In A Barrel Syndrome Man in a barrel syndrome is a neurological syndrome involving bilateral upper extremity weakness with preserved facial and lower extremity strength. T ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mandible Body Fracture The fracture of the body of mandible accounts for almost 11% to 36% among all the mandibular fractures. This activity describes the evaluation and man ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mannitol Mannitol can be used for the reduction of intracranial pressure and brain mass, to reduce intraocular pressure if this is not achievable by other mean ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
March Fracture March fractures (metatarsal stress fractures) were first described in 1855, when the term was coined for the foot pain and swelling experienced by Pru ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Marjolin Ulcer A Marjolin ulcer is a cutaneous malignancy that arises in the setting of previously injured skin, longstanding scars, and chronic wounds. Historically ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Massive Transfusion Massive transfusion is traditionally defined as transfusion of 10 units of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) within a 24 hour period. The goal of massive ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mastalgia Mastalgia refers to a common breast pain that a female suffers from during her lifetime. Approximately two-thirds of women develop this pain during t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mastectomy A mastectomy is a surgical procedure involving removal of all or part of the breast. The term originates from the Greek word mastos, meaning woman's b ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mastodynia Mastodynia or breast pain, also called mastalgia can occur both in women and men, but it presents more commonly in women. While most patients do not r ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mattox Maneuver Surgical maneuvers have been developed over years of experience to enable the surgeon to gain access to injuries of deep abdominal structures, identif ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Maxillary Fracture Maxillary fractures are common in patients sustaining facial trauma and may be caused by road traffic accidents, sports, or assault. Maxillary fractur ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mechanical Back Strain Mechanical back strain is a prevalent disease in the medical field. Most patients who develop a mechanical back strain have a benign course; however, ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Meckel Diverticulum Meckel diverticulum is a common congenital abnormality of the small intestine that is caused by incomplete obliteration of the vitelline (omphalomesen ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Meconium Ileus Meconium Ileus (MI) is one of the earliest manifestations of cystic fibrosis (CF) and presents in up to 20 percent of infants with CF. The inspissated ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Medial Epicondylar Elbow Fractures Medial epicondylar fractures are fractures that occur at the medial distal humerus. These are common injuries in the pediatric population. Prompt diag ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Median Nerve Injury This activity reviews the evaluation and treatment of an injury to the median nerve and highlights the role of the healthcare team in managing patien ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Median Nerve Palsy This activity addresses the topic of median nerve palsy in great detail. The median nerve is a critical neurological structure in the upper extremity ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mediastinal Carcinoid Tumors Mediastinal carcinoid tumors are extremely rare malignancies with aggressive behavior and a grim prognosis. These malignancies often go undetected unt ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mediastinal Germ Cell Tumors Mediastinal germ cell tumors can be classified as a teratoma, a seminomatous tumor, or a non-seminomatous tumor. They have similar histology and treat ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mediastinal Nonseminoma Germ cell tumors are cancers that arise from the reproductive cells of the testis or ovaries. Germ cell tumors can arise along the track of the migrat ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mediastinal Trauma The mediastinum is contained within the thoracic cavity and has a high concentration of major vascular and visceral structures. Traumatic injury to an ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mediastinitis Mediastinitis refers to inflammation or infection that involves the mediastinum, the cavity within the thorax that is bordered by the pleural sacs, th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mediastinoscopy Mediastinoscopy is a thoracic surgical procedure performed with a mediastinoscope to examine the mediastinum— the space in the thoracic cavity between ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mediastinotomy Anterior mediastinotomy (the Chamberlain procedure) is surgical entry to the mediastinum via an incision in the parasternal 2nd left intercostal space ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Medical Error A medical error is a preventable adverse effect of medical care, whether or not it is evident or harmful to the patient. Among the problems that commo ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Medullary Breast Carcinoma Medullary carcinoma is a rare and distinct subgroup of breast carcinomas. Despite its highly malignant characteristics, medullary breast carcinoma car ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Medullary Thyroid Cancer Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is a tumor arising from the parafollicular cells, or C cells, of the thyroid gland. Medullary thyroid cancer produces c ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Meigs Syndrome Meigs syndrome is an uncommon presentation, where a benign ovarian tumor present along with ascites and pleural effusion. About 1 % of ovarian tumors ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Melanosis Coli First described by Andral and Cruveilhier in 1830, Melanosis coli is a condition associated with the deposition of lipofuscin (not melanin as the name ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mendelson Syndrome The standard use of regional anesthesia for most laboring women and increased awareness among anesthesia providers regarding high risk of aspiration ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Menetrier Disease Menetrier disease is excessive mucosal hypertrophy associated with protein loss. It is a rare but serious condition and is associated with gastric neo ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Meningocele Meningocele is one of the common congenital neural tube defects. Meningocele is the simplest form of open neural tube defects characterized by cystic ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mental Nerve Block The mental nerve supplies sensation to the lower teeth, the skin over the chin and lower lip, and the buccal mucosa. Mental nerve blocks allow for exc ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Meperidine Meperidine is in the class of phenylpiperidine as a hydrochloride salt synthetic form of the opioid. Meperidine is used for the treatment of moderate ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Meralgia Paresthetica Meralgia paresthetica is a clinical condition that includes pain and dysesthesia in the anterolateral thigh associated with lateral femoral cutaneous ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mesalamine (USAN) Mesalamine, is also known as 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), is a medication used in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. It is under the drug classif ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mesenteric Adenitis Mesenteric adenitis is a syndrome characterized by right lower quadrant pain secondary to an inflammatory condition of mesenteric lymph nodes. This c ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mesenteric Artery Ischemia Intestinal ischemia can affect the small intestine or the colon. Whereas, colonic ischemia refers to ischemia that affects the colon, mesenteric ische ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mesenteric Artery Thrombosis Mesenteric artery thrombosis (MAT) is a condition involving occlusion of the arterial vascular supply of the intestinal system. It is a severe and pot ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mesenteric Vasculitis Mesenteric vasculitis can present in a variety of vasculitic disorders and some systemic, systemic diseases. The diagnosis of this condition can be ve ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mesenteric Venous Thrombosis Mesenteric venous thrombosis is caused by impairment of venous return of the bowel due to local blood coagulation. Primary mesenteric venous thrombosi ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Metabolic Syndrome Metabolic syndrome is an accumulation of several disorders, which together raise the risk of an individual developing atherosclerotic cardiovascular d ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Metacarpal Fracture The metacarpals form the osseous base of the complex lever system of flexor and extensor tendons of the hand. Understandably, fractures of the metaca ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Meteorism Meteorism, also known as tympanites, is characterized by the accumulation of gas in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Gas may cause the sensation of bl ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Metoclopramide Metoclopramide has been approved by the FDA specifically to treat nausea and vomiting in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease or diabetic gas ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Microcystic Adnexal Carcinoma Microcystic adnexal carcinoma is a slow-growing, locally aggressive sweat gland tumor that is more commonly found on the head and neck. This activity ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Microdermabrasion Microdermabrasion (MDA) is a minimally invasive epidermal resurfacing procedure used to treat uneven skin tone/texture, photoaging, striae, melasma, a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Midazolam Intravenous midazolam is used for the induction of anesthesia and also in the management of acute seizures. Because of its water-soluble nature, midaz ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Midgut Malrotation Midgut malrotation is a defect in the normal embryonic rotation of the gut, which causes an abdominal obstruction that presents acutely or with chroni ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Midgut Volvulus A volvulus is a medical condition where the intestines twist upon themselves. This condition can occur at any age. However, it is more frequent in chi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Migratory Thrombophlebitis Migratory thrombophlebitis or thrombophlebitis migrans is an inflammatory reaction of the vein accompanied by a thrombus. It is characterized by the i ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Millipede Envenomation This activity reviews millipede