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MRCGP-Applied Knowledge Test

MRCGP-Applied Knowledge Test

Stay up to date on the latest medical knowledge with this MRCGP-Applied Knowledge Test activity. In this online self-assessment activity, you'll read our reference articles and test your knowledge with 2023 activities in MRCGP-Applied Knowledge Test for 1823.25 total CME hours.


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1 Year Unlimited Physician MD/DO/PA CME

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Access to all the Physician MD/DO/PA CME activities in all specialties.

Featured Article Activities

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Tympanocentesis

Tympanocentesis is a very important minor surgical procedure in the diagnostic arsenal and management of otitis media (O ...
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Hours: 1

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Upper Respiratory Tract Infection

Upper respiratory tract infections can be defined as self-limited irritation and swelling of the upper airways with asso ...
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Hours: 1

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Trigger Finger

Trigger finger, or stenosing tenosynovitis, is tenosynovitis of the flexor sheaths that typically occurs in the 4th fing ...
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Hours: 0.75

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Hemiplegic Migraine

A hemiplegic migraine is a rare form of migraine in which the migraine headache attack is accompanied by unilateral weak ...
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Hours: 1

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Transplantation Osteoporosis

Transplantation has now become a standard treatment option for many end-stage disease processes. As the number of transp ...
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Hours: 0.75

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Gyromitra Mushroom Toxicity

Gyromitra esculenta, the false morel mushroom, has a unique toxicity. The mushroom derives its name (esculenta) from the ...
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Hours: 0.75

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MRCGP-Applied Knowledge Test Activities

