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Pathology-Chemistry

Pathology-Chemistry

Stay up to date on the latest medical knowledge with this Pathology-Chemistry activity. In this online self-assessment activity, you'll read our reference articles and test your knowledge with 255 activities in Pathology-Chemistry for 238.25 total CME hours.


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Featured Article Activities

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Adult T Cell Leukemia

Adult T- cell leukemia (ATL) is a rare and aggressive peripheral T-cell neoplasm associated with human T-cell leukemia v ...
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Hours: 1

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Aflatoxin Toxicity

Aflatoxins are metabolites produced by toxigenic strains of molds, mainly Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus which gr ...
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Hours: 0.75

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Angioneurotic Edema

Angioneurotic edema is a relatively common presentation in the emergency department. It presents as unpredictable freque ...
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Hours: 0.75

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Alcoholic Cardiomyopathy

Alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM) is a cardiac disease caused by chronic alcohol consumption. It is characterized by ventri ...
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Hours: 1

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Angiography

Angiography is performed to image the anatomical and structural details of the vascular system, including the cardiac ch ...
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Hours: 1

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Coccidioidomycosis

The dimorphic fungus coccidioides causes coccidioidomycosis, also known as San Joaquin Valley fever, which is endemic to ...
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Hours: 1

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Pathology-Chemistry Activities