envenomation and the identification and evaluation of exposure by an interprofessional team. It discusses the manageme ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mirizzi Syndrome Mirizzi syndrome is a rare condition caused by the obstruction of the common bile duct or common hepatic duct by external compression from multiple im ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mohs Micrographic Surgery Mohs micrographic surgery is a tissue-sparing, precise method of skin cancer removal named in honor of the surgeon who developed the technique, Freder ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mondor Disease Initially described in 1939 by Henri Mondor, Mondor's disease classically describes a syndrome of sclerosing superficial thrombophlebitis of the veins ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Monteggia Fractures The forearm is a vital structure in the human body that is essential for completing activities of daily living. It is designed to help maximize versat ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Morgagni Hernia Morgagni hernia are rare congenital diaphragmatic defects that can lead to bowel obstruction and incarceration if not repaired. Surgery can be perform ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Morphine FDA-approved usage of morphine sulfate includes moderate to severe pain that may be acute or chronic. Most commonly used in pain management, morphine ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Morton Neuroma Morton neuroma is a compressive neuropathy of the interdigital nerve in forefoot due to compression and constant irritation at the plantar aspect of t ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
M-plasty An M-plasty is an excisional technique used to remove standing cutaneous deformities, also known as dog ears, from the end of a linear repair. Dog ear ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mucinous Breast Carcinoma Mucinous carcinoma of the breast is a relatively rare subtype of breast cancer accounting for about 2% of all breast carcinomas. According to the late ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mucinous Cystic Pancreatic Neoplasms Mucinous cystic pancreatic neoplasms (MCPN) are rare tumors of the pancreas, which mostly occur in middle-aged females. The survival rate for this dis ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mucormycosis Mucormycosis results from a variety of fungi that may be typically innocuous environmental fungi and primarily affects immunocompromised patients. Fo ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Multidirectional Shoulder Instability Multidirectional instability (MDI) of the shoulder was first described in 1980 as a complex condition of the shoulder defined by instability in 2 or m ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 Multiple endocrine neoplasia Type 1 (MEN1), also known as Wermer syndrome, is a rare hereditary endocrine tumor syndrome. The most common tumors seen ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasias Type 2 Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2) is a hereditary cancer syndrome associated primarily with tumors of the adrenal gland, thyroid and parathy ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Munchausen Syndrome Factitious disorder imposed on self, formerly known as Munchausen syndrome, is a psychiatric disorder in which a person assumes the role of a sick pat ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mural Thrombi Mural thrombi are thrombi that attach to the wall of a blood vessel and cardiac chamber. Mural thrombus occurrence in a normal or minimally atheroscle ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mycobacterium Marinum Mycobacterium marinum is a non-tuberculous mycobacterium that causes a tuberculosis-like illness in fish and can infect humans when injured skin is ex ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mycotic Aneurysm A mycotic aneurysm is an infection of vessel wall which can be bacterial, fungal, or viral in origin; they are a rare but severe complication of syste ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Myelophthisic Anemia Myelophthisic anemia is categorized under the normocytic type of anemia. Myelophthisic anemia is anemia characterized by the presence of immature eryt ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Myxedema Myxedema coma is a rare fatal condition as a result of long-standing hypothyroidism with loss of the adaptive mechanism to maintain homeostasis. Hypot ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Napalm Toxicity Napalm is a weaponized mixture of chemicals designed to create a highly flammable and gelatinous liquid. Detonation then occurs by various explosive ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Naproxen Naproxen is FDA-approved for the treatment of acute gout, ankylosing spondylitis, bursitis, polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, osteoarthriti ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Narcotic Bowel Syndrome It is estimated that anywhere from 25% to 45% of the adult population suffers from long-term pain, which results in a poor quality of life, loss of pr ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nasal Foreign Body Nasal foreign bodies are commonly seen in the emergency department mostly in the pediatric population but also in those with psychiatric illness or de ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nasal Septal Fracture Nasal bone and septal fractures are the most commonly fractured bone in the facial skeleton. These injuries can affect not only the cosmetic appearanc ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nasal Septal Hematoma