Title Description Hours Questions
5 Alpha Reductase Deficiency This activity reviews 5-alpha-reductase deficiency, an important cause of ambiguous genitalia in children. Initially, the phenotype of children with 5 ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
A Review Of Hereditary Colorectal Cancers Colorectal cancer is the fourth leading cause of death in the world. Many cases of colorectal cancer are associated with lifestyle factors such as obe ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abacavir Abacavir is an approved nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used to treat human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection in combination with ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm An abdominal aortic aneurysm is a life-threatening condition which requires monitoring or treatment depending upon the size of the aneurysm and/or sym ... Read the Article 1.5 23 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Imaging Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAAs) are a relatively common pathology. Ruptured aneurysms have an exceptionally high mortality rate. Early diagnosis an ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominal Thrust Maneuver The abdominal thrust maneuver, also known as the Heimlich maneuver, is used to treat upper airway obstructions caused by foreign bodies. This maneuver ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ablative Laser Resurfacing This activity outlines and describes ablative laser options and their current therapeutic uses in skin resurfacing. The differences between fractional ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abnormal Neonatal EEG Electroencephalogram of a newborn shows unique features compared to older children and adults. The principles employed in the identification of abnorm ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Abnormal uterine bleeding is a broad term that describes irregularities in the menstrual cycle involving frequency, regularity, duration, and volume o ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abortion Elective termination of pregnancy (abortion) is a common procedure despite the ethical and moral controversy surrounding it. With the availability of ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Absence Seizure Absence seizures are brief seizures during which the patient is unresponsive. They are generally seen in children between 4 and 12 years of age. It ha ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acetaminophen Toxicity Acetaminophen toxicity is the second most common cause of liver transplantation worldwide and the most common cause of liver transplantation in the US ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors Toxicity Nerve agents are some of the most deadly and easily employed chemical warfare agents. Given the global threat of terrorism, it is prudent to have a ba ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Achlorhydria Achlorhydria is a condition in which the stomach does not produce hydrochloric acid, one of the components of gastric acid. Hydrochloric acid plays an ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acinetobacter Acinetobacter is a gram-negative, nonmotile organism that is often found in soil and water and is known to colonize intravenous fluids. In general, Ac ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ackee Fruit Toxicity Ingestion of unripe Ackee fruit may result in the metabolic syndrome known as "Jamaican vomiting sickness." Clinical manifestations may include profus ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acne Fulminans Acne fulminans or acne maligna is a rare skin disorder presenting as an acute, painful, ulcerating, and hemorrhagic clinical form of acne. It may or m ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acoustic Neuroma Acoustic neuromas are tumors that develop from the sheath of Schwann cells. They tend to occupy the cerebellopontine angle and are usually found adjac ... Read the Article 1.25 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acquired Angioedema Angioedema is characterized by one or more areas of well-demarcated, non-pitting edema of deep subcutaneous tissues. It is primarily known to involve ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acquired Hemophilia Acquired hemophilia is an uncommon but severe bleeding disorder. It is caused by the development of autoantibodies directed against one of the antihem ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Human immunodeficiency virus is transmitted sexually, via blood transfusions, sharing intravenous needles, and from the mother to a child during the b ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acrodynia Acrodynia is a rare disorder caused due to chronic mercury poisoning or idiosyncrasy to mercury. It is a Greek term that means 'painful extremities.' ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acromegaly Acromegaly is a disorder caused by excessive production of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary gland, resulting in excessive growth of body tis ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Actinic Keratosis Actinic keratoses (AKs) are premalignant cutaneous lesions that may progress to squamous cell carcinoma. They are a common skin condition and develop ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Active Tuberculosis Active tuberculosis is a condition in which Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes infection; typically in the lungs, although many systems can be involved ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acupuncture Acupuncture is a system of medical treatment and ideology that is based on the principle of applying small needles or pressure to specific points in t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Abdomen An acute abdomen is a condition that demands urgent attention and treatment. The acute abdomen may be caused by an infection, inflammation, vascular o ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Cholecystitis Acute cholecystitis is inflammation of the gallbladder that occurs due to occlusion of the cystic duct or impaired emptying of the gallbladder. Often ... Read the Article 1.5 22 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Coronary Syndrome Catheter Interventions Since the late 1970s, when catheter-based therapy for ischemic heart disease was first introduced, catheters have continued to evolve. Initially, card ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Cystitis Urinary tract infections are the most common bacterial infection in women, and result in roughly eight million emergency department or clinic visits a ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Febrile Neutrophilic Dermatosis Acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis, also known as Sweet syndrome, consists of erythematous plaques and papules along with constitutional symptoms s ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Laryngitis Laryngitis refers to inflammation of the larynx. This is often due to an acute viral infection, which is typically a mild and self-limiting condition ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Mesenteric Ischemia Acute mesenteric ischemia is caused by a sudden decline in blood flow through the mesenteric vessels. Diagnosis can be difficult because symptoms are ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Myocardial Infarction Acute myocardial infarctions are one of the leading causes of death in the developed world, with prevalence approaching three million people worldwide ... Read the Article 1.75 25 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute On Chronic Liver Failure Acute on chronic liver failure is a clinical syndrome of sudden hepatic decompensation observed in patients with pre-existing chronic liver disease. A ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Otitis Media Acute otitis media (AOM) is defined as an infection of the middle ear and is the second most common pediatric diagnosis in the emergency department fo ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Pancreatitis Acute pancreatitis is the leading cause of gastrointestinal-related hospitalization in the United States, and its frequency continues to rise in the ... Read the Article 2 35 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Pneumothorax Evaluation and Treatment A pneumothorax is an accumulation of gas in the pleural space (the space between the visceral and parietal pleura of the chest cavity), which can imp ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia Acute promyelocytic leukemia is a distinguished subset of acute myeloid leukemia which is characterized by fusion gene transcript PML-RAR-alpha and hi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Pyelonephritis Acute pyelonephritis is a bacterial infection causing inflammation of the kidneys. Pyelonephritis occurs as a complication of an ascending urinary tra ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Renal Colic Acute renal colic is severe pain resulting from the presence of a stone in the urinary system. The stone can be present anywhere along the path betwee ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Stress Disorder Acute stress disorder (ASD) was first outlined in 1994 at the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) as a new ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adaptive Support Ventilation Adaptive support ventilation (ASV) is a type of mechanical ventilation, which is a relatively newer mode of closed-loop ventilation. Other modes of me ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Addisonian Crisis An Addisonian crisis, or adrenal crisis, is a potentially life-threatening condition that results from an acute insufficiency of adrenal hormones (glu ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adenocarcinoma Adenocarcinomas are malignant tumors formed from glandular structures in epithelial tissue. They can arise from a variety of tissues. This activity re ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adie Syndrome Adie syndrome, also known as the Holmes-Adie syndrome, is a neurological disorder of unknown etiology comprising unilateral or bilateral tonically dil ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adiposis Dolorosa Adiposis dolorosa is a rare disorder of multiple painful subcutaneous growths of adipose tissue most commonly affecting the proximal extremities, trun ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adolescent and Idiopathic Scoliosis Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the most common form of pediatric scoliosis occurring in individuals between the ages of 10 to 18. By definit ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adrenal Cortical Nodular Hyperplasia A number of heterogeneous disorders can result in adrenal cortical nodular hyperplasia. Cortical hyperplasia is a benign enlargement of the gland. Nor ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adrenal Insufficiency Adrenal glands produce hormones which are necessary for normal body functioning, deficiency of these hormones is called adrenal insufficiency. Adrenal ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adrenal Metastasis Adrenal metastases are the most common malignant lesions involving the adrenal gland and the second most common tumor of the adrenal gland after benig ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adrenalectomy Adrenalectomy is performed to adrenal tumors that secret excess hormone and for those that are concerning for malignancy. There are many approached to ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adrenergic Drugs Adrenergic drugs are a broad class of medications that bind to adrenergic receptors throughout the body. These receptors include: alpha-1, alpha-2, be ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adult Dehydration Dehydration is a common condition that affects patients of all ages. Dehydration may complicate other medical problems and may cause significant illne ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adult Diabetic Ketoacidosis Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is characterized by uncontrolled hyperglycemia, metabolic acidosis, and increased body ketone concentration. It is a life- ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adult T Cell Leukemia Adult T- cell leukemia (ATL) is a rare and aggressive peripheral T-cell neoplasm associated with human T-cell leukemia virus type -1 (HTLV-1) infectio ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adverse Effects Of Radiation Therapy Radiotherapy causes DNA break and subsequent cell death. This affects the cancer cells more severely than the normal cells. However, with the growing ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aerospace Decompression Illness Decompression sickness in aviation is most commonly seen following flights in nonpressurized aircraft, in flights with cabin pressure fluctuations, or ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aflatoxin Toxicity Aflatoxins are metabolites produced by toxigenic strains of molds, mainly Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus which grow in soil, hay, decaying vege ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Agranulocytosis Agranulocytosis is a condition in which the absolute neutrophil count (ANC) is less than 100 neutrophils per microlitre of the blood. Agranulocytosis ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Air Leak An air leak is the leakage of air from an air-containing cavity into spaces that under normal circumstances do not contain air. The term air leak synd ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Airborne Precautions An airborne disorder is any disease that is caused by a microorganism that is transmitted through the air. There are many airborne diseases that are o ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Airway Obstruction Airway obstruction secondary to a foreign body is often easily treated, as the foreign body can be removed, and the patency of the airway restored. Ho ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Akinesia Akinesia or "absent movement" is a clinical sign that could be indicative of a number of disorders, depending on the age group of the patient. The var ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ala Dehydratase Deficiency Porphyria ALA dehydratase porphyria is an extremely rare type of acute porphyria that follows a chronic course punctuated by acute attacks. To avoid multiple re ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Albendazole Albendazole has FDA approval for the treatment of cystic hydatid disease of the liver, lung, and peritoneum resulting from the larval form of the dog ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Albinism Albinism is a group of heritable conditions associated with decreased or absent melanin in ectoderm-derived tissues (most notably the skin, hair, and ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alcoholic Cardiomyopathy Alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM) is a cardiac disease caused by chronic alcohol consumption. It is characterized by ventricular dilation and impairment ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aliskiren Aliskiren is a direct renin inhibitor medication that is FDA approved to treat hypertension in adults and children six years and older. It may be used ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
ALK Negative Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALK(-) ALCL) is an uncommon CD30-positive T-cell lymphoma that presents a major diagnostic challenge. It ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alkali Toxicity Alkali toxicity, though rare, can lead to serious medical problems. Adult caustic ingestions are usually intentional, involving more substantial amou ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alkaptonuria Alkaptonuria is a rare genetic inborn error of protein metabolism. It is the result of the deficiency of an enzyme (homogentisate 1,2 dioxygenase - HG ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Allen Test The Allen test (AT) is used to assess collateral blood flow to the hands. The radial artery is easily palpable. The need for this test arises from the ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Allergic Contact Dermatitis Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a type 4 or delayed-type hypersensitivity response (DTH) by an individual’s immune system to a small molecule (le ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Allergic Interstitial Nephritis Allergic interstitial nephritis (AIN) is the most common form of acute interstitial nephritis. It is most often caused by exposure to a drug. AIN is o ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Allergic Rhinitis Allergic rhinitis (AR) is an atopic disease with symptoms of sneezing, nasal congestion, clear rhinorrhea, and nasal pruritis. It is an abnormal exces ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Allergy Allergy is described as an exaggerated response from the body’s immune system to otherwise inert substances present in the environment. The usual symp ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Allgrove Syndrome Allgrove syndrome (AS) or 3A syndrome (AAA) is characterized by a triad of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) resistant adrenal insufficiency, alacri ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alopecia Areata Alopecia areata (AA) is a form of alopecia that impacts hair follicles, nails, and rarely, the retinal pigment epithelium. It typically presents with ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alpha 1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is a clinically under-recognized genetic disorder that causes the defective production of alpha-1 antitrypsin pro ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alpha Receptor Agonist Toxicity Alpha-adrenergic agonist toxicity is due to a broad group of pharmaceutical agents known as alpha agonists, which can be further broken down into cent ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alpha-Lipoic Acid Alpha-lipoic acid is a medication used in managing and treating chronic diseases associated with oxidative stress such as diabetic neuropathy and slow ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alteplase Alteplase is a thrombolytic agent that is manufactured by recombinant DNA technology. It is FDA approved for use in acute ischemic stroke, pulmonary e ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alternobaric Facial Paresis Alternobaric facial paresis, facial baroparesis, baroparesis facialis, or alternobaric facial nerve palsy is a neurapraxia of the seventh cranial nerv ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alzheimer Disease Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common cause of a decline in cognitive ability. It is a neurodegenerative disorder that usually affects people over ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amantadine Amantadine is an antiviral agent with mild antiparkinsonian activity. Amantadine was used in the early 2000s for Influenza A treatment. However, high ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amatoxin Mushroom Toxicity Amatoxin containing mushrooms are a rare but significant cause of acute fulminant liver failure. However, not all Amanita species have this toxin, and ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amaurosis Fugax The term amaurosis fugax is often used interchangeably to describe transient visual loss (TVL). However, it is employed widely in medicine to refer to ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amenorrhea Amenorrhea is defined as the absence of menstruation during the reproductive years of a woman's life. Physiological states of amenorrhea are seen, mos ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amlodipine Amlodipine is an oral dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. Compared to nifedipine and other medications in the dihydropyridine class, amlodipine h ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amniotomy Amniotomy, also known as artificial rupture of membranes (AROM) or colloquially known as "breaking the water," is the intentional rupture of the amnio ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amoxapine Amoxapine is an FDA approved drug belonging to the class of second-generation tricyclic dibenzoxazepine antidepressants. Generally, it is reserved for ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amphotericin B Amphotericin B deoxycholate belongs to the polyene class of antifungals. It is also known by the name conventional amphotericin B and has been used fo ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as “Lou Gehrig’s disease,” is a neurodegenerative disease of the motor neurons. This activity reviews ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anabolic Steroids Anabolic steroids (also known as androgenic steroids) are synthetic derivatives of testosterone. Legal, as well as the illegal use of anabolic steroid ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anal Cancer Anal cancer is a rare tumor comprising only 2.5% of all digestive system malignancies in the United States. The pathophysiology of the development of ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anaplasma Phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a gram-negative intracellular bacteria that causes an acute febrile illness known as anaplasmosis or human granulocytic a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, also known as undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma, is a rare, highly aggressive malignant tumor accounting for 2 to 3 per ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Androgen Replacement Testosterone is FDA-approved as replacement therapy in men who have low testosterone levels and those with symptoms of hypogonadism. It is essential t ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Androgenetic Alopecia Androgenetic alopecia is a genetically predetermined disorder due to an excessive response to androgens. This condition affects up to 50 percent of ma ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anembryonic Pregnancy A blighted ovum, also known as an anembryonic pregnancy, occurs when a fertilized egg implants and a gestational (embryonic) sac forms and grows, but ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angelman Syndrome Angelman syndrome is a rare disorder caused by loss of function of the maternal UBE3A. It presents in childhood with psychomotor delay, absent speech, ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angina Angina is the most common symptom of ischemic heart disease, which is the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Approximately 9 million pa ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angiodysplasia Angiodysplasia is an abnormal, tortuous, dilated small blood vessel in the mucosal and submucosal layers of the GI tract. It is the most common vascul ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angiolymphoid Hyperplasia With Eosinophilia Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE), also known as epithelioid hemangioma, is an uncommon, benign vasoproliferative disorder. The patho ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angioneurotic Edema Angioneurotic edema is a relatively common presentation in the emergency department. It presents as unpredictable frequent edematous episodes of cutan ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEI) ACE inhibitors are medications used in the treatment and management of hypertension, which is a significant risk factor for coronary disease heart fai ... Read the Article 1.5 24 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARB) Pharmaceutical RAAS blockade has is a common and successful strategy in the treatment of several diseases, including hypertension, congestive heart fa ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angular Chelitis Angular cheilitis describes an inflammatory skin process of variable etiology occurring at the labial commissure, the angle of the mouth. It is usuall ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Animal Bites Animal bites account for approximately one percent of all emergency visits in the U.S. yearly and can range from superficial injuries to disfiguring a ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ankle Arthrocentesis Acute arthritis, particularly monoarthropathy, is a common acute presentation. In regards to the ankle, there is not always a clear etiology for the m ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ankle Dislocation An ankle dislocation occurs when there is an abnormal separation between the talo-tibial joint. This most often occurs concomitantly with an ankle fra ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ankyloglossia Ankyloglossia, also known as tongue-tie, is a short lingual frenum that interferes with normal tongue movement. It is an uncommon congenital oral anom ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ankylosing Spondylitis Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic, inflammatory disease of the axial spine. Chronic back pain and progressive spinal stiffness are the most common f ... Read the Article 2 34 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Annular Pancreas Annular pancreas (AP) is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by encasement of the duodenum by a band of pancreatic tissue. AP is not commonly enco ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anorexia Nervosa Anorexia nervosa is defined by a restriction of energy intake relative to requirements, which leads to significantly low body weight. Patients with th ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anoscopy Anoscopy is a bedside procedure that is inexpensive and can be performed quickly without bowel preparation or sedation. With this method, the examiner ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anosmia Anosmia is the inability to perceive smell/odor. It can be temporary or permanent and acquired or congenital. There are many causes. Neurological caus ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anovulatory Bleeding Abnormal uterine bleeding due to ovulatory dysfunction causes irregular and often heavy menses. This condition, if left untreated, can have a signific ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antacids Antacids are a group of drugs that have been on the market for many years. They were initially first-line defense against peptic ulcer disease; howeve ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antepartum Infections This activity reviews the evaluation and management of antepartum infections and highlights the role of the interprofessional team in improving matern ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anterior Cruciate Ligament Knee Injuries The anterior cruciate ligament is one of the two cruciate ligaments which aids in stabilization of the knee joint. It is the most commonly injured li ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anterior Elbow Dislocation The elbow is one of the most common large joints to be dislocated. Anterior elbow dislocations are a rare injury due to the high force and position ne ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anterior Myocardial Infarction Anterior myocardial infarction (AMI) is a common heart disease associated with significant mortality and morbidity. Advancement in diagnosis and treat ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anteroseptal Myocardial Infarction Anteroseptal myocardial infarctions are commonly caused by rupture of an unstable atherosclerotic plaque in the left anterior descending artery. Delay ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anthracyclines Anthracyclines are drugs extracted from Streptomyces spp and used in the treatment of various types of cancers. These agents are among the most effect ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anthrax Anthrax is an infectious disease caused by an encapsulated, spore-forming, gram-variable bacteria called Bacillus anthracis. This commonly presents wi ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antiarrhythmic Medications The antiarrhythmic medications have typically been categorized according to the Vaughan-Williams (VW) classification system. The system classifies the ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anticoagulation Safety One class of drugs that has been implicated in serious adverse drugs reactions for many decades are the oral anticoagulants, especially warfarin. Ther ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anticonvulsants Toxicity Anticonvulsants, or antiepileptics, are an ever-growing class of medications that act through multiple different mechanisms to control seizures. Antie ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antidepressants While antidepressants may be the drug of choice for depression, they also have FDA approval as treatments for other medical disorders. For example, an ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antidotes Overdoses and accidental ingestions or exposures are common throughout the world. With more than 2.4 million toxic exposures each year, poisoning is ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antiemetic Serotonin-5-HT3 Receptor Blockers Select serotonin receptor (5-HT3) antagonists block serotonin both peripherally, on gastrointestinal (GI) vagal nerve terminals, and centrally in the ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antiepileptic Drug Monitoring Antiepileptic drug-level monitoring has been a common clinical practice since the advent of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). The practice of maintaining AE ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antifungal Antibiotics Fungi are unicellular or multi-cellular eukaryotic organisms that exist in all environments worldwide. While most fungi do not play a significant role ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antihistamines Antihistamines are a pharmaceutical class of drugs that act to treat histamine-mediated conditions. There are two main classes of histamine receptors: ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antitubercular Medications Antitubercular medications: rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol are FDA approved for the treatment of mycobacterium tuberculosis. Antitu ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anxiolytics and Sedative-Hypnotics Toxicity Anxiolytics and sedative-hypnotics are widely consumed at home and in a hospital setting. This activity reviews the most commonly used agents of these ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Dissection While uncommon, acute aortic dissection is an infrequent but catastrophic disorder. Patients present with tearing chest pain that radiates to the back ... Read the Article 1.75 27 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Insufficiency A normal aortic valve is comprised of three semilunar cusps that attach to the aortic wall. Aortic regurgitation (AR), also known as aortic insufficie ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Valve Repair Aortic valve repair is performed to treat aortic valve insufficiency with outcomes comparable to the valve replacement. When performed in a high volum ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Apert Syndrome Apert syndrome is an autosomal dominant inherited craniosynostosis syndrome. Males and females are equally affected. The incidence of the disease sign ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aphasia Aphasia is an impairment of language caused by damage to the language area of the brain, primarily Broca and Wernicke areas. Injury to the brain can b ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aplastic Anemia Aplastic anemia refers to the syndrome of chronic primary hematopoietic failure from injury leading to diminished or absent hematopoietic precursors i ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Appendix Cancer Appendiceal malignancies are a rare group of tumors often found incidentally during surgical removal of the appendix. Histologically, this malignancy ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Approach New Breast Mass Breast masses are common and are associated with a wide spectrum of disease, from benign physiological adenosis to advanced malignancy. A structured a ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Apraxia of Lid Opening Apraxia of eyelid opening is defined as a non-motor abnormality characterized by the patient's difficulty in eyelid elevation bilaterally. There is an ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