Title Description Hours Questions
Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Abnormal uterine bleeding is a broad term that describes irregularities in the menstrual cycle involving frequency, regularity, duration, and volume o ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acrodynia Acrodynia is a rare disorder caused due to chronic mercury poisoning or idiosyncrasy to mercury. It is a Greek term that means 'painful extremities.' ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acromegaly Acromegaly is a disorder caused by excessive production of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary gland, resulting in excessive growth of body tis ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Intermittent Porphyria Acute intermittent porphyria is a rare autosomal dominant disease, characterized by a deficiency of hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS). It presents w ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Pancreatitis Acute pancreatitis is the leading cause of gastrointestinal-related hospitalization in the United States, and its frequency continues to rise in the ... Read the Article 2 35 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Pulmonary Embolism Acute pulmonary embolism is a common clinical condition with a variable clinical presentation, making its diagnosis challenging. This activity outline ... Read the Article 2 30 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adalimumab Adalimumab is a fully human, high-affinity, recombinant anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha monoclonal antibody, used to treat rheumatoid arthritis ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adrenoleukodystrophy Adrenoleukodystrophy is a peroxisomal disorder resulting from abnormal metabolism of the very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA). It is classified into di ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adult T Cell Leukemia Adult T- cell leukemia (ATL) is a rare and aggressive peripheral T-cell neoplasm associated with human T-cell leukemia virus type -1 (HTLV-1) infectio ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aflatoxin Toxicity Aflatoxins are metabolites produced by toxigenic strains of molds, mainly Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus which grow in soil, hay, decaying vege ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Albumin Colloid Albumin is the most abundant protein in the blood and accounts for about 50 percent of all plasma proteins. It gets synthesized by the liver and secre ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alcoholic Cardiomyopathy Alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM) is a cardiac disease caused by chronic alcohol consumption. It is characterized by ventricular dilation and impairment ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aliskiren Aliskiren is a direct renin inhibitor medication that is FDA approved to treat hypertension in adults and children six years and older. It may be used ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alkali Toxicity Alkali toxicity, though rare, can lead to serious medical problems. Adult caustic ingestions are usually intentional, involving more substantial amou ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alport Syndrome Alport syndrome is a genetic condition characterized by kidney disease, loss of hearing, and eye abnormalities. It takes place due to an abnormality o ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aluminum Hydroxide Aluminum hydroxide is a medication used in the management and treatment of acid indigestion. It is in the antacid class of drugs. This activity outlin ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angiography Angiography is performed to image the anatomical and structural details of the vascular system, including the cardiac chambers. Initially used for str ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angioneurotic Edema Angioneurotic edema is a relatively common presentation in the emergency department. It presents as unpredictable frequent edematous episodes of cutan ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angiotensin II Angiotensin is a peptide endocrine hormone and an important part of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, an inter-related endocrine system import ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anorexia Nervosa Anorexia nervosa is defined by a restriction of energy intake relative to requirements, which leads to significantly low body weight. Patients with th ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aplastic Anemia Aplastic anemia refers to the syndrome of chronic primary hematopoietic failure from injury leading to diminished or absent hematopoietic precursors i ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Appendix Cancer Appendiceal malignancies are a rare group of tumors often found incidentally during surgical removal of the appendix. Histologically, this malignancy ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arginase Deficiency Argininemia is an autosomal recessive disorder causing hyperammonemia secondary to arginine accumulation. It is a disorder first noticed in children w ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arsenical Keratosis Arsenical keratosis is an important cutaneous manifestation of chronic arsenic toxicity (CAT). As it is a common presenting complaint of CAT and a pre ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aseptic Meningitis Aseptic meningitis is an umbrella term for all of the causes of inflammation of the brain meninges that have negative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) bacter ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Azathioprine Azathioprine (AZA) is a medication used in the management and treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the prevention of kidney transplant r ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biotinidase Deficiency Biotin acts as a coenzyme for four carboxylation enzymes in the body: 3-methylcrontonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCC), pyruvate carboxylase (PC), acetyl-CoA c ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Birth Asphyxia Perinatal asphyxia is a lack of blood flow or gas exchange to or from the fetus in the period immediately before, during, or after the birth process. ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bisphosphonate Toxicity In the second half of the 20th century, bisphosphonates have emerged as a novel treatment for bone metabolism disorders. Currently, bisphosphonates ar ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Black Widow Spider Toxicity The black widow spider species, also known by its biological nomenclature as the Latrodectus species is one of more than 40,000 different species of s ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blister Agents Sulfur mustard (dichlorethylsulphide) and nitrogen mustard are blistering agents, or vesicants, that have been used in chemical warfare since before t ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blood Gas Temperature Correction Blood gas temperature correction is an important process to implement when assessing blood gas laboratory values. The laws of physics concerning gas s ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Budesonide Budesonide is a medication used in the management and treatment of the inflammatory diseases, mainly affecting the airways and gastrointestinal tract. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cadmium Toxicity Cadmium is a heavy metal that causes direct harm to humans in several forms. It is regularly found with other heavy metals such as zinc, copper, and ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cancer Prostate Screening This activity describes the current burden of prostate cancer, various expert recommendations on prostate cancer screening, PSA, and other pre-biopsy ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cancer Screening Cancer screening is pivotal in reducing the mortality and morbidity from cancer. Some of the screening methods, like a pap smear, has been successful ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carbon Tetrachloride Toxicity Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is an important agent for multiple purposes, such as cleaning purposes, industrial agents, etc. But it can cause several a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carcinoid Syndrome Carcinoid syndrome refers to a number of symptoms caused by the release of humoral factors such as polypeptides, prostaglandins, and biogenic amines. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carcinomatous Meningitis Carcinomatous meningitis is the dissemination of malignant cells from the primary tumor sites to leptomeningeal layers of the CNS. It occurs in the ad ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Cirrhosis Cardiac cirrhosis is a term used to include the spectrum of hepatic disorders that occur secondary to hepatic congestion due to cardiac dysfunction, e ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Manifestations Of Coronavirus Coronaviruses are a large family of single positive-stranded, enveloped RNA viruses that can infect many animal species and humans. Human coronaviruse ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central Venous Catheter Central venous catheter insertion is a common and often, necessary procedure for the care of critically ill patients. Central venous access may be att ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cephalohematoma A cephalohematoma is an accumulation of blood under the scalp. During the birth process, small blood vessels on the head of the fetus are broken as a ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear protein- and glucose-rich liquid in the subarachnoid space of the central nervous system. It is found in the vent ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chemical Burns Healthcare professionals should be knowledgeable about chemical burns from exposure to acids (pH less than 7), alkalis (pH greater than 7), and irrita ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chlorthalidone Chlorthalidone is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension. It is in the thiazide-like diuretics class of drugs. This activit ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Granulomatous Disease Chronic granulomatous diseases (CGD) are a group of recurrent life-threatening infections due to a hereditary defect in forming reactive oxygen specie ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Inflammation Chronic inflammation is also referred to as slow, long-term inflammation lasting several months to years. Generally, the extent and effects of chronic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Pain Over one-quarter of United States citizens suffer from chronic pain. It is among the most common complaints seen in an outpatient clinic. The failure ... Read the Article 2.5 41 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chylothorax A chylothorax is the accumulation of chyle in the pleural space. This is most commonly seen following traumatic disruption of the thoracic duct, and i ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cinacalcet Cinacalcet is a medication used in the management and treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (on dialysis population), primary hyperparathyroidism ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coccidioidomycosis The dimorphic fungus coccidioides causes coccidioidomycosis, also known as San Joaquin Valley fever, which is endemic to the arid regions of the Weste ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an autosomal recessive disease emerging from mutations of genes for enzymes that lead to the production of glu ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is one of the renal replacement methods that include intermittent hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. Th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Contrast-Induced Nephropathy Iodine contrast medium is essential in invasive and interventional cardiac procedures. Because of an increasing number of coronary angiography and cor ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cooley Anemia Thalassemia major or Cooley anemia is one of the common monogenic hereditary hemoglobin disorders. It results from the absence of a beta-globin chain ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Copper Toxicity Copper metabolism plays an important role in physiologic homeostasis. Copper toxicity, however, induces several pathologic processes that are detrimen ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cryglobulinemic Vasculitis Cryoglobulinemic vasculitis is an immune complex-mediated inflammation of blood vessels. It is usually seen as part of other diseases and is the most ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cryoglobulinemia Cryoglobulins are proteins that precipitate from an individual’s serum or plasma at temperatures lower than 37°C. They can be a mixture of immunoglobu ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cryptococcal Meningitis Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic infection that causes more than 100,000 HIV-related deaths each year. Although the infection is usually HIV-related ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cyclosporine Cyclosporine is an immunosuppressive agent used to treat organ rejection post-transplant. It also has use in certain other autoimmune diseases, treatm ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cystic Fibrosis Related Diabetes Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes is an extrapulmonary complication of cystic fibrosis. Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes is the result of abnormal gluc ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cystinuria Cystine stones are due to an inherited defect in the transport of the amino acid cystine leading to excessive excretion in the kidney causing cystinur ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dengue Fever Dengue is a mosquito-transmitted virus and the leading cause of arthropod-borne viral disease in the world. It is also known as breakbone fever due to ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
DeWinter Pattern Acute coronary syndromes are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis has a central role, as to allow a timely reperfusion strategy. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dextran Dextran is a medication used in the management and treatment of various clinical conditions, including during hemorrhage, shock, surgical procedures, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetic Embryopathy Maternal diabetes has several adverse effects on embryogenesis and fetal development and causes multiple congenital anomalies, and secondary medical c ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Digoxin Digoxin is a medication used in the management and treatment of heart failure and certain arrhythmias and abortion. It is in the cardiac glycoside cla ... Read the Article 1.75 25 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Digoxin Immune Fab Digoxin immune fab is a medication used in the management and treatment of digoxin toxicity. Most toxicity cases are seen in patients with a past medi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Doxycycline Hyclate Doxycycline hyclate is a medication used in the management and treatment of a variety of infections. It is in the tetracyclines class of drugs. This a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dronabinol Dronabinol is synthetic tetrahydrocannabinol ('THC'), which obtained FDA approval in 1985 for the treatment of HIV/AIDs-induced anorexia and chemother ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Drug Testing Broadly defined, drug testing is the process of using a biological sample to detect the presence or absence of a drug or its metabolites. This process ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dubin Johnson Syndrome In 1954, Dubin and Johnson described a new clinicopathological entity consisting of chronic idiopathic jaundice with unidentified pigment in the liver ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Duodenal Ulcer Duodenal ulcers occur when there is a disruption to the surface of the mucosa of the duodenum. These ulcers are part of peptic ulcer disease, which in ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