APUDoma APUDomas, currently known as neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), are a group of heterogeneous tumors that arise from the diffuse neuroendocrine system. They ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arachnoid Cysts Arachnoid cysts are common incidental findings on cross-sectional neuroimaging of the brain. When they are present in the appropriate location and of ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arcanobacterium Haemolyticum Arcanobacterium haemolyticum is a rare infectious pathogen that principally causes pharyngitis in adolescents and soft-tissue infections in immunocomp ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Argyll Robertson Pupil Argyll Robertson pupil describes the physical exam finding of bilaterally small pupils that do not constrict when exposed to bright light but do const ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Argyria Argyria is a dermatologic condition that is acquired by exposure to or ingestion of silver, and it presents with the insidious onset of gray or blue m ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aripiprazole Aripiprazole is a medication used in the management and treatment of schizophrenia, mania associated with bipolar I disorder, irritability associated ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aromatase Inhibitors Anastrozole is a medication used in the management and treatment of breast cancer. It is in the aromatase inhibitors class of drugs. This activity des ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arrhythmias Arrhythmia entails a broad spectrum of disorders of heart rate and rhythm abnormalities. Arrhythmia is broadly categorized into bradyarrhythmias and t ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arsenic Toxicity Arsenic poisoning is a global health issue affecting millions of people worldwide through environmental and occupational exposure, as well as intentio ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arsenical Keratosis Arsenical keratosis is an important cutaneous manifestation of chronic arsenic toxicity (CAT). As it is a common presenting complaint of CAT and a pre ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arterial Lines Arterial catheterization is a procedure that is common to the intensive care and the operating room settings. It involves placement of a catheter into ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arteriovenous Fistula Arteriovenous fistulas are abnormal connections between arteries and veins. AVFs can be surgically created, can occur as a result of a congenital or g ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Artery Cannulation Arterial cannulation is a procedure frequently performed in acute and critical care settings. It serves as an invasive means to more accurately measur ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aseptic Meningitis Aseptic meningitis is an umbrella term for all of the causes of inflammation of the brain meninges that have negative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) bacter ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Asherman Syndrome Asherman syndrome (intrauterine adhesions or intrauterine synechiae) occurs when scar tissue forms inside the uterus and/or the cervix. These adhesion ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ashman Phenomenon Ashman phenomenon was initially described by Dr. Gouaux and Dr. Ashman in 1947. They described that the earlier in the cycle a premature atrial contra ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aspart Insulin Insulin aspart is a rapid-acting, human insulin analog that is FDA approved for the treatment of type-1 and type-2 diabetes mellitus to improve glycem ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aspergillus Fumigatus Aspergillus is a ubiquitous saprophyte in nature found in air, soil and organic matter. Humans normally inhale the spore form of the fungi. However, t ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aspiration Pneumonia The infectious pulmonary process that occurs after abnormal entry of fluids into the lower respiratory tract is termed aspiration pneumonia. The aspir ... Read the Article 1.25 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aspiration Risk Aspiration is common, even in healthy patients. Aspiration can have significant morbidity and mortality in certain circumstances. It is categorized ba ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Astereognosis Astereognosis is the inability to identify objects by feel only, in the absence of input from the visual system. It may also be defined as the impairm ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Asthma Asthma is a chronic disease of the air passages characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways. Symptoms of asthma include shortness of br ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Astrocytoma Astrocytoma originates in astrocytes, which are a kind of glial cells in the cerebrum which are star-shaped. It is the most common glioma, usually aff ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Asymmetric Periflexural Exanthem In Childhood Asymmetric Periflexural Exanthem (APEC) is a distinctive and a self-limited exanthem which classically affects children and less frequently adults. Th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Asymptomatic Bacteriuria Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the presence of bacteria in the properly collected urine of a patient that has no signs or symptoms of a urinary tract inf ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease in which there is a build up of plaques inside arteries. These plaques are principally composed of l ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Athetoid Cerebral Palsy Athetoid cerebral palsy, also known as dyskinetic cerebral palsy, is the second most common subtype of cerebral palsy. It is a non-progressive, perman ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atlantoaxial Instability The atlantoaxial segment consists of the atlas (C1) and axis (C2) and forms a complex transitional structure bridging the occiput and cervical spine. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atomoxetine Atomoxetine is indicated for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children over the age of 6. Although atomo ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atopic Dermatitis Atopic dermatitis (AD), which is a specific form of eczema, is the most common chronic inflammatory skin disease. Atopic dermatitis has a complex etio ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atopy Atopy is a predisposition to an immune response against diverse antigens and allergens leading to CD4+ Th2 differentiation and overproduction of immun ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atorvastatin HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are lipid-lowering medications used in the primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. This act ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrial Fibrillation Atrial fibrillation is the most common type of cardiac arrhythmia. It is the leading cardiac cause of stroke. Risk factors for atrial fibrillation inc ... Read the Article 2 31 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrial Myxoma Myxomas are the most common primary cardiac tumor. It is estimated that more than 75% of myxomas originate in the left atrium either at the mitral ann ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrioventricular Dissociation Atrioventricular dissociation is a cardiac conduction defect where the atria and ventricles beat independently of each other. It can occur due to vari ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrioventricular Septal Defect The atrioventricular septal defect is a congenital cardiac malformation that is characterized by a variable degree of the atrial and ventricular septa ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrophic Gastritis Gastric atrophy (GA) and intestinal metaplasia of the gastric mucosa (GIM) are collectively known as chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG). These early con ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atypical Bacterial Pneumonia Pneumonia is a lower respiratory tract infection, specifically involving the pulmonary parenchyma. Viruses, fungi and bacteria can cause pneumonia. Th ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atypical Ductal Hyperplasia Atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) is a pathology finding, usually found incidentally on biopsy of the breast. ADH is associated with an increased risk ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Auditory Hallucinations Auditory hallucinations are the sensory perceptions of hearing voices without an external stimulus. This symptom is particularly associated with schiz ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Auricular Hematoma An auricular hematoma is a collection of blood underneath the perichondrium of the ear and typically occurs secondary to trauma. Auricular deformity, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Autoimmune And Chronic Neutropenia Neutropenia is a decreased number of neutrophils less than 1500/microliter and can be idiopathic, congenital, autoimmune, and cyclic types. Those last ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Autoimmune Myopathies Idiopathic inflammatory myositis (IIM) is classified into four subtypes based on clinical and histopathological features. Polymyositis (PM) and dermat ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Autoimmune Pancreatitis Autoimmune pancreatitis is a clinical condition characterized by inflammation of the pancreas from an autoimmune etiology. It is an uncommon cause of ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Automatic Internal Cardiac Defibrillator The automated internal cardiac defibrillator or shock box is the common name given to the Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD). ICD is a state ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Autonomic Dysfunction The autonomic nervous system (ANS) includes all regions implicated in the control of autonomic, unconscious, and involuntary functions in total body h ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Avascular Necrosis Osteonecrosis is a degenerative bone condition characterized by death of cellular components of bone secondary to an interruption of the subchondral b ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Avoidant Personality Disorder Avoidant personality disorder is a chronic and pervasive maladaptive behavioral pattern. The onset is insidious and affects all aspects of the individ ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Avulsed Tooth Dentoalveolar trauma are injuries caused by an external impact on the teeth, palate, mandible, maxilla, and gums. These injuries can result in anythin ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Avulsion Fractures Avulsion fractures can happen anywhere in the body where soft tissue attaches to the bone. The failure of bone most commonly results from an acute eve ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Axonotmesis This activity reviews the etiology, epidemiology, anatomy, physiology, and prognosis of peripheral nerve injury with a particular focus on axonotmesis ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Azithromycin Azithromycin is an antibiotic medication used in the treatment and management of bacterial infections, including community-acquired pneumonia and sexu ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Babesiosis Babesiosis is an infection caused by the parasitic protozoa Babesia. This parasite is carried and transferred by ticks and primarily infects erythrocy ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacillary Angiomatosis Bacillary angiomatosis (epithelioid angiomatosis) is an uncommon disease characterized by neovascular proliferation in the skin or the internal organs ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Back Safety Low back pain (LBP) is common among healthcare professionals with prevalence of low back pain among health care workers being greater than among those ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Baclofen Baclofen is used to treat muscle spasticity; it is FDA-approved for the management of reversible spasticity, particularly for the relief of flexor spa ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacterial Acute Prostatitis Bacterial prostatitis (BP) is an infection of the prostate gland occurring in a bimodal distribution in younger and older men. It can be acute (ABP) o ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacterial Gastroenteritis Gastroenteritis is a diarrheal disease characterized by an increase in bowel movement frequency with or without fever, vomiting, and abdominal pain. T ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacterial Meningitis Bacterial meningitis is an infection of the meninges that results in inflammation. It is a serious and life-threatening condition that requires prompt ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacterial Sepsis Bacterial sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to an infection injures its tissues and organs. Sepsis is caused ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacteriostatic Antibiotics The term "bacteriostatic antibiotics" is used to describe medications whose mechanism of action stalls bacterial cellular activity without directly ca ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bag Mask Ventilation Bag valve mask ventilation is a difficult skill to master. This activity explains how to improve this skill. This activity describes the technique of ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Balanitis Balanitis is an inflammation of the glans penis. Men with balanitis often present with penile pain and erythema. This activity explains the risk facto ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Balanitis Circumscripta Plasmacellularis Balanitis circumscripta is a chronic idiopathic reactive balanoposthitis that can occur in uncircumcised men and is caused by a dysfunctional foreskin ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Barbiturate Toxicity Barbiturates are a class of sedative-hypnotic drugs. They are commonly used as antiepileptics (phenobarbital) and for the induction of general anesthe ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Barium Swallow The barium swallow study, also known as a barium esophagogram or esophagram, is a contrast-enhanced radiographic study commonly used to assess structu ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Barrett Esophagus Barrett esophagus (BE) is a pre-malignant condition characterized by conversion of the normal esophageal squamous epithelium into metaplastic columnar ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Basilar Artery Thrombosis The basilar artery is formed by the convergence of the vertebral arteries at the junction of the pons and medulla. It provides oxygen-rich blood to th ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Basilar Migraine A migraine with predominant brainstem aura symptoms is known as a basilar migraine. Bickerstaff first described it in 1961. Other names for it are bas ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Behavior Modification Behavior modification is a psychotherapeutic intervention primarily used to eliminate or reduce maladaptive behavior in children or adults. While some ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bell Palsy Bell palsy is the most common peripheral paralysis of the seventh cranial nerve with an onset that is rapid and unilateral. This is an idiopathic cond ... Read the Article 1.25 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Benign Essential Blepharospasm Benign essential blepharospasm is a focal cranial dystonia, characterized by involuntary contractions of orbicularis oculi muscle contractions, result ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Benign Mesothelioma Mesotheliomas represent a proliferative neoplasm made up of epithelial and mesenchymal cells of the mesothelium which make up part of the serosal cove ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Benign Occipital Seizure Benign occipital seizures are classified as an occipital onset epilepsy syndrome, which occurs in children with normal developmental milestones, norma ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo Vertigo is the perception of motion in the absence of motion, which may be described as a sensation of swaying, tilting, spinning, or feeling unbalanc ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common condition encountered in aging men and a common cause of lower urinary tract symptoms. Histological pre ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Benzathine Penicillin Benzathine penicillin is formulated from two penicillin G molecules reacting with diphenylethylene diamine. It is active against gram-positive bacteri ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Benztropine Benztropine is FDA approved as adjunctive therapy of all forms of parkinsonism. It is also used for drug-induced extrapyramidal symptoms and the preve ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Berger Disease Berger disease is a common cause of primary glomerulonephritis and it involves the deposition of IgA in the glomerular mesangium. It is a cause of pro ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bethanechol Bethanechol is FDA approved for the treatment of postoperative urinary retention, postpartum urinary retention, and overflow incontinence caused by ne ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bicornuate Uterus A bicornuate uterus is a uterine malformation that is produced due to impairment in the fusion of Mullerian ducts. The bicornuate uterus is a rare ano ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bile Duct Stricture Bile duct strictures are segments of the narrowing of the intrahepatic and/or extrahepatic biliary ductal system. The narrowing impedes the normal ant ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biliary Colic Biliary colic is defined as pain in the abdomen, due to obstruction usually by stones in the cystic duct or common bile duct of the biliary tree. It t ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biliary Obstruction Biliary obstruction refers to blockage of the bile duct system preventing bile from flowing from the liver into the intestinal tract. Bile obstructio ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biliary Tract Cancer Biliary tract cancer consists of tumors that arise from epithelial cells lining the biliary tract, which consists of the intrahepatic bile duct, extra ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biliary Tract Cholangiocarcinoma The diagnosis and management of cholangiocarcinoma are challenging and complex. To achieve good results and provide appropriate patient care, the trea ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biliopancreatic Diversion With Duodenal Switch The biliopancreatic diversion was first described by Scorpinaro in 1979. This procedure combined a horizontal gastric resection with the closure of a ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Binge Eating Disorder Binge eating disorder is an eating disorder associated with various psychological and non-psychological issues with some degree of impairment of daily ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biologic Response Modifiers (BRMs) Biologic response modifiers (BRMs), also known as immunomodulators, are the class of medications that target the disease-causing mechanism. They are u ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biologic, Chemical, and Radiation Terrorism Review Terrorism is the intentional use of indiscriminate violence to create fear and terror as a means to achieve an ideological, financial, religious, or p ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biotinidase Deficiency Biotin acts as a coenzyme for four carboxylation enzymes in the body: 3-methylcrontonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCC), pyruvate carboxylase (PC), acetyl-CoA c ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bismuth Subsalicylate Bismuth subsalicylate is a medication that is used in the management and treatment of gastrointestinal discomfort and traveler's diarrhea. It is in th ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bisphosphonate Bisphosphonates define a class of drugs that are widely indicated since the 1990s to treat osteoporosis both in men and women. Their effectiveness in ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bisphosphonate Related Jaw Osteonecrosis Bisphosphonates are synthetic pyrophosphate analogs used to treat hypercalcemia secondary to conditions affecting bone resorption such as malignancy, ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bisphosphonate Toxicity In the second half of the 20th century, bisphosphonates have emerged as a novel treatment for bone metabolism disorders. Currently, bisphosphonates ar ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Black Cohosh Black Cohosh, or Cimicifuga racemosa, is a perennial dicot of the Buttercup family native to the Eastern half of the United States and Canada. It is a ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Black Piedra Piedra is a superficial fungal infection of hair shafts, which presents with small nodules stuck-on to the shaft. Black piedra, caused by Piedraia hor ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bladder Cancer Bladder cancer is any neoplasm that arises from the urinary bladder. It is the most common urinary tract neoplasm with urothelial carcinoma (UC) being ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bladder Catheterization Bladder catheterization is a commonly performed procedure in all hospitals. It can be performed by external, urethral, and suprapubic techniques. It i ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bladder Sphincter Dyssynergia Detrusor sphincter dyssynergia is a common cause of lower urinary tract symptoms in a patient with spinal cord injury and various other neurological d ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blast Injuries Explosions are unique in their ability to inflict acute injuries on many people at the same time, resulting in high levels of mortality and morbidity. ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blastomycosis Blastomycosis is a fungal infection caused by Blastomyces dermatitidis. It presents as a pulmonary infection after the inhalation of spores, and it ma ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bleach Toxicity Bleach refers to a large class of compounds used to whiten or color-lighten materials. They are frequently used for cleaning and disinfection; bleache ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blepharoconjunctivitis Blepharoconjunctivitis is an ocular condition involving the inflammation of the eyelid and conjunctiva. It is a common chronic condition that can lead ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blistering Distal Dactylitis Blistering distal dactylitis (BDD) is a bacterial infection of the fingers presenting as multiple fluid-filled lesions. This condition is common in ch ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blood Transfusion Blood transfusions are a relatively common medical procedure and while typically safe, there are multiple complications that practitioners need to be ... Read the Article 1.25 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bloom Syndrome Bloom syndrome, also called Bloom-Torre-Machacek syndrome or congenital telangiectatic erythema, is a rare autosomal recessive inherited disorder char ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus Syndrome Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome is also known as Bean syndrome. It is a rare syndrome of venous malformations that arise in the skin and gastrointesti ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blunt Cardiac Injury A cardiac contusion is a misnomer used to indicate injury to the heart after blunt chest trauma. Because of the term's ambiguity in describing a spect ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Body Piercing Infections Body piercings have become increasingly popular and are a socially acceptable form of body modification. Common site of piercings are the ears, mouth, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bone Age Bone age assessment can be of utmost importance in various complicated situations involving medical, surgical, forensic, and legal issues. Apart from ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bone Marrow Aspiration And Biopsy Bone marrow aspiration and biopsies are often performed both in the inpatient and outpatient settings for the diagnosis of a multitude of hematologic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bone Marrow Edema Syndrome Bone marrow edema syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion that is characterized by pain and increased interstitial fluid within bone marrow without an ob ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bone Metastasis The skeleton is the third most common site of metastatic disease after lung and liver. Eighty percent of bone metastases originate from prostate, brea ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Botfly Bot fly is a term referring to any member of the Oestridae family of flies. To reproduce, these flies rely on myiasis, the infestation of host skin fo ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Botulinum Toxin Botulinum toxin is a medication used in the management and treatment of therapeutic and cosmetic purposes. Therapeutic uses include chronic migraine, ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Boutonneuse Fever Boutonneuse fever is a disease caused by the rickettsia genus and is of the spotted fever group classification. This disease classically causes fever, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bouveret Syndrome Bouveret syndrome is caused by a large stone passing through a bilioduodenal fistula causing gastric outlet obstruction. Morbidity and mortality rates ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brain Abscess Brain abscess is a localized zone of necrosis with a surrounding membrane within the brain parenchyma, usually resulting from an infectious or traumat ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brain Metastasis Brain metastases are a common complication of cancer and the most common type of brain tumor. Anywhere from 10% to 26% of patients who die from their ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brainstem Infarction Brainstem infarcts are a collection of difficult to diagnose syndromes affecting the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla oblongata. They can cause a v ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Braxton Hicks Contractions Braxton-Hicks contractions, also known as prodromal or false labor pains, are contractions of the uterus that typically are not felt until the second ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
BRCA 1 and 2 Breast cancer genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 are tumor suppressor genes whose mutations significantly increase the likelihood of developing particular types of ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Abscess Breast abscesses are a common problem, especially in lactating women. Most breast abscesses are benign, however when a non-lactating patient presents ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Cyst Breast cysts are a common diagnosis among women and one of the most common reasons for a referral to a breast clinic. These cysts can be entirely asym ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Examination Techniques The ability to perform a thorough and accurate breast exam is an important skill for medical practitioners of many levels and across many specialties. ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Fibroadenoma A breast fibroadenoma is a painless, unilateral, benign tumor that presents as a solid lump. It commonly occurs in women between the age of 14 to 35 y ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Milk Jaundice Breast milk jaundice is a type of jaundice that occurs in neonates due to breastfeeding. It happens within the first week of life due to the abnormal ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bromocriptine Bromocriptine is a medication currently used in the management and treatment of Type II diabetes mellitus. It is an ergot alkaloid derivative in the d ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bronchiolitis Bronchiolitis is a common lung infection in young individuals. The viral infection involves the lower respiratory tract and can present with signs of ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bronchiolitis Obliterans Bronchiolitis obliterans is also known as obliterative bronchiolitis or constrictive bronchiolitis. When it occurs after lung transplantation or hemat ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Bronchoalveolar Lavage or BAL is a minimally invasive procedure that involves instillation of sterile normal saline into a subsegment of the lung, fol ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bronchodilators Bronchodilators are indicated for individuals that have lower than optimal air flow through the lungs. The mainstay of treatment is beta-2 agonists th ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bronchoscopy A bronchoscopy is an essential tool for clinicians and health care providers treating patients with lung diseases. Since its introduction to clinical ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brucellosis Brucellosis is an infectious disease caused by Brucella species. It is known by many other names, including remitting fever, undulant fever, Mediterra ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brugada Syndrome Brugada syndrome is a rare but potentially life-threatening inherited disease that predisposes patients to fatal cardiac arrhythmias. The syndrome is ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bruton Agammaglobulinemia Bruton agammaglobulinemia, also known as X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) or Bruton's agammaglobulinemia, is an inherited immunodeficiency disorder. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Budesonide Budesonide is a medication used in the management and treatment of the inflammatory diseases, mainly affecting the airways and gastrointestinal tract. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Buerger Disease Buerger disease is a nonatherosclerotic, progressive, segmental inflammatory disease affecting the small and medium-sized arteries of upper and lower ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bulimia Nervosa Bulimia nervosa is a disorder that is characterized by binge eating and inappropriate compensatory behavior to control weight with potentially dangero ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bullosis Diabeticorum Bullosis diabeticorum (BD), also known as diabetic bullae or bullous eruption of diabetes mellitus, is a specific type of skin lesion occurring in pat ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bullous Pemphigoid Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is the most common autoimmune subepidermal blistering disorder, representing 80% of subepidermal immunobullous cases. Bullous ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bumetanide Bumetanide is FDA approved for the management of various edematous conditions secondary to cardiac failure, or hepatic or renal disease, including the ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bupivacaine Bupivacaine is a potent local anesthetic with unique characteristics from the amide group of local anesthetics. Local anesthetics are used in regional ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Burkitt Lymphoma Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is an aggressive non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma. The disease is associated with Epstein Barr virus (EBV), human immunodeficiency vi ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Burn Evaluation And Management Burns are injuries of the skin involving the two layers: the thin, outer epidermis and the thicker, deeper dermis. 86% of burns are caused by thermal ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Burning Mouth Syndrome Burning mouth syndrome is a condition characterized by extremely painful burning sensation of the tongue and mucosal tissue of the mouth, lips, and/or ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Buspirone Buspirone is an anxiolytic. Originally the drug was being developed as an antipsychotic but found not to be effective for psychosis, but it had anxio ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Byssinosis Following its relatively recent birth in the 1700s from the pioneering work of Dr. Bernardino Ramazzini, occupational medicine has grown to encompass ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
C1 Esterase Inhibitor Deficiency C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency, also known as hereditary angioedema, results in the unchecked production of the vasodilator bradykinin. This increas ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cachexia Cachexia is a complicated metabolic syndrome related to underlying illness and characterized by muscle mass loss with or without fat mass loss that is ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Caffeine Toxicity Caffeine is a stimulant that has been utilized globally for centuries secondary to its ability to improve mental alertness. As many as 85% of American ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Caffeine Withdrawal Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class and is one of the most widely used drugs in the world. Unlike other p ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Calcineurin Inhibitors Calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) are composed of three drugs (cyclosporine, tacrolimus, and pimecrolimus). They are primarily used as immunosuppressive dr ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Receptor CGRP receptor antagonists and monoclonal antibodies against CGRP and its receptor are medications used in the management and treatment of migraine, wh ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Calcitriol Calcitriol is a hormonally-active, synthetic, vitamin D analog prescribed for the treatment of hypocalcemia, osteoporosis, and prevention of corticost ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Calcium Channel Blockers Calcium channel antagonists, also known as calcium channel blockers (CCBs), have been widely used for many indications. These agents are often classif ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Campylobacter Campylobacter is a bacterial species that represent one of the most common causes of diarrheal illness worldwide. This infection is associated with th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Canalicular Laceration Canalicular lacerations occur in people of all age groups, with causes ranging from fistfights to dog bites. In order to avoid the high morbidity asso ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cancer Chemotherapy Chemotherapy in cancer has merged the disease course from a terminal and catastrophic result in merely all cases to a treatable and sometimes curable ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cancer Screening Cancer screening is pivotal in reducing the mortality and morbidity from cancer. Some of the screening methods, like a pap smear, has been successful ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Candesartan Candesartan is an oral angiotensin II receptor blocker. It is available as a pro-drug, candesartan cilexetil, which undergoes hydrolysis in the gastro ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Candidiasis Candidiasis is an opportunistic infection due to Candida, which can affect the oral cavity, vagina, penis, or other parts of the body. Untreated Candi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cannabinoid Toxicity Cannabinoids are a collective group of compounds that act on cannabinoid receptors. They include plant-derived phytocannabinoids, synthetic cannabinoi ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cannaboinoid Antiemetic Therapy There are currently three cannabinoids available on the pharmaceutical market. Dronabinol and nabilone are both synthetic tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Capillary Infantile Hemangiomas Capillary hemangiomas (infantile hemangiomas, juvenile hemangiomas, hemangioblastomas or strawberry nevi of infancy), are common benign orbital neopla ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carbamazepine Toxicity Carbamazepine is a commonly prescribed agent for focal epilepsy and other nonepileptic conditions such as neuropathic pain, schizophrenia, and bipolar ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carbon Tetrachloride Toxicity Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is an important agent for multiple purposes, such as cleaning purposes, industrial agents, etc. But it can cause several a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carcinoid Tumors Carcinoid tumors are slow-growing tumors arising from neuroendocrine cells and capable of secreting a variety of peptides and neuroamines. The common ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carcinomatous Meningitis Carcinomatous meningitis is the dissemination of malignant cells from the primary tumor sites to leptomeningeal layers of the CNS. It occurs in the ad ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Disease In Pregnancy Many cardiac diseases during pregnancy are under investigation, and many others which are still not understood require further inquiry. Some of these ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Imaging As innovative technology has progressed throughout the field of medicine, so too has the ability to visualize the heart and its vasculature noninvasiv ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Rehabilitation Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and the leading cause of death in the United States. Cardiac rehabilitati ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Rhabdomyoma Cardiac rhabdomyoma is a rare tumor. It arises from the striated muscles. It is a type of hamartoma seen in the pediatric age group. Although mostly a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Trauma Cardiac trauma can be categorized as either blunt or penetrating according to the mechanism of injury. Outcomes range from spontaneously-resolving arr ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardioactive Steroid Toxicity Cardioactive steroids (CAS) are medically important compounds historically used for conditions like edema and "dropsy." They are available in several ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiopulmonary Arrest In Adults Cardiopulmonary arrest is the cessation of adequate heart function and respiration and results in death without reversal. Often this condition is foun ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiovascular Disease The cardiovascular system consists of the heart and its blood vessels. A wide array of problems can arise within the cardiovascular system, a few of w ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carnitine Deficiency Carnitine deficiency is a condition characterized by low carnitine levels in the body. Carnitine deficiency could be primary (due to defect in carniti ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Caroli Disease Caroli disease is a rare inherited disorder involving segmental dilatation of large, intrahepatic bile ducts which appear as cysts on imaging and hist ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotenemia First described in 1919 by Hess and Meyers, carotenemia is the medical terminology describing yellow-orange skin pigmentation due to high levels of ca ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotid Artery Dissection Carotid artery dissection is a condition whereby the layers of the carotid artery are spontaneously separated. This potentially compromises blood flow ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotid Bruit A carotid bruit is a vascular sound usually heard with a stethoscope over the carotid artery because of turbulent, non-laminar blood flow through a st ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotid Cavernous Fistula Carotid cavernous fistula (CCF) is an abnormal shunt from the carotid artery to the cavernous sinus. The symptomatology of CCFs is mainly a result of ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotid Contusion The neck has several important anatomical structures which include the carotid arteries bilaterally. While the injury to the carotid artery is not a c ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotidynia Carotidynia, also known as Fay syndrome or TIPIC Syndrome, is a rare vascular disorder that presents with atypical pain in the face and neck area. The ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cataract Surgery Cataracts are the world’s leading cause of remediable blindness. While some cataracts, may be congenital, secondary to trauma, or drug-induced, most c ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Catatonia Catatonia, a neuropsychiatric syndrome characterized by abnormal movements, behaviors, and withdrawal, is a condition that is most often seen in mood ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Catatonic Schizophrenia Catatonic schizophrenia is one of the classical clinical subtypes of schizophrenia. The concept of catatonic symptoms in schizophrenia has changed thr ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cauliflower Ear Cauliflower ear, also known as wrestler's ear or perichondrial hematoma, is a deformity caused by blunt trauma to the auricle. It occurs as blood accu ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cavernous Hepatic Hemangiomas Hepatic hemangiomas are benign, hypervascular, venous malformations that occur in the liver. They are the most common benign mesenchymal tumors of the ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cavernous Sinus Aneurysm Cavernous sinus aneurysms are most common in the elderly population and often present with an indolent ophthalmoplegia. The morbidity of these aneurys ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cefepime Cefepime is a cephalosporin in the beta-lactam class of antibiotics used in the management and treatment of gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cefotaxime Cefotaxime(CTX) is a medication used in the management and treatment of cervicitis/urethritis and pneumonia. Cefotaxime (CTX) is a beta-lactam antibio ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cellulitis Cellulitis is a common bacterial skin infection, with over 14 million cases occurring in the United States annually. This activity educates the learne ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Centipede Envenomation Centipede bites are uncommon but can be clinically significant in regards to patient discomfort, morbidity, and mortality. Prompt diagnosis and treat ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central Line Management Central venous access is required for many hospitalized patient. Placement of central line catheters is done for many reasons, including inadequate pe ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central Nervous System Lymphoma Lymphoma of the central nervous system, both primary and secondary, represents a rare subset of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. According to the World Health Or ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central Retinal Artery Occlusion Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is the sudden blockage of the central retinal artery, resulting in retinal hypoperfusion, rapidly progressive ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central Vertigo Central vertigo is a clinical condition in which an individual experiences the sensation of motion despite remaining still. It results from a dysfunct ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cephalexin Cephalexin is an FDA approved antibiotic. Cephalexin is a first-generation cephalosporin utilized in the treatment of urinary tract infections, respir ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cephalohematoma A cephalohematoma is an accumulation of blood under the scalp. During the birth process, small blood vessels on the head of the fetus are broken as a ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebellar Dysfunction The cerebellum maintains our coordination and balance. Cerebellar dysfunction causes difficulty with coordination, imbalance, and gait disorders. Poss ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebral Aneurysm Cerebral aneurysms are defined as dilations that occur at weak points along the arterial circulation within the brain. The majority of cerebral aneury ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebral Palsy Cerebral palsy is a group of permanent disorders affecting the development of movement and causing a limitation of activity. Non-progressive disturban ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Degenerative Disc Disease Degenerative disc disease of the cervical spine typically develops in the aging population equally in terms of sexes. Patients are most commonly prese ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Disc Injuries The spinal cord is a nervous tissue bundle from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region, and the vertebral column protects it. The ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Dysplasia The Pap smear is responsible for decreasing the incidence of and mortality rates from cervical cancer. The Papanicolaou (Pap) smear is a collection of ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Intraepithelial Squamous Cell Lesion This article reviews the anatomy, natural history, epidemiology, etiology, clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, evaluation, treatment, compl ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Radiculopathy Neck pain is widespread and causes significant pain and disability. Workers with a history of neck pain account for up to 40% of work absenteeism. In ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Subluxation Subluxation is an essential entity of traumatic subaxial cervical spinal injuries. There is a varying degree of slippage of the body of one vertebra r ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervicitis Cervicitis is the inflammation of the ectocervix, which can be infectious or non-infectious. Due to the association of serious complications like infe ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervicogenic Headache A cervicogenic headache (CGH) presents as unilateral pain that starts in the neck. It is a common chronic and recurrent headache that usually starts a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chagas Disease Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) is a zoonotic disease caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. This is a vector-borne illness spread by the ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chancroid Chancroid is an exceedingly rare sexually transmitted infection, both in the United States and globally. Knowledge regarding its true prevalence is ma ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Charcot Marie Tooth Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is the commonest inherited neuromuscular disorder. It affects the peripheral nerves and leads to progressive weaknes ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Charcot Neuropathic Osteoarthropathy Charcot neuropathic osteoarthropathy is a destructive joint disorder initiated by trauma to a neuropathic extremity. It can lead to dislocations and f ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chediak Higashi Syndrome Chediak Higashi syndrome (CHS) is an autosomal recessive disorder that is characterized by easy bruising, oculocutaneous albinism and recurrent pyogen ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chemical Burns Healthcare professionals should be knowledgeable about chemical burns from exposure to acids (pH less than 7), alkalis (pH greater than 7), and irrita ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cherry Hemangioma Cherry hemangiomas are the most common type of acquired vascular proliferation of the skin. They present as a dome-shaped, bright, ruby-colored papule ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chest Tube A chest tube, also known as a thoracostomy tube, is a flexible tube that can be inserted through the chest wall and into the pleural space. This activ ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chigger Bites Chigger is the common name for species of the Trombiculid family of mites. Bites from the larva of these mites can cause local pruritus and irritation ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chikungunya Fever Chikungunya virus is an alphavirus that is arthropod-borne and transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. This virus causes a rash, an acute febrile illness, an ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Child Intussusception Intussusception is a condition in which part of the intestine folds into the section next to it. Intussusception usually involves the small bowel and ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Child Physical Abuse And Neglect Approximately one in four children experience child abuse or neglect in their lifetime. Of maltreated children, 18 percent are abused physically, 78 p ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Childhood Brain Tumors Pediatric brain tumors are the most common type of solid childhood cancer and only second to leukemia as a cause of pediatric malignancies. They are c ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chlamydia Pneumonia Three species of Chlamydia namely, C. pneumoniae, C. psittaci, and C. trachomatis are known to cause respiratory infections in humans. They are one of ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chloroprocaine Chloroprocaine is an ester class local anesthetic and is indicated for neuraxial anesthesia (caudal, epidural and spinal), as well as peripheral nerve ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chloroquine And Hydroxychloroquine Toxicity Chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine, a less toxic metabolite of chloroquine, can cause pathologic ocular damage unless strict prescribing and screening ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Choking Choking or foreign body airway obstruction occurs when an object partially or completely obstructs the passage of air exchange between the upper airwa ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cholangitis Acute cholangitis, also known as ascending cholangitis, is a life-threatening condition that is caused by an ascending bacterial infection of the bili ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cholecalciferol Cholecalciferol is a medication used in the management and treatment of osteoporosis and Vitamin D insufficiency/ deficiency in both healthy patients ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cholestyramine Resin Cholestyramine is used for the treatment of primary hypercholesterolemia. The reduction in LDL cholesterol by the resin is dose-dependent. A dose of 8 ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cholinergic Crisis A cholinergic crisis develops as a result of overstimulation of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors at the neuromuscular junctions. This is usually sec ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cholinesterase Inhibitors Cholinesterase inhibitors function to decrease the breakdown of acetylcholine. They SEe use in the treatment of Alzheimer and dementia symptoms. This ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chondroblastoma Chondroblastoma is a benign, chondroid-producing neoplasm composed of chondroblasts. It accounts for less than 1% of all bone tumors and usually arise ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chondrosarcoma Chondrosarcomas are malignant cartilaginous neoplasms with diverse morphological features and clinical behavior. They account for about 20 percent of ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chorionic Villus Sampling Chorionic villus sampling is a prenatal diagnostic test performed between 10 and 13 weeks gestation. This activity reviews the indications, risks, and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Aspiration Chronic aspiration is a common condition that occurs in the elderly population, pediatric patients with certain neurological conditions, and chronical ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Bronchitis Chronic bronchitis is a type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that is defined as a productive cough of more than 3 months occurring wit ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Cholecystitis Chronic cholecystitis is a prolonged, subacute condition caused by the mechanical or functional dysfunction of the emptying of the gallbladder. It pre ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Closed Angle Glaucoma Chronic closed-angle glaucoma, also called chronic angle-closure glaucoma, is a condition that can be a cause of permanent vision loss if not diagnose ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Coronary Occlusion Chronic coronary occlusion or chronic total occlusion (CTO) has a wide spectrum ranging from subtotal to total coronary involvement. The diagnosis is ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Cough Cough is a natural defense mechanism that allows clearance of bronchial tree secretions and the elimination of inhaled foreign particles. It is a comm ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy can be caused by multiples diseases, from infectious as well as immunology diseases. It is o ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Iron Deficiency Chronic iron deficiency is the most common nutrient deficiency in the world and a significant common cause of anemia worldwide. It is mainly caused by ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Mesenteric Ischemia Mesenteric ischemia is a manifestation of peripheral vascular disease in which the blood supply fails to meet the metabolic demands of visceral organs ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Chronic obstructive lung disease is a lung disease characterized by lung airflow limitation and can be from exposure to harmful substances. It is a co ... Read the Article 2 31 