EEG Triphasic Waves Triphasic waves are abnormal electroencephalogram (EEG) waveforms seen with a multitude of clinical conditions including encephalopathy and structural ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Eosinophilia Eosinophils are a kind of blood granulocytes that express cytoplasmic granules that contain basic proteins and bind with acidic dyes like “eosin.” The ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Erythropoietic Protoporphyria Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) is an inherited porphyria resulting in the accumulation of protoporphyrins in red blood cells that causes acute, p ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophageal Ulcer An esophageal ulcer is a distinct break in the margin of the esophageal mucosa. This mucosal damage to the esophagus is often caused by gastroesophage ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esthesioneuroblastoma Esthesioneuroblastoma, or olfactory neuroblastoma, is a rare malignant neoplasm of the sinonasal tract originating from the olfactory neuroepithelium ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ethylene Glycol Toxicity Ethylene glycol (C2H6O2) is a toxic alcohol that is found in various household and industrial agents. Ethylene glycol exposure can be extremely danger ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Extranodal NK-Cell Lymphoma Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, is a rare subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Patients commonly present with a nasal mass, nasal obstruction, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Familial Hypercholesterolemia Familial hypercholesterolemia is known as a group of inherited genetic defects that lead to the severe elevation of serum cholesterol concentrations. ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Familial Short Stature Familial short stature (FSS) is the condition characterized by the final adult height below the third percentile of the mean for the patient's age, ge ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fanconi Syndrome Fanconi syndrome, not to be confused with Fanconi anemia, is a defect of the proximal tubule that prevents the absorption of electrolytes and other su ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Female Infertility Infertility is a medical condition that can cause psychological, physical, mental, spiritual, and medical detriments to the patient. The unique qualit ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma (FL-HCC) is a rare cancer of the liver and it displays features that make it very different in its behavior and ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Follicular Lymphoma Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the second most common type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and accounts for up 30% of all lymphomas. FL is a generally lazy ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fructose 1-Phosphate Aldolase Deficiency Fructose 1-phosphate aldolase deficiency or hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by the deficiency in aldol ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gender Dysphoria Gender dysphoria (previously gender identity disorder), according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders are defined as a “marked in ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizure This activity reviews generalized tonic-clonic seizures. A generalized tonic-clonic seizure, formerly known as grand mal seizure, is defined as a seiz ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gigantism And Acromegaly Acromegaly and gigantism are disorders of the abnormal excess secretion of growth hormone. Gigantism occurs when growth hormone hypersecretion occurs ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gitelman Syndrome Gitelman syndrome is a salt-losing tubulopathy caused by mutation of genes encoding sodium chloride (NCCT) and magnesium transporters in the thiazide- ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gliomas Glioma is the most common form of central nervous system (CNS) neoplasm that originates from glial cells. In the United States, there are six cases of ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glucose Intolerance Glucose intolerance (GI) is a metabolic condition that results from hyperglycemia. It can be defined as dysglycemia that includes both prediabetes and ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glycogen Storage Disease Glycogen storage diseases (GSDs) are inherited inborn errors of metabolism of carbohydrates. In general, these results from a lack of specific enzymes ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glycogenic Hepatopathy Glycogenic hepatopathy (GH) is a rare or possibly under-diagnosed complication seen in children and young adults with poorly controlled type 1 diabete ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Granuloma Annulare Granuloma annulare is a cutaneous granulomatous disease that is not caused by an infection. It is the most common non-infectious granulomatous disease ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gyrate Atrophy Of The Choroid and Retina Gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina is a rare autosomal recessive condition characterized by elevation of plasma ornithine levels due to deficien ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hashimoto Thyroiditis Hashimoto thyroiditis, also known as chronic autoimmune thyroiditis and chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, is an autoimmune disease in which thyroid cel ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Heavy Metal Toxicity Heavy metals are elements found in nature that accumulate in the environment mostly due to anthropogenic activities. Humans are exposed to them by occ ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemochromatosis Hemochromatosis is a disorder that causes excess iron deposition and, in turn, multiple organ dysfunction. Organs affected by hemochromatosis include ... Read the Article 1.5 23 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemodialysis Dialysis is a form of renal replacement therapy. The kidney’s role of filtration of the blood is supplemented by artificial equipment for the removal ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hepatic Failure Acute liver failure (ALF) is a complex clinical syndrome characterized by coagulopathy, elevated liver biochemistry, and hepatic encephalopathy withou ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hepatitis The term hepatitis means inflammation of the liver — hepatitis most commonly results from viruses. But drugs, alcohol, toxins, and certain diseases, i ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hepatopulmonary Syndrome Hepatopulmonary syndrome is hypoxemia due to dilated intrapulmonary vasculature in the presence of liver disease or portal hypertension. Its a serious ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hollenhorst Plaque Stroke is the third most common cause of death in the United States. Eighty percent of all strokes are due to occlusion of a vessel secondary to ather ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hungry Bone Syndrome Hungry bone syndrome is a state of profound hypocalcemia that can persist for prolonged periods, most notably after parathyroidectomy and thyroidectom ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hydrocele A hydrocele is a collection of peritoneal fluid between the parietal and visceral layers of the tunica vaginalis, which directly surrounds the testis ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hydrocodone and Acetaminophen Hydrocodone is one of the most common pain medications prescribed by clinicians and one of the most abused by the patients. It is a relatively potent ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hydroxocobalamin Hydroxocobalamin is