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Pain Over one-quarter of United States citizens suffer from chronic pain. It is among the most common complaints seen in an outpatient clinic. The failure ... Read the Article 2.5 41 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Pain Syndrome Chronic pain is a leading chief complaint in an adult ambulatory care setting. Unfortunately, chronic non-cancer pain is often poorly understood by ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Paroxysmal Hemicrania Chronic paroxysmal hemicrania is a primary headache syndrome characterized by recurrent unilateral episodes of headache associated with cranial autono ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Pelvic Pain Chronic pelvic pain can be a disabling, chronic, persistent pain, within the pelvis in women. Relatively common, chronic pelvic pain is associated wit ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Renal Failure Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined as the presence of kidney damage or an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) less than 60 ml/min per 1.7 ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Total Occlusion Of The Coronary Artery Chronic total occlusion (CTO) lesions are diagnosed in patients who are undergoing coronary angiography as part of the evaluation of ischemic heart di ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Urticaria Chronic spontaneous urticaria is defined as the occurrence of wheals and/or angioedema for a total duration of six weeks or more. Synonymous with "chr ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ciguatera Toxicity Ciguatera toxicity is a food-borne illness caused by eating fish contaminated with Ciguatoxin. This toxin is a potent neurotoxin, and it is produced b ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cilia Incarnata Cilia incarnata is the misdirection of eyelashes whereby they grow under the skin through to the surface or posteriorly to the conjunctival surface in ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ciliary Dysfunction The majority of newborns with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), formerly known as immotile cilia syndrome, develop neonatal respiratory distress with ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cimetidine Cimetidine is a drug with the indication of peptic ulcer disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and for dermatological conditions including warts, ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cinacalcet Cinacalcet is a medication used in the management and treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (on dialysis population), primary hyperparathyroidism ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cinchonism Cinchonism is a collection of symptoms described as hearing loss, tinnitus, dizziness, flushing, and blurry vision stemming from the ingestion of quin ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Circumcision Male circumcision is the surgical removal of the prepuce, or foreskin, that covers the glans of the penis. Over the past decades, cultural changes and ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cleft Lip Cleft lip deformity is one of the most common congenital deformities, and management requires an interprofessional approach to address the physical cl ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cleft Palate Cleft palate is a developmental defect in the hard palate that results in a communication between the oral and nasal cavities resulting in nasal reflu ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clomipramine The only FDA approved use for clomipramine is for the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in ages 10 and older. For the treatment of OCD, ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clonidine Toxicity Clonidine is a commonly prescribed biochemical derivative of imidazoline with a variety of clinical uses. It was originally developed as a nasal decon ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clostridium Difficile Clostridium difficile is a gram-positive bacterium that is the cause most implicated in antibiotic-associated diarrhea. The emergence of a newer hyper ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clostridium Perfringens Clostridium perfringens is an anaerobic Gram-positive spore-forming bacillus that is associated with acute gastrointestinal infection ranging in sever ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clotrimazole Clotrimazole is a medication used in the management and treatment of fungal infections. It is in the imidazole class of drugs. This activity outlines ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
CNS Lymphoma Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is an extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It is a rare entity and involves the central nervous system (CN ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coarctation of the Aorta Coarctation of the aorta is a narrowing of the aorta, most commonly occurring just beyond the left subclavian artery. However, it can occur in various ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coccidioidomycosis The dimorphic fungus coccidioides causes coccidioidomycosis, also known as San Joaquin Valley fever, which is endemic to the arid regions of the Weste ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coccyx Pain Coccyx pain is known by multiple synonyms, including coccydynia, coccygodynia, and tailbone pain. There are many causes of coccygeal pain, ranging fro ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cognitive Deficits Cognition is the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses. It encompasses various ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Colesevelam Colesevelam is an FDA approved antihyperlipidemic drug. When treating hyperlipidemia, colesevelam should be used in conjunction with restriction of ch ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Colic Infant colic is estimated to affect 20% of all infants. Despite its prevalence, a clear cause for infantile colic remains elusive. There have been man ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Collagenous And Lymphocytic Colitis Microscopic colitis is a common cause of chronic watery diarrhea that becomes more common as we age. Two types of microscopic colitis are collagenous ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Collagen-Vascular Disease Associated With Interstitial Lung Collagen vascular disease-associated interstitial lung disease (CVD-ILD) consists of several immunologically-mediated diseases with characteristic pul ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Colon Diverticulitis Diverticulitis has increased in incidence over the past few decades and represents a significant healthcare burden in western countries. In the United ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Colon Polyps Colon polyps are protrusions occurring in the colon lumen most commonly sporadic or as part of other syndromes. Polyps are classified as diminutive if ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Colonoscopy A colonoscopy is a vital tool utilized in modern medicine today. Its versatility and utility make it a vital life-saving procedure, both in the short ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Community-Acquired Pneumonia Community-acquired pneumonia is a leading cause of hospitalization, mortality, and incurs significant health care costs. As disease presentation varie ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Competency and Capacity This article reviews the concepts of capacity and competency with regard to clinical practice. More specifically, it discusses the foundational ethica ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a neuropathic pain disorder defined by the presence of distinct clinical features including allodynia, hypera ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Compressive Optic Neuropathy Compressive optic neuropathy can be caused by intrinsic or extrinsic compression anywhere along the optic nerve. In addition to damage by compression, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Conduct Disorder Conduct disorder (CD) lies on a spectrum of disruptive behavioral disorders which also includes oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). In some cases, OD ... Read the Article 0.75 2 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cone Snail Toxicity Both experienced and novice scuba divers are drawn to warm, tropical seas, but when traveling to these areas, divers must take additional precautionar ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Confluent And Reticulated Papillomatosis Confluent and reticulated papillomatosis (CRP), also known as Gougerot-Carteaud syndrome, is caused by disordered keratinization. It presents with asy ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Herpes Simplex Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in newborn infants can show up as the following: Disseminated disease involving multiple organs, most prominentl ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Hypothyroidism Congenital hypothyroidism is one of the most common preventable causes of intellectual disability. This activity reviews the evaluation and treatment ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Lobar Emphysema Congenital lobar emphysema is a rare developmental anomaly of lungs that occurs mostly due to defective bronchial cartilages. It is diagnosed with a c ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Melanocytic Nevi Congenital melanocytic nevi are benign skin lesions that usually present at birth and vary from small to large in size. Larger lesions are rarer and h ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Muscular Dystrophy Congenital muscular dystrophy is one of the variants of muscle weakness disorders presenting early in life during infancy and soon after birth. The di ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Myotonic Dystrophy Congenital myotonic dystrophy (CMD) is an autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorder with multisystem involvement. It is a subtype of myotonic dystroph ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Rubella Rubella, also known as German Measles, is a viral illness characterized by maculopapular rash, lymphadenopathy, and fever. It is a highly contagious b ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Syphilis Congenital syphilis (CS) is caused by transmission of the spirochete Treponema pallidum from mother to fetus, resulting in diverse clinical presentati ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Conization Of Cervix Conization of the cervix or cold knife cone (CKC) is a surgical procedure used to diagnose and treat cervical dysplasia or very early cervical cancer. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Conjoined Twins Conjoined twins refers to twins that are physically fused in utero and consequently at birth. This type of pregnancy is a complicated phenomenon that ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Conjugated Hyperbilirubinemia Conjugated hyperbilirubinemia is usually secondary to hepatocellular disease or cholestasis (intrahepatic and extra-hepatic ). Early workup and diagno ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Conjunctivitis Conjunctivitis refers to the inflammation or infection of the conjunctiva. It is the most common presentation of eye redness in both primary care and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Conn Syndrome Conn syndrome was named after J. W. Conn who first described it in 1955, in a patient who had hypertension with an aldosterone-producing adenoma. The ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Constrictive-Effusive Pericarditis Constrictive pericarditis involves scarring and loss of elasticity of the pericardium surrounding the heart, leading to impaired filling. Effusive-con ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Contact Dermatitis Contact dermatitis is an inflammatory eczematous skin disease. It is caused by chemicals or metal ions that exert toxic effects without inducing a T-c ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Contrast-Induced Nephropathy Iodine contrast medium is essential in invasive and interventional cardiac procedures. Because of an increasing number of coronary angiography and cor ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Conversion Disorder Conversion disorder is a psychiatric disorder characterized by signs and symptoms affecting sensory or motor function that are inconsistent with patte ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cor Pulmonale Cor pulmonale is a Latin word that means "pulmonary heart," its definition varies, and presently, there is no consensual definition. Cor pulmonale can ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coral Toxicity Corals are invertebrates that fall within the class Anthozoa of the phylum Cnidaria. They are one of the important reef builders in tropical oceans. M ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Corneal Abrasion A corneal abrasion (also called scratched eye or scratched cornea) is an eye injury that causes significant discomfort, photophobia, and erythema. Thi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Corneal Foreign Body Corneal foreign bodies account for the second most common form of ocular trauma, with corneal abrasions being number one. In general, major morbidity ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Corneal Mucous Plaque Corneal mucous plaques are most commonly associated with dry eye syndrome. They are made of a collection of mucin, corneal epithelial cell debris admi ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Corneal Ulcer A corneal ulcer is a defect in the surface epithelium of the cornea that involves the underlying stroma. It is common in contact lens wearers and pres ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Corns A corn, also known as a "heloma" or "focal intractable plantar hyperkeratosis," is a type of callosity. This latter is a common, uncomfortable, thicke ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Artery Dissection Coronary artery dissection is the separation of the coronary arterial wall and can be spontaneous, traumatic, or iatrogenic. This activity will focus ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Artery Fistula Coronary artery fistulas are aberrant connections between coronary arteries and other structures, such as other branches of arteries or heart chambers ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Artery Thrombus The pathogenesis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and unstable angina is the rupture of the coronary artery plaque resulting in acute thrombotic o ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary CT Angiography Chest pain is often the herald of cardiovascular disease and is one of the most common diagnostic challenges encountered by practicing clinicians. Car ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cortical Blindness Cortical blindness is an important cause of blindness due to damage to the occipital cortex. It is commonly associated with posterior circulation stro ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Corticosteroids Corticosteroids are drugs used in the management and treatment of almost all areas in medicine. This activity outlines the indications, action, and co ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Corynebacterium Diphtheriae Pharyngitis is defined as the inflammation of pharyngeal tissue. Based on etiology, it can be divided into infectious and non-infectious sources. Vira ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Costochondritis Costochondritis is a benign cause of chest wall pain that results from inflammation of the costal cartilage, the cartilage that connect the ribs to th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cowden Disease Cowden disease, also known as Cowden syndrome or multiple hamartoma syndrome, is an uncommon autosomal dominant genodermatosis and is a member of the ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coxiella Burnetii Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q fever, which is a zoonotic disease. Q fever can present as a febrile illness, pneumonia, or hepatitis. I ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cradle Cap Cradle cap, or pityriasis capitis, is a subset of infantile seborrheic dermatitis (ISD). It is a very common, mostly self-limiting, chronic non-inflam ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cranial Nerve III Palsy The third cranial nerve is also known as oculomotor nerve and has two major components, the outer parasympathetic fibers that supply the ciliary muscl ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cricothyrotomy Today, the emergency cricothyroidotomy is the surgical rescue technique of choice for the failed airway in adults. It is considered a more straightfor ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Crigler Technique For Congenital Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction Congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction leading to epiphora is a common condition that may be seen in up to 20% of infants. The management ranges fro ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Crocodile Tears Syndrome The term “crocodile tears” is derived from the ancient belief that crocodiles weep after killing their victims. “crocodile tears syndrome,” also known ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Crohn Disease Stricturoplasty Stricturoplasty is a surgical procedure performed to alleviate bowel narrowing due to scar tissue that has built up in the intestinal wall from an inf ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Crotalidae Envenomation Crotalid envenomations cause a spectrum of disease, with both localized and systemic toxicity, which can result in both prolonged morbidity and rarely ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Croup Croup is a common respiratory illness of the trachea, larynx, and bronchi that can lead to inspiratory stridor and barking cough. It is a self-limited ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cryotherapy Cryosurgery was first described in the 1800s and has since evolved into a mainstay of therapy within dermatology. Cryosurgery is an effective alternat ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cryptococcal Meningitis Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic infection that causes more than 100,000 HIV-related deaths each year. Although the infection is usually HIV-related ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cryptogenic Cirrhosis Cryptogenic cirrhosis is cirrhosis of uncertain etiology that lacks definitive clinical and histological criteria for a specific disease. Although the ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cryptosporidiosis Cryptosporidium is the second major cause of moderate to severe diarrhea in children younger than two and an important cause of mortality worldwide. I ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cultural Competence in the Care of LGBTQ Patients The lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender or queer/questioning (LGBTQ) community consists of a cross cultural broad range of community members and inclu ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cultural Competence in the Care of Muslim Patients and Their Families Delivering high-quality care to patients of the Muslim faith requires knowledge of the differences in cultural and spiritual values. Important differe ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cutanea Tarda Porphyria Porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) is a part of a spectrum of diseases that arise as a result of abnormal enzymes in the biosynthesis of heme. It is caused ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cutaneous Endometriosis Cutaneous endometriosis can be divided into primary and secondary lesions. They comprise less than 1% of the total cases of endometriosis. However, wi ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cutaneous Horn A cutaneous horn is usually evident upon physical examination and can be described as a white or yellow exophytic protrusion in the shape of an animal ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cutaneous Melanoacanthoma Cutaneous melanoacanthoma is a rare benign epithelial lesion that typically presents as a solitary black plaque or nodule, usually on either the head ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cutis Laxa Cutis laxa (CL) is a group of rare diseases of connective tissue characterized by redundant skin with loss of elasticity and premature aging. Heritabl ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cyanide Toxicity Cyanide is a rapidly acting substance that is traditionally known as a poison. Hydrogen cyanide was first isolated from Prussian blue dye in 1786 and ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cyclophosphamide Cyclophosphamide is a medication primarily used in the management and treatment of neoplasms, including multiple myeloma, sarcoma, and breast cancer. ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cystitis Cystitis refers to infection of the lower urinary tract, or more specifically the urinary bladder. It may be broadly categorized as either uncomplicat ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dacryostenosis Dacryostenosis is an acquired or congenital condition that can cause epiphora but can progress to dacryocystitis in children and in adults. This activ ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dakin Solution Dakin solution, also called Dakin fluid or Carrel-Dakin fluid, is a dilute sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) solution that is commonly known as bleach. The ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dawn Phenomenon The "dawn phenomenon" refers to periodic episodes of hyperglycemia experienced by patients with diabetes in the early morning hours before, and to som ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
De Quervain Thyroiditis In general, thyroiditis is defined as an inflammation of the thyroid gland. There are several kinds of thyroiditis, and they can be associated with ei ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Death and Dying Death is a part of natural life; however, society is notorious for being uncomfortable with death and dying as a topic on the whole. Many caregivers e ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Decerebrate And Decorticate Posturing Decorticate and decerebrate posturing are abnormal posturing responses typically to noxious stimuli. They involve stereotypical movements of the trunk ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Decompression Sickness Decompression sickness (DCS) occurs when dissolved gasses (usually nitrogen or helium, used in mixed gas diving) exit solution and form bubbles inside ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Decubitus Ulcer Decubitus ulcers are skin or soft tissue injuries that form due to prolonged pressure exerted over specific areas of the body. They should receive pro ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Deep Neck Infections Deep neck infections are a serious but treatable group of infections affecting the deep cervical space and characterized by rapid progression and life ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Deep Venous Thrombosis Of The Lower Extremity A deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) is a blood clot that forms within the deep veins usually of the leg but can occur in the veins of the arms and the mesent ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Deep Venous Thrombosis Ultrasound Evaluation Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is a common condition for which clinical diagnosis is typically unreliable due to the infrequency of the classic findings ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Defense Mechanisms Anna Freud defined defense mechanisms as "unconscious resources used by the ego" to ultimately decrease internal stress. Patients often devise these u ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Deferoxamine Deferoxamine is a medication used in Iron and aluminum toxicity. It is in the chelator class of drugs. This activity reviews the indications, mechanis ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Delayed Hypersensitivity Reactions Coombs and Gel classified type IV hypersensitivity reaction (HR) as a delayed hypersensitivity reaction (DHR), which takes more than 12 hours to devel ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Delirium Delirium, also known as the acute confusional state, is a clinical syndrome that usually develops in the elderly. It is characterized by an alteration ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Delirium Tremens Alcohol abuse is a common condition that has been associated with severe impairments in social functioning and medical problems. As high as 20% of the ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Delusional Disorder A delusion is a fixed false belief based on an inaccurate interpretation of an external reality despite evidence to the contrary. The diagnosis of a d ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Delusions Delusions can precipitate in isolation or as psychiatric sequelae of ongoing disease. Delusions must be appropriately identified and managed as they c ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dengue Fever Dengue is a mosquito-transmitted virus and the leading cause of arthropod-borne viral disease in the world. It is also known as breakbone fever due to ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dental Abscess Dental infections, while relatively straightforward regarding diagnosis and access, can be challenging to manage acutely. Dental abscesses or periapic ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Depressive Cognitive Disorders Depressive cognitive disorders, also called pseudodementia (a term founded by Kiloh in the year 1961), is defined as the cognitive and functional impa ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dermatitis Artefacta Dermatitis artefacta or factitious dermatitis is a psychocutaneous disorder in which the patients consciously create lesions in skin, hair, nail, or m ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dermatitis Herpetiformis Dermatitis herpetiformis is a chronic, autoimmune, blistering disease that causes an extremely pruritic rash that predominantly affects the extensor s ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dermatoses of Pregnancy Skin changes during pregnancy may be physiological. However, some dermatoses are specific to pregnancy, while others are altered by pregnancy. These c ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dermatosis Papulosa Nigra Dermatosis papulosa nigra (DPN) is a benign epidermal growth that presents as hyperpigmented or skin-colored papules that develop on the face and neck ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dermoid Cyst A dermoid cyst is a benign cutaneous developmental anomaly that arises from the entrapment of ectodermal elements along the lines of embryonic closure ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Development Milestones Developmental milestones are markers of a child’s development from infancy on into childhood. They are used to help determine if a child is undergoing ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Developmental Delay Delay in development occurs when the child fails to attain developmental milestones as compared to peers from the same population. It is caused by imp ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Developmental Dysplasia Of The Hip DDH (developmental dysplasia of the hip ) is a disorder that is due to abnormal development of acetabulum with or without hip dislocation. Early diagn ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