a medication used in the management and treatment of vitamin B12 deficiency and acute cyanide toxicity. It is in the anti-anemic c ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperamylasemia Hyperamylasemia refers to elevated levels of serum amylase. It is most commonly observed and evaluated in patients with acute pancreatitis to confirm ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypercholesterolemia Lipoprotein disorders are clinically important due to the of the role of lipoproteins in atherogenesis and the associated risk of atherosclerotic card ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperhomocysteinemia Hyperhomocysteinemia refers to the condition where there is greater than 15 micromol/L of homocysteine in the blood. This condition is present in a wi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperlipidemia Hyperlipidemia is a term that encompasses various genetic and acquired disorders that describe elevated lipid levels within the body. It is a very com ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperphosphatemia This article summarises the basics of Hyperphosphatemia, including its pathophysiology, evaluation, and management. Though this condition is seen more ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperpituitarism The pituitary gland produces and secretes various hormones that play a vital role in regulating endocrine function within the body. The pituitary glan ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypertensive Encephalopathy Hypertensive encephalopathy is a less commonly encountered type of hypertensive emergency, highlighted by mental status changes and severely elevated ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperthyroidism The thyroid gland is a bilobed structure located in the anterior aspect of the trachea between the cricoid cartilage and the suprasternal notch. Each ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis Hypokalemic periodic paralysis is a rare channelopathy caused by the skeletal muscle ion channel mutations, commonly calcium channel and less commonly ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypoparathyroidism Parathyroid hormone deficiency, also called hypoparathyroidism, results in hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and increased neuromuscular irritability. ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Immunoglobulin E As one of the five designated immunoglobulin isotypes, immunoglobulin E (IgE) plays a major role in atopic conditions by inducing immediate hypersensi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Impaired Bilirubin Conjugation Bilirubin circulates in both the unconjugated and conjugated forms. Disorders of impaired conjugation of bilirubin classically present with elevated l ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Inborn Errors Of Metabolism Inborn errors of metabolism are a heterogeneous group of disorders that may be inherited or may occur as the result of spontaneous mutations. These di ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Infant Nutrition Requirements and Options Infancy is a period of rapid growth second only to the fetal period, with a pressing need to optimize nutrition to ensure adequate growth and organ de ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Influenza Vaccine Influenza viruses belong to Orthomyxoviridae RNA virus family and classify into three distinct types based on their major antigenic differences; influ ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Inner Ear Decompression Sickness Inner ear decompression sickness (IEDCS) is an incompletely understood condition observed in compressed-gas divers likely resulting from precipitation ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Insulin Insulin is a medication used in the treatment and management of diabetes mellitus type-1 and sometimes diabetes mellitus type-2, both of which are a s ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Insulin Resistance Insulin resistance is identified as an impaired biologic response to insulin stimulation of target tissues, primarily the liver, muscle, and adipose t ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Insulinoma Insulinoma is a type of functional neuroendocrine tumor characterized by hypersecretion of insulin causing hypoglycemia. This activity reviews the man ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Interferon Interferons are currently used clinically to treat viral infections such as hepatitis C, cancers including non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and autoimmune dise ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ketoacidosis Ketoacidosis is a metabolic state associated with pathologically high serum and urine concentrations of ketone bodies. Clinically relevant forms of ke ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ketogenic Diet Despite continuous advances in the medical world, obesity continues to remain a major worldwide health hazard with adult mortality as high as 2.8 mill ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Latent Autoimmune Diabetes Hold for further editing by JH Latent autoimmune diabetes of adults (LADA) is autoimmune diabetes that begins in adulthood and does not need insulin f ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Leptospirosis Leptospirosis, also called Weil disease, is the most common zoonotic infection in the world. Leptospirosis is caused by an infection with the spiroche ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lidocaine Lidocaine is a local anesthetic agent that is commonly used for local and topic anesthesia, but which also has antiarrhythmic and analgesic uses and c ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lipodystrophies Lipodystrophies are conditions that share the common finding of a reduction in subcutaneous fat. There are multiple subtypes of lipodystrophy, which m ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lipoid Pneumonia Lipoid pneumonia is a rare form of lung disease due to aspiration or inhalation of exogenous or endogenous lipid-containing products. In the past, thi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lipoprotein Lipase Deficiency Lipoprotein lipase deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder of lipid metabolism. It is characterized by severe hypertriglyceridemia a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Livedoid Vasculopathy Livedoid vasculopathy is a rare vasculopathy that is typically characterized by bilateral lower limb lesions. Increased thrombotic activity and decrea ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lomitapide Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH) medications comprise mipomersen and lomitapide. Lomitapide is an FDA-approved besides a diet low in fa ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Loperamide Loperamide is a medication used in the treatment of diarrhea. It classifies as an anti-diarrheal agent. The use of loperamide in high doses has been a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lysosomal Storage Disease Lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) are inborn errors of metabolism characterized by the accumulation of substrates in excess in various organs' cells d ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Macrocytosis Macrocytosis refers to the finding of enlarged red blood cells (RBCs). The measurement of RBC size is reported in the complete blood count (CBC) as me ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Maple Syrup Urine Disease Maple syrup urine disease is a rare, inborn error of metabolism, resulting in decreased branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase enzyme activity. It can ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Massive Transfusion Massive transfusion is traditionally defined as transfusion of 10 units of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) within a 24 hour period. The goal of massive ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Maturity Onset Diabetes in the Young The most commonly recognized forms of diabetes mellitus include type 1 diabetes, an autoimmune disorder, and type 2 diabetes, a polygenic disorder inf ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