DeWinter Pattern Acute coronary syndromes are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis has a central role, as to allow a timely reperfusion strategy. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dexamethasone Dexamethasone has a wide variety of uses in the medical field. As a treatment, dexamethasone has been useful in the treatment of acute exacerbation of ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dextran Dextran is a medication used in the management and treatment of various clinical conditions, including during hemorrhage, shock, surgical procedures, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dextroamphetamine-Amphetamine Dextroamphetamine/amphetamine belongs to a class of drugs known as central nervous system stimulants. The Drug Enforcement Administration/Food and Dru ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dextromethorphan Dextromethorphan received FDA approval in 1958 for its use as a cough suppressant. It is one of the most common compounds found in the majority of the ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetes Mellitus And Exercise Diabetes mellitus leads to macrovascular and microvascular complications, resulting in life-threatening conditions. Exercise is considered an importan ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease that leads to the destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. Insulin is an essen ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetic Amyotrophy Diabetic amyotrophy, better known as diabetic lumbosacral radiculoplexus neuropathy (DLRPN), is a rare disorder englobed in the diabetic neuropathy sp ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetic Embryopathy Maternal diabetes has several adverse effects on embryogenesis and fetal development and causes multiple congenital anomalies, and secondary medical c ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetic Foot Infections There are approximately 29 million people with diabetes in the United States, and approximately 25% of people older than age of 65 have diabetes. The ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetic Nephropathy Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the main cause of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in developed countries, including the United States. It is consider ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetic Retinopathy Diabetic Retinopathy is the leading cause of visual loss in adults of working age group in the western population. It is the most common microvascular ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diaper Dermatitis Diaper dermatitis is an inflammatory reaction of the skin of the perineal and perianal areas (diaper area). It is the most common skin disorder seen i ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diclofenac Diclofenac is a medication used in the management and treatment of inflammatory conditions and pain. It is in the class of non-steroidal anti-inflamma ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diet and Nutrition To Prevent Dental Problems Dental caries is a dynamic process that involves susceptible tooth surfaces, cariogenic bacteria like Streptococcus mutans or Lactobacillus and a ferm ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dieulafoys Lesion Causing Gastrointestinal Bleeding Dieulafoy lesion is a developmental vascular malformation of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). It is an enlarged submucosal blood vessel that bleeds i ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diffuse Esophageal Spasm Diffuse esophageal spasm is an esophageal motility disorder that often manifests as dysphagia. If the diagnosis is delayed, diffuse esophageal spasm i ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
DiGeorge Syndrome DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is a congenital disorder with a broad phenotypic presentation, which results predominantly from the microdeletion of chromosom ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Digit Amputation Digital amputation is often associated with traumatic injuries but is also seen within the elective surgery setting, such as in the case of cancer res ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Digital Mucous Cyst Digital mucous cysts are a type of ganglion commonly found on the hand. They commonly have an association with underlying DIP joint osteoarthritis. Th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Digitalis Toxicity Digoxin is a well-known cardiac glycoside and one of the oldest drugs used today in cardiovascular medicine. It has wide-ranging beneficial effects an ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dilated Cardiomyopathy Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a disease of the heart muscle characterized by enlargement and dilation of one or both of the ventricles along with im ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diltiazem Diltiazem is an oral and parenteral non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. It is used in many clinical scenarios as an antihypertensive, anti-ar ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diphenhydramine Diphenhydramine, which is available as an over-the-counter medication, is a first-generation antihistamine that is used in a variety of conditions to ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diphenoxylate and Atropine Diphenoxylate/atropine combination is a medication used in the management and treatment of diarrhea. It is in the antimotility class of drugs. This ac ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diphtheria Diphtheria is a toxin-mediated infection caused by Corynebacterium species, primarily Corynebacterium diphtheria. It causes skin and mucosal infection ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diplopia Diplopia refers to seeing two images and is due either to ocular misalignment in which case it disappears when either eye is occluded or to an optical ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Discoid Lupus Erythematosus Lupus erythematosus is a multisystem disorder that predominately affects the skin. There are several types of cutaneous lupus. The most common types a ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Disk Battery Ingestion Disk batteries (or button batteries) are found in many consumer electronics. The last few decades have seen an increase in demand for compact electron ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diskitis Discitis is a serious but uncommon medical diagnosis. It is an infection of the intervertebral disc space. The role of the intervertebral discs is to ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Disopyramide Disopyramide is a medication used for the treatment of heart rhythm abnormalities, which can be life-threatening, such as ventricular tachycardia/fibr ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Disseminated intravascular coagulation can be defined is a widespread hypercoagulable state that can lead to both microvascular and macrovascular clot ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Distal Humerus Fractures Distal humerus fractures in the adult population represent about 2% of all fractures and 33% of all humerus fractures. They typically present in a bim ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Disulfiram Disulfiram is one of three drugs approved by the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of alcohol dependence. It is a second-line option ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dix Hallpike Maneuver Vertigo can be challenging to evaluate and treat. It can arise from a slew of vastly different pathophysiologies, with acuity ranging from minimally c ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dobutamine The FDA approveD dobutamine for short-term use in patients with decreased contractility due to heart failure or cardiac surgical procedures leading to ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dornase Alfa Dornase alfa is a medication used in the management and treatment of cystic fibrosis. It is in the category B class of drugs. This activity outlines t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Double Aortic Arch Double aortic arch is the commonest form of a group of defects that affect the development of the aorta. This defect causes an abnormal circular forma ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Down Syndrome Down syndrome (trisomy 21) is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or a portion of a third chromosome 21. Patients typically present with ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dressler Syndrome Dressler syndrome, also known as postmyocardial infarction syndrome, is a form of secondary pericarditis with or without pericardial effusion that occ ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dronabinol Dronabinol is synthetic tetrahydrocannabinol ('THC'), which obtained FDA approval in 1985 for the treatment of HIV/AIDs-induced anorexia and chemother ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Drug and Alcohol Use The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition includes 10 separate classes of drugs of abuse, which include alcohol, caffei ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Drug Induced Esophagitis Drugs can be damaging to the esophageal wall by having a direct toxic effect on the esophageal mucosa. They may produce a caustic effect by creating a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Drug Induced Pemphigus Pemphigus is a broad term used to describe a rare group of bullous autoimmune diseases that affect the skin and mucosal membranes. The hallmark presen ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Drug Induced Pigmentation Drug-induced pigmentation represents a complex issue for patients who are prescribed certain medications. These medications may include NSAIDs, tetrac ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Drug Metabolism Most drugs undergo chemical alteration by various bodily systems as a way to create compounds that are more easily excreted from the body. These chemi ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Drug Testing Broadly defined, drug testing is the process of using a biological sample to detect the presence or absence of a drug or its metabolites. This process ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dry Eye Syndrome Dry eyes affect a significant number of people but treatment remains unsatisfactory. The cause of this condition may be anatomical or systemic. It is ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) has sustained a niche for measuring bone mineral density since its approval by the Food and Drug Administratio ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dubin Johnson Syndrome In 1954, Dubin and Johnson described a new clinicopathological entity consisting of chronic idiopathic jaundice with unidentified pigment in the liver ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Unfortunately, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is not only one of the most severe forms of inherited muscular dystrophies but also the most common h ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Duloxetine Duloxetine is a medication used in the management of major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), fibromyalgia, diabetic perip ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dumping Syndrome Dumping syndrome can occur after a variety of gastric procedures and occurs due to the rapid movement of hyperosmolar chyme from the stomach into the ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Duodenal Biopsy A duodenal biopsy is performed during endoscopy in either a directed or random manner. The biopsy results further characterize visualized areas on en ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Duodenal Ulcer Duodenal ulcers occur when there is a disruption to the surface of the mucosa of the duodenum. These ulcers are part of peptic ulcer disease, which in ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Duplex Ultrasound Duplex ultrasound is an integral tool for medical diagnosis and therapy. Duplex ultrasonography combines the principles of anatomic and flow ultrasono ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Duret Hemorrhages Duret hemorrhages are attributed to descending transtentorial herniation from any cause. It can be challenging to distinguish Duret hemorrhages from p ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dust Mite Allergy Dust mite allergy is an IgE mediated Type 1 hypersensitivity reaction to dust mite allergens, commonly found in household dust. The prevalence of atop ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dwarfism Dwarfism is the medical terminology for short-stature. It is defined as height-vertex below two standard deviations (-2SD) or in the third percentile ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dysbaric Osteonecrosis Dysbaric osteonecrosis is a type of avascular necrosis of the bone that is most commonly found in undersea divers and workers that breathe compressed ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dysdiadochokinesia Dysdiadochokinesia (diadochokinesia) or diadochokinesis is the inability to defined as the inability to perform rapid alternating muscle movements. Th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dyslipidemia Dyslipidemia is the imbalance of lipids such as cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, (LDL-C), triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dysmenorrhea Dysmenorrhea can be classified as primary and secondary dysmenorrhea. Primary dysmenorrhea is a lower abdominal pain happening during the menstrual cy ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dyspareunia Dyspareunia is defined by genital pain that can be experienced before, during, or after intercourse. It is debatable whether this condition can be cla ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dysphagia Dysphagia is defined as objective impairment or difficulty in swallowing, resulting in an abnormal delay in the transit of a liquid or solid bolus. Th ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dysplastic Nevi A dysplastic nevus is also referred to as an atypical or Clarks nevus and has been the topic of much debate in the fields of dermatology and dermatopa ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dyspnea in Palliative Care Dyspnea is a troubling symptom for many terminally-ill patients and their caregivers. It is common in many advanced diseases and is frequently experie ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Eagle Syndrome Eagle syndrome, also known as stylohyoid syndrome, styloid syndrome, or styloid–carotid artery syndrome, is a rare condition caused by an elongated or ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ear Foreign Body Removal The management of foreign bodies located in the external auditory canal can be nuanced, and for some medical professionals may be intimidating if not ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ear Irrigation The American Academy of Otolaryngology defines cerumen impaction as "an accumulation of cerumen that is associated with symptoms, prevents the necessa ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ear Microtia Microtia is a congenital ear deformity in which the external ear is malformed and underdeveloped. In more severe cases, it is usually associated with ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ebola Virus The Ebola virus is a contagious, lethal virus causing hemorrhagic fever. A recent epidemic in Western Africa lasted three years and affected several c ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ebstein Anomaly And Malformation Ebstein anomaly of the tricuspid valve is a congenital malformation, in which there is downward displacement of insertion of septal and posterior leaf ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
EBV Positive Mucocutaneous Ulcer Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) positive B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) are a spectrum of diseases that range from self-limiting, localized cond ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ectopic Pregnancy An ectopic pregnancy occurs when fetal tissue implants outside of the uterus or attaches to an abnormal or scarred portion of the uterus. Ectopic preg ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ectopic Pregnancy, Ultrasound Ectopic pregnancy is a diagnosis that is quite challenging to make. It has been estimated that 40% of ectopic pregnancies go undiagnosed on initial pr ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ectropion Ectropion is an outward turning of the eyelid margin. This typically occurs on the lower eyelids. When the globe is not protected properly, the eye ca ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Eczema Herpeticum Eczema herpeticum (EH) is a disseminated cutaneous infection with herpes simplex virus that develops in a patient with atopic dermatitis. EH typically ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Egophony In the era of technological advances, a thorough examination of the respiratory system retains its importance in diagnosing disorders of the respirato ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ehrlichiosis The genus Ehrlichia consists of several species of obligate intracellular gram-negative bacteria that infect humans and a variety of other mammals via ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Eisenmenger Syndrome Eisenmenger syndrome (ES) is a constellation of symptoms that arise from a congenital heart defect and result in large anatomic shunts. Due to anatomi ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Elbow Arthrocentesis Elbow arthrocentesis is a procedure performed to aspirate the contents of a joint cavity to evaluate and treat elbow effusion. This activity reviews t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Elbow Fractures Overview The most common type of fracture in the pediatric population is elbow fractures. Most commonly, individuals fall on their outstretched hand. Prompt a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Elder Abuse Elder abuse comes in many forms, including physical, psychological, and sexual abuse, as well as less obvious forms such as financial exploitation and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Electrical Burns Electrical injuries are when high-energy current travels through the body due to contact with an electrical source. Injuries occur due to either the f ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Electrodiagnostic Evaluation Of Myopathy Electrodiagnostic testing is an essential component in the evaluation of patients with a suspected myopathy. There are different types of myopathies, ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Electroencephalogram An electroencephalogram (EEG) is an essential tool that studies the brain's electrical activity. Despite the development of more advanced imaging tech ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Elevated Hemidiaphragm Elevated hemidiaphragm occurs most commonly from direct or indirect injury to the phrenic nerve. It is often found as an incidental finding on diagnos ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Embolic Stroke Embolic stroke is one of the most common causes of mortality and morbidity all over the world. To avoid the high morbidity and mortality associated wi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Emergency Room Thoracotomy An emergency room thoracotomy is performed in selected cases of direct thoracic injury concurrently with ACLS/ATLS resuscitation. Survival rates are l ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Empagliflozin Empagliflozin is a medication used in the management and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is in the sodium-glucose co-transporter (SGLT-2) cl ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Emphysema Pulmonary emphysema, a progressive lung disease, is a form of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
EMS Facilitated Intubation Without Paralytics Facilitated intubation, also known as medication-facilitated intubation or sedation-facilitated intubation, refers to intubation performed using a sed ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
EMS Methods To Cool A Patient In The Field Hyperthermia is defined as a body temperature greater than 40 degrees C. Several conditions can cause hyperthermia. In sepsis, the immunologic reactio ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Enalapril Enalapril is a medication used in the management of hypertension and congestive heart failure. It is an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. This ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
End of Life Care Unlike other conditions and life experiences, which only affect a certain percentage of the world’s population, the end-of-life is a stage in the proc ... Read the Article 2 33 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Endometrial Biopsy Endometrial biopsy is a simple and effective office-based procedure that samples the endometrium to allow for direct histological evaluation. This act ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a combined endoscopic and fluoroscopic procedure in which an endoscope is advanced into the s ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Endotracheal Tube Intubation Techniques Endotracheal intubation is an essential resuscitative procedure in the emergency setting. Direct and video laryngoscopy are the two most common approa ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Endovascular Papillary Angioendothelioma Endovascular papillary angioendothelioma (EPA), also known as Dabska tumor (DT) and papillary intralymphatic angioendothelioma (PILA), represents a bo ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Enoxaparin Enoxaparin is low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and was first approved for medical use in 1993 and is derived from heparin. It has approval for the ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Enterobacter Infections Enterobacter species are responsible for causing many nosocomial infections, and less commonly community-acquired infections, including urinary tract ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Enterocutaneous Fistula Enterocutaneous fistula mortality rates vary from 6 to 33 percent. Associated morbidity and complications can also be significant. Enterocutaneous fis ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia Coli Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is a bacterial infection resulting in bloody dysentery and an increased risk of hemolytic uremic syndrome (H ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Enterovirus Enteroviruses are a class of viruses comprising over 300 serotypes. These ubiquitous viruses cause a wide spectrum of diseases with heterogeneous pres ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Enthesopathies Enthesopathies encompass a broad range of pathologies that include ligamentous and tendinous injuries. They are relatively common and can be the initi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Eosinophilia Eosinophils are a kind of blood granulocytes that express cytoplasmic granules that contain basic proteins and bind with acidic dyes like “eosin.” The ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Eosinophilic Esophagitis The esophagus physiologically lacks eosinophils, and when present, the condition is considered to be pathologic. Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) was on ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis Eosinophilic gastroenteritis belongs to the group of eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders, which comprise of eosinophilic esophagitis and eosinophi ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Eosinophilic Granuloma Eosinophilic granuloma (EG) is a rare and mildest form of Langerhans cell histiocytosis. The presentation of EG can be monostotic, polyostotic, or can ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Eosinophilic Pneumonia Eosinophilic pneumonia includes a group of disorders characterized by an accumulation of eosinophilic infiltrates in the pulmonary parenchyma with or ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ependymoma Ependymomas are glial cell tumors that commonly arise in the lining cells of the ventricular system, and less commonly outside the central nervous sys ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidermal Nevus Syndromes Epidermal nevus syndrome is an umbrella term used to describe epidermal nevi in association with syndromic features. The first well-described syndrome ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidermoid Cancer Epidermoid tumors are congenital lesions that arise from ectodermal cells misplaced during the closure of the neural tube in the process of embryogene ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidural Blood Patch An epidural blood patch (EBP) is a procedure in which a small volume of autologous blood is injected into a patient's epidural space to stop a leak of ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidural Catheter Epidural catheters are widely used in the surgical, obstetric, and chronic pain settings as they serve as an excellent adjunct or alternative to gener ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidural Steroid Injections Epidural steroid injections have been utilized for pain relief since 1952. When indicated, they are an invaluable non-surgical treatment for low-back ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epiglottitis Epiglottitis is an inflammatory condition of the epiglottis and/or nearby structures including the arytenoids, aryepiglottic folds, and vallecula. Epi ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epiphrenic Diverticula Epiphrenic diverticulum, also known as a pulsion diverticulum, is a rare type of esophageal diverticulum occurring in the distal 10 centimeters of the ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epistaxis Epistaxis (nosebleed) is one of the most common ear, nose, and throat (ENT) emergencies that present to the emergency room or primary care. There are ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epley Maneuver Patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo often present with recurrent symptoms of dizziness, lightheadedness, nausea, or vomiting. The follo ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epstein Barr Virus Epstein Barr virus (EBV) is a herpesvirus in which over 90% of the population worldwide has been infected. EBV infection can range from asymptomatic t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Erectile Dysfunction Erectile dysfunction is a widespread condition in males over 40 years of age all over the world. It has a variety of causes and is often treatable. Le ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Erythema Infectiosum Erythema infectiosum, also known as fifth disease, is a common viral exanthem caused by parvovirus B19. It is commonly seen in children between five a ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Erythema Marginatum Erythema marginatum is reactive inflammatory erythema seen most commonly in association with acute rheumatic fever. Although a rare cutaneous manifest ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Erythema Nodosum Erythema nodosum (EN) is a common acute nodular septal panniculitis, characterized by the sudden onset of erythematous, firm, solid, deep nodules or p ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Erythromelalgia Erythromelalgia is a rarely occurring disease entity characterized by a triad of erythema, warmth, and recurrent burning pain, most notably affecting ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Erythropoietic Protoporphyria Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) is an inherited porphyria resulting in the accumulation of protoporphyrins in red blood cells that causes acute, p ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Escherichia Coli Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a gram-negative bacillus that is a causative organism of many diarrheal illnesses, including traveler’s diarrhea and dys ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Escherichia Coli (E Coli 0157 H7) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157: H7, is an enterohemorrhagic bacterial strain that is an important food and a waterborne pathogen that cau ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophageal Atresia The trachea and esophagus arise from a separation of a common foregut tube during early fetal development. Failure of separation or complete developme ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophageal Diverticula An esophageal diverticulum is a relatively rare disease in which there is an outpouching of the esophageal mucosa. Patients typically present if they ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophageal Hematoma Intramural hematoma of the esophagus (IHE) or dissecting intramural hematoma of the esophagus is an uncommon condition which presents with acute esoph ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophageal Perforation And Tears Esophageal perforation poses a significant interprofessional challenge to the entire therapeutic team. It can occur in three different anatomical comp ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophageal Ulcer An esophageal ulcer is a distinct break in the margin of the esophageal mucosa. This mucosal damage to the esophagus is often caused by gastroesophage ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophageal Webs And Rings Esophageal webs and rings are usually asymptomatic but can occasionally present with intermittent dysphagia to solids. Some patients may develop food ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophagogastroduodenoscopy Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) is a diagnostic endoscopic procedure used to visualize the oropharynx, esophagus, stomach, and proximal duodenum. It ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Essential Tremor Tremors are the most common movement disorder, and essential tremor is the most common neurologic cause of postural or action tremor. It usually prese ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Etanercept Etanercept is a medication used in the management and treatment of autoimmune conditions such as plaque psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic art ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ethacrynic Acid Ethacrynic acid is a medication used in the management and treatment of chronic heart failure. It is in the loop diuretic class of drugs. This activit ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ethambutol Ethambutol is a medication used in the management and treatment of tuberculosis. It is a bacteriostatic drug that inhibits cell wall synthesis. This a ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ethylene Glycol Toxicity Ethylene glycol (C2H6O2) is a toxic alcohol that is found in various household and industrial agents. Ethylene glycol exposure can be extremely danger ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Etoposide Etoposide is a medication used in the management and treatment of various cancers such as testicular, prostate, bladder, stomach, and lung cancer. It ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Eustachian Tube Dysfunction Eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD) is the failure of the Eustachian tube in maintaining pressure equalization or mucociliary transport. This is categor ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Euthyroid Sick Syndrome Euthyroid sick syndrome is also known as nonthyroidal illness syndrome and refers to changes in thyroid function tests that were administered in the i ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Evaluation And Management of Perioperative Hypertension This activity reviews the role of the interprofessional team involved in the perioperative care of patients with hypertension (HTN). These providers i ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ewing Sarcoma Ewing sarcoma is the second most common primary malignant bone tumor, mostly affecting adolescents in the second decade of their life, and it is a hig ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Exchange Transfusion Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is a procedure employed to "cleanse" the blood of various pathologic entities including antibodies, immune complexes ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Excisional Biopsy In dermatology, skin biopsies are essential to assist in making a correct diagnosis and for therapeutic planning. Several types of skin biopsy techniq ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Exercise Induced Asthma Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) describes a transient and reversible contraction of bronchial smooth muscle after physical exertion that ma ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Exophthalmos Exophthalmos is the protrusion of one or both eyes anteriorly out of the orbit due to an increase in orbital contents within the rigid bony orbit. It ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Exploding Head Syndrome Exploding head syndrome is a benign, underdiagnosed sensory parasomnia. It is the sensation of hearing a loud sound during sleep-wake/wake-sleep trans ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