McArdle Disease McArdle disease is a genetic disorder that mainly affects skeletal muscles. It occurs due to the deficiency or absence of an enzyme called myophosphor ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mediastinal Nonseminoma Germ cell tumors are cancers that arise from the reproductive cells of the testis or ovaries. Germ cell tumors can arise along the track of the migrat ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Medium-Chain Acyl-COA Dehydrogenase Deficiency Medium-chain acyl-COA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency is one of the most common fatty acid ß-oxidation disorders. It is an autosomal recessive disorde ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Medroxyprogesterone This article highlights medroxyprogesterone as it is used as contraception to prevent pregnancy. This activity discusses the mechanism of action, adve ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Medullary Thyroid Cancer Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is a tumor arising from the parafollicular cells, or C cells, of the thyroid gland. Medullary thyroid cancer produces c ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Megaloblastic Anemia Megaloblastic anemia (MA) encompasses a heterogeneous group of anemias characterized by the presence in the bone marrow of large red blood cell precur ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Megestrol Megestrol is a medication used in the management and treatment of significant, inexplicable weight loss in HIV/AIDS patients and anorexia or cachexia ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Meigs Syndrome Meigs syndrome is an uncommon presentation, where a benign ovarian tumor present along with ascites and pleural effusion. About 1 % of ovarian tumors ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Meningitis In spite of breakthroughs in diagnosis, treatment, and vaccination, in 2015 there were 8.7 million reported cases of meningitis worldwide with 379,000 ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Menkes Kinky Hair Disease Menkes kinky hair disease is a rare X-linked recessive progressive multisystemic disease of copper metabolism. Patients usually exhibit a severe clini ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mercaptopurine Mercaptopurine is a medication used in the management and treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. It is in the class of medications known as purine ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Metachromatic Leukodystrophy Metachromatic leukodystrophy is a rare lysosomal storage disease caused due to deficient activity of arylsulfatase A. It follows an autosomal recessiv ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Methanol Toxicity Methanol (CH3OH) is a toxic alcohol that is found in various household and industrial agents. Methanol exposure can be extremely dangerous, with signi ... Read the Article 1.5 23 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Methemoglobinemia Methemoglobinemia is a condition with life-threatening potential in which diminution of the oxygen-carrying capacity of circulating hemoglobin occurs ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Methylene Blue Methylene blue is a medication used in the management and treatment of methemoglobinemia, a condition in which hemoglobin decreases its ability to car ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Microalbuminuria The current definition of microalbuminuria (MA) is an amount of urinary albumin that is greater than the normal value, but also lower than what is det ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Microcytic Hypochromic Anemia Microcytic, hypochromic anemia, as the name suggests, is the type of anemia in which the circulating RBCs are smaller than the usual size of RBCs (mic ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mifepristone Mifepristone is a synthetic steroid. It is a medication most commonly used for medically induced abortions. Mifepristone can also be used in the manag ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Millipede Envenomation This activity reviews millipede envenomation and the identification and evaluation of exposure by an interprofessional team. It discusses the manageme ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mixed Connective Tissue Disease Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) is a rare autoimmune disease diagnosed when a specific antibody known as anti-U1-ribonucleoprotein is present, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Muscle Contraction Tension Headache Tension-type headache (TTH) is the most common type of primary headaches. It is also sometimes referred to as muscle contraction headache, stress head ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Myasthenia Gravis Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder affecting the neuromuscular junction. It manifests as a generalized muscle weakness which can involve the ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mycobacterium Chelonae Mycobacterium chelonae is a nontuberculous mycobacterium (NTM), which is classified as rapidly growing mycobacterium (RGM), class IV in the Runyon cla ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Myeloma Kidney Multiple Myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell disorder characterized by clonal proliferation of malignant plasma cells producing monoclonal proteins and caus ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Myelophthisic Anemia Myelophthisic anemia is categorized under the normocytic type of anemia. Myelophthisic anemia is anemia characterized by the presence of immature eryt ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Myoglobinuria Myoglobinuria is the presence of an excess amount of myoglobin in the urine. It is mostly caused by muscle breakdown, releasing a high amount of myogl ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nelson Syndrome Nelson syndrome or post adrenalectomy syndrome was first reported in 1958 by Dr. Don H. Nelson, an endocrinology fellow at the time. This clinical syn ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nephrolithiasis Nephrolithiasis is the term employed for kidney stones, also known as renal calculi, and they are crystal concretions formed typically in the kidney. ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nevirapine Nevirapine is a drug used in the management and treatment of HIV. It is in the NNRTI class of medications. This activity outlines the indications, act ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Newborn Subcutaneous Fat Necrosis Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn is a rare, self-limited panniculitis that typically occurs in full-term or post-term newborn infants within t ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Niacin Deficiency Niacin (vitamin B3) deficiency results in a condition known as pellagra. Pellagra includes the triad of dermatitis, dementia, and diarrhea and can res ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nicotinic Acid Deficiency Dietary deficiency of niacin results in pellagra. It is characterized by dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, and eventually death if not treated by giving ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a group of malignant neoplasms originating from the lymphoid tissues, mainly the lymph nodes. These tumors may result due to c ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nonketotic Hyperglycinemia Nonketotic hyperglycinemia is a rare, genetic, inborn error of glycine metabolism. Due to a mutation in the glycine cleavage enzyme system, the patien ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Normocalcemic Hyperparathyroidism Normocalcemic hyperparathyroidism (nHPT) is a condition characterized by normal serum calcium in the face of elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH). It ca ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Olecranon Bursa Aspiration In its normal state, the olecranon bursa is a small fluid-filled subcutaneous sac which overlies the olecranon process in the elbow. Olecranon bursa s ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Osteoid Osteoma An osteoid osteoma is a benign bone-forming tumor that has no potential to become malignant. It classically causes severe pain at night and is relieve ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pancreatic Fistula Pancreatic fistula is an abnormal connection between the pancreatic ductal epithelium and another epithelium surface. This is due to a disruption of t ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pancreatic Mucinous Cystadenoma Cystic neoplasms of the pancreas are often seen in the body and tail region of the pancreas in middle-aged women. They are considered premalignant les ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pancytopenia Pancytopenia is defined as a decrease of all three hematologic cell lines. The condition is not a disease in itself, but a common pathway caused by a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Paracentesis Paracentesis is a procedure performed to obtain a small sample of or drain ascitic fluid for both diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. This activity de ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Parathyroid Adenoma A parathyroid adenoma is part of a spectrum of parathyroid disease that also includes parathyroid hyperplasia and parathyroid carcinoma. History of ra ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pembrolizumab Pembrolizumab is a medication used in the management and treatment of various oncologic conditions. It is in the cancer immunotherapy class of drugs. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Penile Injection And Aspiration Penile injection and aspiration is a procedure used in the management of ischemic priapism to preserve erectile tissue. This procedure should be perfo ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Perioperative Acute Kidney Injury Perioperative acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common yet under-recognized problem that increases mortality, morbidity, and increases the cost of hospit ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Phenol Toxicity Phenol is a historical disinfectant with continued use in industry, laboratories, and some health care settings. Phenol is a protoplasmic poison that ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Phenylketonuria Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inborn error of metabolism (IEM) most often caused by missense mutations in the gene encoding phenylalanine hydroxylase (P ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Plasmodium Vivax Malaria Malaria is a significant global health problem with a substantial disease burden worldwide. In 2017 there were approximately 219 million cases of mala ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Polyethylene Glycol Polyethylene glycol is a medication that is used in the management and treatment of constipation. It is in the laxative class of drugs. This activity ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Polygenic Hypercholesterolemia Hypercholesterolemia causes atherosclerotic vascular disease leading to the development of coronary artery disease, transient ischemic attack, stroke, ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Polyglandular Autoimmune Syndrome Type II Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type 2 (PAS-2) is an autoimmune syndrome which leads to lymphocytic infiltration causing organ-specific damage. PAS- ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Poly-L-Lactic Acid Poly-L-lactic acid is an absorbable, semi-permanent, injectable implant that can be used to restore volume and stimulate collagen formation gradually. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postpartum Thyroiditis Postpartum thyroiditis is rather a common problem during the postpartum period. Postpartum thyroiditis has found in approximately 5% of mothers in the ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN) results from a bacterial infection that causes rapid deterioration of the kidney function due to an inflam ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Precocious Pseudopuberty Precocious puberty is traditionally defined as the appearance of secondary sexual characteristics before the age of eight years in girls and nine year ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Prediabetes Prediabetes is a precursor before the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Adults with prediabetes often may show no signs or symptoms of diabetes but will ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Primary Amenorrhea Amenorrhea is defined as the absence of menarche in females of reproductive age. Primary amenorrhea is defined as the failure of initiation of menses ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Primary Polydipsia Primary polydipsia can be categorized into two types. They are psychogenic polydipsia and dipsogenic polydipsia. Psychogenic polydipsia is a condition ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Prostate Cancer Worldwide, prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy and the sixth leading cause of cancer death in men. In 2012, this amounted to 1,1 ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Protamine Protamine is a medication used to reverse and neutralize the anticoagulant effects of heparin. Protamine is the specific antagonist that neutralizes ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pruritus Gravidarum Pruritus is a common symptom in pregnancy. The causes of pruritus can be unrelated or specific to pregnancy. Pruritus specific to pregnancy must be ad ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pseudohyponatremia Pseudohyponatremia is an uncommon laboratory artifact finding that can lead to severe morbidity and mortality if not recognized promptly. This activit ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulmonary Edema Pulmonary edema is defined as an abnormal accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung parenchyma. Two main types are cardiogenic and noncardiogen ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency Pyruvate kinase deficiency (PKD) is the most common enzyme-related glycolytic defect that results in red cell hemolysis. Invariably, PKD results in he ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Refsum Disease Refsum disease is a rare autosomal recessive disease from the peroxisomal biogenesis spectrum of disorders. Peroxisomes are multiple membrane-bound in ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
REM Rebound Effect REM rebound behavior refers to the increased frequency, depth, and intensity of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep following sleep deprivation or signific ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Renal Calculi Renal calculi are a common cause of blood in the urine (hematuria) and pain in the abdomen, flank, or groin. They occur in one in 11 people at some ti ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Renal Transplantation Rejection Various factors merit consideration to match the donor kidney with the recipient, as the donor kidney act as an alloantigen. In general, when transpla ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Renal Tubular Acidosis Kidneys play a pivotal role in maintaining the acid-base balance of body along with lungs, and they do so by reabsorbing filtered bicarbonate and remo ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Retinitis Retinitis is an inflammation of the retina, which can cause permanent vision loss. Numerous microbes can cause retinitis. These pathogens can affect p ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rickets Rickets is a condition characterized by a defect in mineralization of the epiphyseal plates. Rickets could be inherited or acquired. The acquired rick ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Salicylates Toxicity Salicylate toxicity is a medical emergency. Intentional ingestion or accidental overdose can cause severe metabolic derangements, making treatment dif ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Scleroderma And Primary Myocardial Disease Systemic scleroderma is a connective tissue disease that can affect internal organs. Cardiac manifestations of the disease can be a result of the prim ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Scrub Typhus Scrub typhus is one of the tropical rickettsial infections which if left untreated, can have fatal consequences. It is caused by Orientia tsutsugamush ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Secondary Hyperparathyroidism Hyperparathyroidism secondary to chronic renal failure is a condition characterized by inappropriate secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH), secondary ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Secondary Osteonecrosis of the Knee Secondary osteonecrosis is a subtype of the disabling disease osteonecrosis, which leads to end-stage arthritis of various joints, including the knee. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Selenium Selenium is a trace metal supplement used in the management and treatment of selenium deficiency. This activity reviews the indications, contraindicat ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Seminoma Seminoma is a malignant germ cell tumor that involves most commonly the testicle or less frequently the mediastinum, the retroperitoneum, or other ext ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sexual Assault Infectious Disease Prophylaxis Patients presenting for medical treatment after a sexual assault may be concerned about the possibility of acquiring an infectious disease. For many t ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Small Bowel Cancer Small Bowel Cancer encompasses a series of malignant lesions that may be identified throughout the small intestine (SI). The small bowel lies between ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sodium Bicarbonate Sodium bicarbonate is a medication used in the management and treatment of multiple disease pathologies. It is a general chemical compound by classifi ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate Sodium polystyrene sulfonate is a medication used in the management and treatment of hyperkalemia. This activity outlines and reviews the indications, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spinal Cord Subacute Combined Degeneration Subacute combined degeneration is a preventable, reversible medical condition that affects the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerve with devastati ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the abrupt and unexplained death of an infant less than 1-year old. Despite a thorough investigation (a careful ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease with multisystem involvement and is associated with significant morbidity and mort ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Systemic Sclerosis Scleroderma is a rare connective tissue disorder with unknown and complex pathogenesis. Scleroderma can be divided into two forms, Localized Scleroder ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tangier Disease Tangier disease occurs due to the accumulation of cholesterol esters within a body organ. This activity outlines the evaluation and management of it a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Targeted Hypothermia Temperature Management Targeted temperature management aims to reduce mortality and improve neurological outcomes in unresponsive patients who achieve ROSC after cardiac arr ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Teriparatide Teriparatide is a medication used in the management and treatment of osteoporosis. It is in the anabolic class of osteoporosis medications. This activ ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thoracic Duct Leak Thoracic duct leaks are most often due to traumatic injury and iatrogenic injury. Surgery of the esophagus and the heart are the most common source of ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thoracic Trauma Thoracic trauma accounts for up to 35 percent of trauma-related deaths in the United States and encompasses a broad range of injuries that can cause s ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thyroid Nodule Although more than 90 percent of identified thyroid nodules are clinically insignificant benign lesions, 4 to 6.5 percent of cases these nodules are d ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tretinoin Tretinoin is a valuable medication in the treatment of mild, moderate, and severe acne that can be used topically or systemically. Tretinoin also used ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Triamterene Triamterene is a medication used in the management and treatment of edematous states. It is in the potassium-sparing diuretics class of drugs. This ac ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tubulointerstitial Nephritis Tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) is a group of immune-mediated inflammatory disease that involves the interstitium and tubules. Inflammation of the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Type III Hypersensitivity Reaction A hypersensitivity reaction is an inappropriate or overreactive immune response to an antigen resulting in undesirable effects. The symptoms typically ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Urea Cycle Disorders Urea cycle disorders are inborn errors of metabolism resulting from defects in one of the enzymes or transporter molecules involved in the hepatic rem ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Uremia Uremia is a clinical condition associated with worsening renal function. It is characterized by fluid, electrolyte, hormonal, and metabolic abnormalit ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Urinary Diversions And Neobladders The urinary bladder is designed both to facilitate low-pressure filling and to efficiently expel urine using coordinated contractions. As the bladder ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Viral Meningitis Viral meningitis is the inflammation of the meninges caused by a virus. It is most common in young children but is seen across all age groups. This ac ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is an essential vitamin and medication used in the management and treatment of pernicious anemia, ileal resection, treatment o ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) Pyridoxine is a vitamin and a medication used in the treatment of vitamin B6 deficiency, as well as the management of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vitamin B6 Toxicity This activity describes the toxicity associated with vitamin B6 at higher doses. It explains in detail the pathophysiology and toxicokinetics of vitam ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin, antioxidant, and essential co-factor for collagen biosynthesis, carnitine and catecholamine metabolism, and diet ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vitamin C Deficiency Vitamin C deficiency, also known as scurvy, is a disease primarily associated with socioeconomic status and access to food. Signs and symptoms are oft ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wernicke Encephalopathy Wernicke encephalopathy is an acute neurological condition characterized by a clinical triad of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and confusion. This disease i ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Xanthochromia Xanthochromia is the presence of bilirubin in the cerebrospinal fluid and is sometimes the only sign of an acute subarachnoid hemorrhage. However, it ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Xanthoma Xanthomas are localized lipid deposits within an organ system. They are often an important sign of systemic disease. To avoid the high morbidity and m ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Yolk Sac Tumors Yolk sac tumors (also known as endodermal sinus tumors) are malignant primitive germ cell tumors; they are histologically similar to the mesenchyma of ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO

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