External Cephalic Version About 25 percent of fetuses will be in breech presentation at 28 weeks, though this decreases to roughly 3 to 4 percent at term. Most infants who are ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Extranodal NK-Cell Lymphoma Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, is a rare subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Patients commonly present with a nasal mass, nasal obstruction, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Extrapyramidal Symptoms Extrapyramidal side effects (EPS), commonly referred to as drug-induced movement disorders are among the most common adverse drug effects patients exp ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Eyelid Coloboma Eyelid coloboma is a rare condition that affects congenitally. It’s a very annoying and disturbing condition for the parents also. While treating the ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Eyelid Myokymia Eyelid myokymia is described as continuous and fine contractions that affect lower eyelid mainly. The causes of this condition are not well known, but ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ezetimibe Ezetimibe is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypercholesterolemia. It is among a novel class of selective cholesterol-absorption ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Facet Arthritis Facet joints are formed by the articulations of the superior and inferior articular processes of adjacent vertebrae. Except for the atlantooccipital a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Facial Burns Burn injuries are a significant health issue and are a leading cause of accidental death or injury in the U.S. Burns to the face can affect many speci ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Factor V Leiden Deficiency Factor V Leiden (FVL) is a point mutation of factor V resulting in an elimination of cleavage site in factor V and factor Va. This genetic defect lead ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Falls and Fall Prevention Falls account for one of the most common and serious issues contributing to a disability, especially among elderly individuals. Tinetti et al. in 1988 ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Familial Mediterranean Fever Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autoinflammatory genetic disorder that mainly affects people of Mediterranean origin. FMF is characterized by ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Familial Short Stature Familial short stature (FSS) is the condition characterized by the final adult height below the third percentile of the mean for the patient's age, ge ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fanconi Anemia Fanconi anemia is a rare genetic disorder, involving all three blood cell lines. It is the most common cause of inherited bone marrow failure characte ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Farmers Lung Farmer's lung is a type of hypersensitivity pneumonitis that is caused by precipitants such as moldy hay or straw. This condition’s specificity towar ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fat Embolism Fat embolism (FE) and fat embolism syndrome (FES) are a clinical phenomenon that are characterized by systemic dissemination of fat emboli within the ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fatty Liver Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) or "Fatty Liver" corresponds to the presence of macrovesicular changes without inflammation (steatosis) and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Favus Favus is a chronic inflammatory dermatophytosis, characterized by the scutula formation. It used to be highly prevalent worldwide. Nowadays, the infec ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Features, Evaluation, and Treatment of Coronavirus According to the World Health Organization (WHO), viral diseases continue to emerge and represent a serious issue to public health. In the last twenty ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fecal Impaction Fecal impaction occurs because of hardened fecal matter retained in the large bowel which cannot be evacuated by regular peristaltic activity. If this ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Feeding Jejunostomy Tube The feeding jejunostomy tube is a method of delivering feeds through jejunal access in the small bowel. It is used when there is a contraindication to ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Feeding Tube Feeding tubes are tubes inserted into the gastrointestinal tract to provide a patient with enteral nutrition or for decompression. Tubes come in a var ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Femoral Aneurysm Femoral artery pseudoaneurysm consists of an outpouching of 1 or 2 layers of the vessel wall. A true aneurysm, on the other hand, involves all the 3 l ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fenofibrate Fenofibrate is FDA approved to treat patients with hypertriglyceridemia, primary hypercholesterolemia, or mixed dyslipidemia. It reduces low-density l ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Fetal alcohol syndrome is one of the five disorders that comprise fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). These fetal alcohol spectrum disorders clas ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fetal Growth Restriction Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is most often defined as an estimated fetal weight less than the 10th percentile for gestational age by prenatal ultras ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fever of Unknown Origin Fever of unknown origin (FUO) was first described by Dr. Petersdorf and Dr. Beesom in 1961. FUO was defined as a temperature of 101 F (38.3 C) or high ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fibrinous Pericarditis The fibrous pericardium is the outer layer and holds the heart in place and protect it from surrounding infections. It is composed of thick connective ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fibromuscular Dysplasia Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a rare systemic vascular disease, affecting younger women and accounting for 10% to 20% of the cases of renal artery ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fibrous Dysplasia Fibrous dysplasia is a typically benign bone lesion characterized by intramedullary fibro-osseous proliferation secondary to altered osteogenesis. The ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Filarial Hydrocele Filarial hydrocele is a scrotal swelling resulting from a parasitic infection with Wuchereria bancrofti, endemic to tropical regions around the world. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Filgrastim Filgrastim is a medication used for the management and treatment of neutropenia in patients with myelosuppression from chemotherapy or radiation, whic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fine Motor Disability Fine motor disability is an inability or impairment of an individual to perform tasks that require a degree of manual dexterity. Fine motor ability is ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
First Degree Burn First-degree burns are superficial burns involving the epidermal layer of skin. The skin is the largest organ of the human body, with its weight compr ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fluconazole Fluconazole is a member of the triazole family, one of the most widely used antifungal agents. It is an FDA-approved drug to treat vaginal candidiasis ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Flucytosine Flucytosine is a medication used in the management and treatment of systemic and severe candida and cryptococcus infections. It is in the antimetaboli ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fluid Resuscitation The primary role of fluid resuscitation is to maintain organ perfusion (hemodynamics) and substrate (oxygen, electrolytes, among others) delivery thro ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fluorides and Fluorocarbons Toxicity Fluorocarbons are fluorinated carbon chain polymers that are used in an assortment of household and commercial products as waterproofing agents, lubri ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fluticasone Fluticasone is a medication used in the management and treatment of asthma, allergic rhinitis, emphysema, and atopic dermatitis. It is in the corticos ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Focal Nodular Hyperplasia In 1958, pathologist, Hugh Edmondson, MD, first described focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) as a solid, benign hepatic mass of non-vascular origin. Unli ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis Focal segmental glomerular sclerosis (FSGS) is histologically characterized by segmental scarring that involves a part of the glomerulus and only affe ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Folic Acid Deficiency Folate is an essential water-soluble vitamin, naturally present in food, especially in fruits, green leafy vegetables, and liver. Folic acid is the s ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Follicular Thyroid Cancer The thyroid is an endocrine gland located just below the cricoid cartilage in the neck, and it is composed of both the right and the left lobes separa ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Food Allergies Food allergy is defined as an immune reaction to proteins in the food and can be immunoglobulin (Ig)E-mediated or non-IgE-mediated. IgE-mediated food ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Forceps Delivery The use of forceps in infant delivery has fallen out of favor among obstetricians in the past three decades. Forceps deliveries now make up about only ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Forearm Amputation Forearm amputations are a life-changing but often unavoidable procedure, most commonly needed secondary to trauma. These are a complicated process, an ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Foreign Body Aspiration Foreign body aspiration remains a significant cause of death in children for anatomic as well as developmental reasons. Choking is typically defined a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fosphenytoin Fosphenytoin is a medication used in the management and prevention of seizures. It is a water-soluble phenytoin prodrug with the capability to be used ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fresh Frozen Plasma (FFP) Fresh frozen plasma is indicated for the deficiency of coagulation factors with abnormal coagulation tests in the presence of active bleeding. Fresh f ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Frey Syndrome Frey syndrome usually occurs with auriculotemporal nerve injury secondary to surgical intervention or trauma in the parotid region. Prevention of this ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Frontotemporal Lobe Dementia Frontotemporal dementia is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of intellectual functions, such as memory problems, impaired abstract th ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Frostbite Frostbite, also known as freezing cold injury is tissue damage that occurs due to cold exposure, occurring at temperatures below zero degrees celsius. ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Frotteurism Frotteuristic disorder, or frotteurism, is a rare and poorly researched type of paraphilia. It involves the act of touching or rubbing one’s genitals ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Frozen Shoulder Adhesive capsulitis (AC), is also known as frozen shoulder an insidious painful condition of the shoulder persisting more than 3 months. This inflamma ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Functional Abdominal Pain In Children Functional abdominal pain is a common disorder in children. The diagnostic Rome IV criteria for functional abdominal pain must be fulfilled for at lea ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Functional Asplenism As the largest lymphoid organ in the body, the spleen has a crucial function in the immune system. It is responsible for the production and maturatio ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fungal Endophthalmitis Fungal endophthalmitis is a rare disease of ocular inflammation caused by fungal infections from either endogenous or exogenous sources. Because the c ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fungal Keratitis Fungal keratitis is an important eye infection, especially in outdoor workers. In most cases, eye trauma, corticosteroid use, or contact lens usage ar ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gabapentin Gabapentin is an anticonvulsive medication that originally saw use as a muscle relaxer and anti-spasmodic medication, but later it was discovered it h ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gait Disturbances Gait disturbances are described as any deviations from normal walking or gait. These disturbances stem from numerous etiologies. Due to their differen ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Galactokinase Deficiency Galactokinase deficiency or galactosemia type II is a rare inborn error of galactose metabolism. Galactosemia type II is rarer and more insidious than ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Galactose 1 Phosphate Uridyltransferase Deficiency Galactosemia is an inborn error of metabolism due to impaired degradation of galactose. If not recognized and treated promptly, affected infants may d ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gallbladder Cancer Gallbladder cancer (GC) is a rare malignancy but represents almost 50% of all biliary tract cancer. Biliary cancers are highly fatal malignancies with ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gallbladder Polyp Gallbladder polyps describe several conditions that present as projections into the gallbladder lumen. They may be asymptomatic, or they may be relate ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ganglion Cyst Ganglion cysts are synovial cysts that are filled with gelatinous mucoid material and commonly encountered in orthopedic clinical practice. Although t ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gangrene Gangrene is tissue damage secondary to infection, ischemia, or both. It is a relatively uncommon condition, and early recognition is essential. Gangre ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gardnerella Gardnerella vaginalis is an anaerobic bacterium that is the causative agent in bacterial vaginosis (BV). This bacteria normally is part of the vaginal ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastric Cancer Gastric cancer is the fifth most frequently diagnosed cancer and the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. The only potentially curative tre ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastric Outlet Obstruction Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) is a result of any disease process that causes a mechanical impediment to gastric emptying. It can be caused by mecha ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastric Perforation Perforation of the stomach is a full-thickness injury of the wall of the organ. Since peritoneum completely covers the stomach, perforation of the wal ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastric Resection Gastric resection remains the preferred surgical treatment option for many diseases of the stomach including malignancy, peptic ulcer disease, and bar ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastric Stasis Gastroparesis (gastric stasis) is derived from Greek words gastro/gaster or stomach, and paresis or partial paralysis. It is a clinical condition resu ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastric Ulcer Gastric ulcers are a break in the mucosa of the stomach lining that penetrates through the muscularis mucosa and extends more than 5 mm in diameter. W ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastric Volvulus Gastric volvulus is a rare, clinical event that occurs in both adults and pediatric patients. In 1886, Berti was the first to describe a gastric volvu ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastrinoma Gastrinomas are neuroendocrine tumors characterized by the secretion of gastrin with resultant excessive gastric acid production causing severe peptic ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastrocnemius Rupture Gastrocnemius injuries are common in both recreational and competitive athletes. This activity outlines the evaluation, treatment, and management of g ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastrocnemius Strain The gastrocnemius muscle consists of two heads. The medial head originates from the posterior medial femoral condyle while the lateral head arises fro ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition that develops when there is a retrograde flow of stomach contents back into the esophagus. It ca ... Read the Article 2 31 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastrointestinal Bleeding Gastrointestinal bleeding can fall into two broad categories: upper and lower sources of bleeding. The anatomic landmark that separates upper and low ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastrojejunostomy Gastrojejunostomy is a procedure that connects the stomach to the jejunum. It is typically performed in either an open or laparoscopic manner. This ac ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gaucher Disease Gaucher disease is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism due to the toxic accumulation of glucocerebroside lipids in various organs. It re ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gender Dysphoria Gender dysphoria (previously gender identity disorder), according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders are defined as a “marked in ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
General Anesthesia for Surgeons The primary goal of general anesthesia is rendering a patient unconscious and unable to feel painful stimuli while controlling autonomic reflexes. The ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Generalized Anxiety Disorder Generalized anxiety disorder is a mental health disorder that produces fear, worry, and a constant feeling of being overwhelmed. It is characterized b ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Generalized Pustular Psoriasis Generalized pustular psoriasis is a rare and extreme form of psoriasis characterized by the presence of sterile pustules. The incidence peaks between ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Genu Valgum Genu valgum (knocked knees) is part of the coronal plane deformities of the lower extremity. The majority of patients are asymptomatic and have no fun ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Germ Cell Seminoma Germinoma is an uncommon pediatric brain tumor that is morphologically identical to its gonadal counterpart: testicular seminoma and ovarian dysgermin ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gestational Age Assessment Gestational age is a key piece of data used by healthcare providers to determine when to perform various screening tests and assessments of the fetus ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gestational Diabetes The definition of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. GDM can c ... Read the Article 1.75 25 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) involves both benign and malignant entities that include hydatidiform mole (complete and partial), choriocarci ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Giant Condylomata Acuminata Of Buschke And Lowenstein Giant condylomata acuminata of Bushke-Löwenstein (GCBL) is a rare, slow-growing verrucous tumor of the penis and anogenital region which can grow up t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gigantism And Acromegaly Acromegaly and gigantism are disorders of the abnormal excess secretion of growth hormone. Gigantism occurs when growth hormone hypersecretion occurs ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ginseng There are many described uses for ginseng. Due to its antioxidative and potential neuromodulating effects, it has become a popular supplement in neuro ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gitelman Syndrome Gitelman syndrome is a salt-losing tubulopathy caused by mutation of genes encoding sodium chloride (NCCT) and magnesium transporters in the thiazide- ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glanders And Melioidosis Glanders and melioidosis are infectious diseases caused by Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei, respectively. Glanders has been eliminat ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glaucoma Glaucoma is a condition of increased intraocular pressure in the eye that may progress to a loss of vision. This results in a characteristic optic ner ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glomus Jugulare Glomus jugulare is a slow-growing paraganglioma of the head and neck that arises within the jugular foramen and localized to the jugular fossa. Paraga ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glossectomy Glossectomy is a term used to describe a variety of procedures resulting in the surgical extirpation of part, or all, of the tongue. Glossectomy is mo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glossitis Glossitis refers to inflammation of the tongue and has numerous potential etiologies. While most causes are benign or idiopathic, glossitis can be the ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glottic Cancer Laryngeal cancers are one of the most common head and neck malignancies. Glottic cancers arise from true vocal cords and similarly to other laryngeal ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glucagon Glucagon is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypoglycemia, as an antidote to beta-blocker and calcium channel blocker overdose, an ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glucosamine Sulfate Glucosamine sulfate is an oral supplement used in the management and treatment of osteoarthritis. This activity outlines the indications, hypothesized ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glucose 6 Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase is an enzyme found in the cytoplasm of all cells in the body. It is a housekeeping enzyme that plays a vital role in ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glucose Intolerance Glucose intolerance (GI) is a metabolic condition that results from hyperglycemia. It can be defined as dysglycemia that includes both prediabetes and ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glycogen Storage Disease Glycogen storage diseases (GSDs) are inherited inborn errors of metabolism of carbohydrates. In general, these results from a lack of specific enzymes ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glycogen Storage Disease Type I Glycogen storage disease type I (GSD I), also known as Von Gierke disease, is an inherited disorder caused by deficiencies of specific enzymes in the ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Goiter Patients with goiter commonly present to outpatient facilities with a variety of complaints. Goiter encompasses many different causes and morbidities, ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gonococcal Arthritis Gonococcal arthritis is arthritis that results from the bacteremic spread of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, a sexually transmitted pathogen. It comprises loca ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Goodpasture Syndrome Goodpasture syndrome, also referred to as anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) disease, is an autoimmune disease that affects both the kidneys ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gout Gout is one of the most common causes of chronic inflammatory arthritis in the United States, which is characterized by monosodium urate (MSU) monohyd ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gram Negative Bacteria Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) are among the most significant public health problems in the world due to their high resistance to antibiotics. These mic ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gram Positive Bacteria Gram-positive organisms have highly variable growth and resistance patterns. The SCOPE project (Surveillance and Control of Pathogens of Epidemiologic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Granuloma Annulare Granuloma annulare is a cutaneous granulomatous disease that is not caused by an infection. It is the most common non-infectious granulomatous disease ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a rare vasculitis affecting small vessels. Hallmark features include necrotizing granulomas and pauci-immune ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Graves Disease Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. It is a disorder with systemic manifestations that primarily affect heart, skeletal muscl ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Graves Disease Orbital Decompression Thyroid eye disease (TED), also known as thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO), thyroid orbitopathy, Graves’ orbitopathy, or Graves’ ophthalmopathy ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gray Baby Syndrome Gray baby syndrome is an adverse reaction to chloramphenicol that is characterized by abdominal distention, hemodynamic collapse, and ashen-gray skin ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Grief Reaction Grief is a natural and universal response to the loss of a loved one. The grief experience is not a state but a process. Most individuals recover adeq ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Griseofulvin Griseofulvin is FDA approved for and the drug of choice in tinea capitis. Other indications include onychomycosis as well as superficial fungal infect ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Group B Coxsackie Virus Coxsackie B virus belongs to the Picornavirus family and can cause a variety of diseases, including gastrointestinal illness, myocarditis, pneumonia, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Group B Streptococcus And Pregnancy Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a gram-positive bacteria that colonizes the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract. It is known to cause both early o ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gyromitra Mushroom Toxicity Gyromitra esculenta, the false morel mushroom, has a unique toxicity. The mushroom derives its name (esculenta) from the Latin for edible. Certain cul ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Haemophilus Influenzae Haemophilus influenzae is a bacteria characterized as a small, facultatively anaerobic, pleomorphic, and capnophilic gram-negative coccobacillus of th ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Halitosis Halitosis is a term coined from the merger of the Latin halitus (breath) and Greek osis (pathological process) to describe a condition that meant an u ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hamartoma A hamartoma is a local malformation made up of an abnormal mixture of cells and tissue. Although most hamartomas are benign, they cause morbidity by v ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hammertoe Hammertoes are among the most common deformities of the forefoot. This activity outlines the evaluation and management of hammertoe deformity and expl ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hamstring Injury Hamstring muscles comprise the three major muscles of the posterior aspect of the thigh. These include the semimembranous as the medial most, long and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hand Foot And Mouth Disease Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common viral illness usually affecting infants and children but can affect adults. The infection usually inv ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hand Infection Hand infections comprise a broad spectrum of pathology, dependent upon which superficial or deep structures are involved. Given the anatomical complex ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hand Splint There are many different indications for hand splinting. These include phalanx fractures, conditions requiring immobilization of the metacarpophalange ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome Hantaviruses are a genus of single-stranded, negative sense RNA viruses in the family Bunyaviridae, a virus that normally infects rodents. Hantavirus ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hantavirus Syndrome Hantavirus is a rare, life-threatening infection characterized by pulmonary edema, hypoxia, and hypotension. It typically results from exposure to mic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hartnup Disease Hartnup disease is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting in impaired functioning of transport protein in intestines and kidneys. This results in w ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hearing Loss The management of hearing loss is challenging and complex. To achieve good outcomes, the goals and objectives of hearing loss management must be defin ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Heart-Lung Transplantation A heart-lung transplant is performed for unsalvagable dual cardiac and pulmonary failure. An organ transplant is an established life-saving therapy fo ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Heat Stroke Heat stroke is a severe heat-related illness that involves an elevation in body temperature which typically, but not always, is greater than 40C. The ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Heavy Metal Toxicity Heavy metals are elements found in nature that accumulate in the environment mostly due to anthropogenic activities. Humans are exposed to them by occ ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Helicobacter Pylori H. pylori is a gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium that can infect humans. It is often found in the stomach of affected individuals and causes in ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
HELLP Syndrome The syndrome of hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets, otherwise referred to as HELLP syndrome, has historically been classified as a co ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Helminthiasis Helminthiasis causes a significant health problem with increased morbidity and, to some extent, mortality in an underdeveloped and developing country, ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemianopsia Hemianopsia (hemianopia) is a clinical term used to describe the loss of one half of a vertical visual field. A careful history and physical examinati ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemiballismus Hemiballism is a hyperkinetic involuntary movement disorder characterized by intermittent, sudden, violent, involuntary, flinging, or ballistic high a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemifacial Microsomia Hemifacial microsomia is the second most common congenital craniofacial defect after cleft lip and palate. It can present with a spectrum of deformiti ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemiplegic Migraine A hemiplegic migraine is a rare form of migraine in which the migraine headache attack is accompanied by unilateral weakness. Typically, migraine aura ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemodialysis Dialysis is a form of renal replacement therapy. The kidney’s role of filtration of the blood is supplemented by artificial equipment for the removal ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemolytic Diseases Of The Newborn Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn is a red blood cell mismatch between mothers and their fetus that can cause significant morbidity and morta ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemolytic Transfusion Reaction Hemolytic transfusion reactions are one possible complication from transfusions. Hemolysis is the rupture of red blood cells, and can occur intravascu ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemorrhagic Disease Of Newborn Hemorrhagic disease of the newborn is a life-threatening condition that is caused due to insufficient vitamin K levels in the newborns as a result of ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemorrhagic Fever Renal Syndrome Hemorrhagic fever renal syndrome (HFRS) is an acute zoonotic disease transmitted through aerosolized excrement of rodents (mice, rats, shrews, and vol ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemorrhagic Stroke Hemorrhagic stroke is due to bleeding into the brain by the rupture of a blood vessel. Hemorrhagic stroke may be further subdivided into intracerebral ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemorrhoid, Banding The popular technique of rubber band ligation for the treatment of symptomatic internal hemorrhoids is a relatively simple technique that has been use ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemorrhoidectomy Hemorrhoidal disease is a common disorder requiring surgical intervention in approximately 10% of cases. The overall prevalence is unknown because asy ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Henoch Schonlein Purpura Henoch-Schonlein purpura is an IgA-mediated immune vasculitis involving the small vessels of the joints, kidneys, gastrointestinal (GI) tract, skin, a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hepatic Cirrhosis Cirrhosis is characterized by fibrosis and nodule formation of the liver secondary to chronic injury, leading to alteration of the normal lobular orga ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatic Encephalopathy (HE) is a reversible syndrome observed in patients with advanced liver dysfunction. This syndrome is characterized by a wide sp ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hepatobiliary Iminodiacetic Acid Scan Hepatobiliary scintigraphy is a diagnostic nuclear medicine procedure that uses radiotracers to evaluate the biliary system and indirectly, the liver. ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hepatobiliary Tract Cancer In the past, the term cholangiocarcinoma was used to reference intrahepatic bile duct cancer. However, usage of the term has evolved and it is now use ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hepatoblastoma Hepatoblastomas are the most common primary malignant liver tumor in pediatric patients, and most often occur within the first 2 years of life. The hi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hepatocellular Carcinoma Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary tumor of the liver. Hepatocellular carcinoma constitutes more than 90% of the primary tumor of the liver. ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hepatorenal Syndrome Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is a multiorgan condition of acute kidney injury seen in those with advanced liver disease. Patients with this condition pr ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Herald Patch A herald patch is an erythematous, 2 to 10 centimeter, round to oval scaly patch or plaque with a depressed center and raised border that frequently p ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hereditary And Acquired Ichthyosis Vulgaris Hereditary and acquired ichthyosis vulgaris are cutaneous disorders of keratinization that manifest clinically by a widespread scaling of the skin. Ic ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hereditary Elliptocytosis Hereditary elliptocytosis is a group of inherited heterogenous red blood cell (RBC) membrane disorders characterized by elliptical-shaped RBCs. The pr ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Heroin Heroin, also known as diacetylmorphine, is derived from the opium poppy plant. Professionals initially touted morphine as a substitute with less misus ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Heroin Toxicity Heroin, also known as diacetylmorphine, is a very efficient prodrug and more potent than Morphine. Many deaths are caused by heroin overdoses througho ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Herpangina Herpangina is a viral infection that is manifested clinically as an acute febrile illness with small ulcerative or vesicular lesions in the posterior ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Herpes Simplex Keratitis Herpes simplex virus can cause infection in the eye. Recurrent infection of the cornea due to this virus causes herpes simplex keratitis. It can easil ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Herpes Simplex Neonatorum Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections in the neonatal period continue to be troublesome for practitioners. In the 1970s, the drug vidarabine was intro ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Herpes Simplex Ophthalmicus Herpes simplex ophthalmicus is an eye infection by the herpes simplex type 1 and type 2 viruses. It is ubiquitous and affects all the ages of the popu ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Herpes Simplex Type 1 Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a linear dsDNA virus that is a member of the Alphaherpesviridae subfamily. HSV-1 is responsible for establishin ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Herpes Zoster Herpes zoster, also known as shingles, is a viral syndrome caused by reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus. After an episode of varicella (chicke ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Herpetic Gingivostomatitis Herpetic gingivostomatitis is a manifestation of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and is characterized by high-grade fever and painful oral lesions ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Herpetic Whitlow Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is common and is most often transmitted in childhood through direct physical contact. The most common infectious sites are ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hiatal Hernia A hiatal hernia is a condition in which the upper part of the stomach or other internal organ bulges through the hiatus of the diaphragm. When there i ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hidradenitis Suppurativa Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS), also called acne inversus, is a chronic inflammatory skin condition with lesions including deep-seated nodules and absc ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
High Anion Gap Metabolic Acidosis High anion gap metabolic acidosis (HAGMA) is a type of metabolic acidosis. Differentiation of acidosis into a particular subtype, whether high anion g ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
High Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion High grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) encompasses the entities previously termed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)2, CIN3, moderate ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
High-Output Cardiac Failure High-output cardiac failure is a less common form of heart failure, and although it may sound contradictory at first, in the simplest form, it is stil ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hip Joint Injection Hip pain is a common clinical complaint and a source of disability with an incidence of 12 to 15 percent among all adults over the age of 60 years. Th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hirschsprung Disease Hirschsprung disease (HD) is a congenital disorder characterized by the absence of ganglion cells (GC) at the Meissner's plexus (submucosa) and Auerba ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hirsutism Hirsutism is the growth of excessive male-pattern hair in women after puberty. It affects facial and body areas dependent on androgens, namely mustach ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Histoplasmosis Histoplasma capsulatum is a dimorphic fungus present worldwide in pockets of endemicity particularly associated with river valleys. The endemic region ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
HIV Disease Current Practice This activity explains when this condition should be considered on a differential diagnosis, articulates how to properly evaluate for this condition, ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
HIV In Pregnancy Several thousand HIV positive pregnant women give birth in the US annually. With proper management, these women can achieve viral suppression to undet ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
HIV Prevention Of Opportunistic Infections Opportunistic infections (OI) are those caused by microorganisms that are, in normal circumstances, not virulent enough to cause clinical infection. T ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
HIV Prophylaxis HIV prophylaxis is divided into two categories: post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). PEP is the administration of anti ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
HIV-1 Associated Progressive Polyradiculopathy HIV-1 associated progressive polyradiculopathy is quite commonly misdiagnosed or undiagnosed neurological complication in patients suffering from HIV ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
HIV-1 Encephalopathy And Aids Dementia Complex Neurocognitive deficits are the presenting complaint in 4 to 15 percent of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV-associated neurocogni ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
HIV-associated Lipodystrophy HIV-associated lipodystrophy is a syndrome characterized by body habitus changes associated with the development of insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Home Oxygen Therapy For patients with chronic pulmonary and/or cardiac diseases, there is often a need for oxygen therapy to continue after discharge from hospitalization ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Homonymous Hemianopsia Homonymous hemianopsia (or hemianopia) is a field loss deficit in the same halves of the visual field of each eye, often resulting from cerebrovascula ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Homonymous Superior Quadrantanopia The visual field test maps the vision in each individual eye by measuring the entire scope of vision when vision is focused on a central point. A visu ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hormone Replacement Therapy Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is supplementing women with hormones that are lost during the menopausal transition. To relieve the symptoms associa ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hospital Acquired Infections Hospital-acquired infections (healthcare-associated infections) are nosocomially acquired infections that are not present or incubating at the time of ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Human Bites Human bites account for a relatively low percentage (3%) of the total bites encountered in the ED, but they have the potential for severe morbidity du ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Human Papilloma Virus Vaccine The 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine (9vHPV) is a vaccine used in the management and prevention of infection with human papillomavirus (HPV ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Human Papillomavirus The human papillomavirus (HPV) is a non-enveloped, double-stranded, circular DNA virus that is responsible for causing multiple epithelial lesions and ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Human T Cell Lymphotropic Virus Human T Cell lymphotropic viruses (HTLV) are a family of retroviruses. Currently, four types of this virus have been identified which are known to inf ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Humeral Shaft Fractures Midshaft humeral fractures usually occur due to a direct blow to the upper arm, which commonly results from falls, motor vehicle accidents, or motorcy ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Huntington Disease Huntington disease (HD), a neurodegenerative autosomal dominant disorder, is characterized by involuntary choreatic movements with cognitive and behav ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hydralazine Hydralazine is used orally as a therapeutic agent to treat essential hypertension and intravenously to lower blood pressure urgently or emergently. FD ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hydrocele A hydrocele is a collection of peritoneal fluid between the parietal and visceral layers of the tunica vaginalis, which directly surrounds the testis ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hydrocephalus Hydrocephalus is the symptomatic accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid inside the cerebral ventricles. It has complex pathogenesis and different causes. ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hydrochlorothiazide Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) is a thiazide-type diuretic which has been used clinically for more than half a century. The drug has been widely used to t ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hydrofluoric Acid Burns Hydrofluoric (HF) acid is an extremely powerful inorganic acid and a vigorous dehydrating agent that is used in many industrial branches. Domestic con ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hydrogen Sulfide Toxicity Hydrogen sulfide can be found in many environments, and toxicity can arise from both direct contact and as the chemical enters the bloodstream. At hig ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hymenoptera Stings The Hymenoptera order includes over 150,000 different species of flying and non-flying insects. Some species within this order have modified oviposito ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperaldosteronism Hyperaldosteronism occurs due to the excess production of aldosterone from the adrenal gland. Hyperaldosteronism can initially present as essential an ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperamylasemia Hyperamylasemia refers to elevated levels of serum amylase. It is most commonly observed and evaluated in patients with acute pancreatitis to confirm ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Cardiovascular Effects Both the high-pressure environment as well as the hyperoxygenation that is associated with hyperbaric oxygen treatments (HBOT) have numerous consequen ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Evaluation and Treatment Of Intracranial Abscess Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy of intracranial abscesses refers to the following disorders: cerebral abscess, subdural empyema, and epidural empyema. ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Management Of Frostbite Although evidence for treating frostbite with hyperbaric oxygen is sparse and limited to case reports and animal studies, the proposed mechanism of ac ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Therapy In Blood Loss Anemia Red blood cells contain hemoglobin; hemoglobin is the major carrier of oxygen throughout the human body. When hemoglobin levels decrease, anemia resul ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Treatment Of Central Retinal Artery Occlusion Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is a relatively rare but potentially devastating ocular emergency. Patients present with sudden, painless mono ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Treatment Of Chronic Refractory Osteomyelitis Osteomyelitis is infection of the bone or marrow caused by bacteria or mycobacteria. It is difficult to treat due to the relative paucity of blood ves ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Treatment Of Clostridial Myositis And Myonecrosis Clostridial myonecrosis, also called gas gangrene, can rapidly cause death if not immediately detected and treated. It is caused by the anaerobic spor ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Treatment of Ischemia Reperfusion Injury The ischemia-reperfusion inflammatory reaction can occur with any injury that involves ischemic interruption of vascular flow. This includes many soft ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Treatment Of Thermal Burns Thermal burns are common in the United States, and approximately 2 million people are injured every year, with about 155 per million patients needing ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Zygomycotic Infections Invasive zygomycosis, or mucormycosis, are a group of infections caused by fungi in the order Mucorales. The most common species that cause infection ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypercalcemia Calcium is the most abundant cation found in the human body and plays an integral role in neural transmission, enzyme activity, myocardial function, c ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypercalciuria Hypercalciuria is generally considered to be the most common identifiable metabolic risk factor for calcium nephrolithiasis. It also contributes to os ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypercholesterolemia Lipoprotein disorders are clinically important due to the of the role of lipoproteins in atherogenesis and the associated risk of atherosclerotic card ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperemesis Gravidarum Hyperemesis gravidarum refers to intractable vomiting during pregnancy that leads to weight loss and volume depletion, resulting in ketonuria and/or k ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperesthesia Hyperesthesia occurs as a symptom of neuropathic pain and can be present in any disease process that affects the somatosensory nervous system. Treatme ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperkeratosis Of The Nipple And Areola Hyperkeratosis of the nipple and areola is an uncommon, benign skin condition characterized by a warty thickening and pigmentation of the nipple, areo ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperlipidemia Hyperlipidemia is a term that encompasses various genetic and acquired disorders that describe elevated lipid levels within the body. It is a very com ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypernatremia The human body maintains sodium and water homeostasis by concentrating the urine secondary to the action of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and increased f ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperprolactinemia When the amount of serum prolactin exceeds the upper limit, we call it hyperprolactinemia. The common causes of hyperprolactinemia can be physiologica ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) classified as an interstitial lung disease is characterized by a complex immunological reaction of the lung parenchy ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypertension In Pregnancy Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, including chronic hypertension with or without superimposed pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, gestational hypertension, pr ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypertensive Retinopathy Poorly controlled hypertension (HTN) affects several systems such as the cardiovascular, renal, cerebrovascular, and retina. The damage to these syste ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperthyroidism In Pregnancy Hyperthyroidism is an uncommon condition that complicates approximately 0.1% to 0.4% of pregnancies. The condition is marked by increased levels of ci ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypertrichosis Hypertrichosis is defined as excessive hair growth anywhere on the body in either males or females. It is important to distinguish hypertrichosis from ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypertriglyceridemia Hypertriglyceridemia in many cases is multifactorial, resulting from the combination of genetic factors and other causes of increased production and o ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by a mutation in sarcomere protein genes which effect contraction of the hea ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM), historically referred to as idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis, is a relatively common disorde ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperuricemia Hyperuricemia is a common disorder that affects patients of all ages and genders. The most common manifestation of hyperuricemia is gout, which can be ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperuricosuria Uric acid renal calculi are formed as a consequence of various metabolic abnormalities. Although rare, its prevalence is increasing with the change in ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyphema Hyphema is the accumulation of red blood cells (RBCs) in the anterior chamber of the eye. By definition, blood must be grossly visible, either on dire ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypoalbuminemia Hypoalbuminaemia is one of the most prevalent disorders in hospitalized and critically ill patients. Hypoalbuminaemia may be a result of decreased pro ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypocalcemia Disorders of calcium metabolism are frequently encountered. Though hypocalcemia is encountered as frequently as hypercalcemia, it can be potentially l ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypogammaglobulinemia Hypogammaglobulinemia is a disorder caused by low serum immunoglobulin or antibody levels. Immunoglobulins are the main components of the humoral immu ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypopigmented Macules Hypopigmented macules are one of the most common skin lesions encountered in clinical practice. As the name suggests, these lesions are associated wit ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypoplastic Lung Disease Pulmonary hypoplasia is a relatively uncommon medical condition characterized by incomplete development of the lungs that can affect the overall devel ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypospadias Hypospadias is an anatomical congenital malformation of the male external genitalia. It is characterized by abnormal development of the urethral fold ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypothalamic Hamartoma Hypothalamic hamartomas are congenital non-progressive lesions in the hypothalamus. These lesions usually develop a disabling course presenting with m ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypothermia Accidental hypothermia occurs when the body dissipates more heat than it absorbs or creates, leaving the body unable to generate sufficient heat to ma ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypoxic Brain Injury The brain consumes a significant amount of energy compared to its weight and size. The term "anoxia" refers to the complete lack of oxygen delivery to ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ibuprofen Toxicity Ibuprofen, 2-(4-isobutylphenyl)propionic acid, belongs to the class of drugs called nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and was discovered b ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA