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Craniofacial Surgery

Craniofacial Surgery

Stay up to date on the latest medical knowledge with this Craniofacial Surgery activity. In this online self-assessment activity, you'll read our reference articles and test your knowledge with 164 activities in Craniofacial Surgery for 175.5 total CME hours.


6 Month Unlimited Physician MD/DO/PA CME

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1 Year Unlimited Physician MD/DO/PA CME

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Access to all the Physician MD/DO/PA CME activities in all specialties.

Featured Article Activities

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Hyperbaric Soft Tissue Radionecrosis

Soft tissue radionecrosis refers to the delayed effects of radiation therapy which result in tissue breakdown from the i ...
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Hours: 1.25

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Nasal Fracture

Fractures of the naso-orbital-ethmoid (NOE) complex resulting from high impact trauma to the face can have significant r ...
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Hours: 1

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Temporal Fracture

The temporal bone is the thickest bone in the body, requiring significant force to fracture. Such high-velocity head inj ...
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Hours: 1

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Deep Plane Facelift

A deep plane facelift aims to restore a more youthful and rested appearance to the aging face. This activity reviews th ...
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Hours: 1

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Avulsed Tooth

Dentoalveolar trauma are injuries caused by an external impact on the teeth, palate, mandible, maxilla, and gums. These ...
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Hours: 1.25

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Supraorbital Nerve Block

The supraorbital nerve block is a procedure performed to provide immediate localized anesthesia for a multitude of injur ...
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Hours: 1

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Craniofacial Surgery Activities

Title Description Hours Questions
Adenoid Cystic Cancer Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy arising from the secretory glands, most commonly seen involving the salivary glands. Although unco ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adenopathy Lymphadenopathy is a common abnormal finding during the course of the physical exam in general medical practice. Adenopathy can be caused by neoplasm, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Advancement Flaps Advancement flaps permit scar camouflage along cosmetic subunit junctions and play a vital role in wound coverage. Advancement flap design and executi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ameloblastoma Ameloblastomas are rare, odontogenic tumors derived from odontogenic ectoderm. Ameloblastomas represent about 1% of all jaw tumors, but they are the s ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Apert Syndrome Apert syndrome is an autosomal dominant inherited craniosynostosis syndrome. Males and females are equally affected. The incidence of the disease sign ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atypical Fibroxanthoma Atypical fibroxanthoma is a rare, low-grade superficial sarcoma that frequently presents as a red nodule or plaque. It is considered a superficial var ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atypical Mycobacterial Disease Atypical mycobacteria or nontuberculous mycobacteria are organisms that cause a variety of diseases such as skin and soft tissue infection, lymphadeni ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Auricular Hematoma An auricular hematoma is a collection of blood underneath the perichondrium of the ear and typically occurs secondary to trauma. Auricular deformity, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Autologous Fat Grafting For Facial Rejuvenation Fat grafting is a technique where the harvested adipose tissue is injected into various compartments underneath the skin. The term autologous fat graf ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Avascular Necrosis Osteonecrosis is a degenerative bone condition characterized by death of cellular components of bone secondary to an interruption of the subchondral b ... Read the Article 1.75 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Avulsed Tooth Dentoalveolar trauma are injuries caused by an external impact on the teeth, palate, mandible, maxilla, and gums. These injuries can result in anythin ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Axial Flaps Trauma and resection of tumors often leave large defects requiring coverage, which have historically meant multi-stage procedures. However, axial patt ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Basal Cell Cancer Basal cell carcinoma a common cutaneous malignancy that occurs mostly on sun-damaged skin of the head, neck, and trunk. Basal cell carcinoma can be di ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Basal Cell Carcinoma Basal cell carcinoma is the most common cutaneous malignancy, affecting close to one in five Americans. Although rarely fatal, basal cell carcinoma ca ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Basilar Skull Fractures Basilar skull fractures, usually caused by substantial blunt force trauma, involve at least one of the bones that compose the base of the skull. Basil ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Battle Sign Battle Sign is bruising over the mastoid process that is typically the result of head trauma. Battle sign typically requires significant head trauma a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Benign Salivary Gland Tumors Salivary gland neoplasms encompass a wide array of different histologies and locations, including the parotid, submandibular gland, sublingual gland, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bisphosphonate Related Jaw Osteonecrosis Bisphosphonates are synthetic pyrophosphate analogs used to treat hypercalcemia secondary to conditions affecting bone resorption such as malignancy, ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bisphosphonate Toxicity In the second half of the 20th century, bisphosphonates have emerged as a novel treatment for bone metabolism disorders. Currently, bisphosphonates ar ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blepharochalasis Syndrome Blepharochalasis syndrome is a rare disease of unknown etiology. It is characterized by an active stage of recurrent episodes of upper lid swelling, f ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blepharoplasty Ptosis Surgery Blepharoplasty is the general term for correcting defects, deformities, and disfigurations of the eyelids either for functional reasons, cosmetic reas ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Botulinum Toxin Botulinum toxin is a medication used in the management and treatment of therapeutic and cosmetic purposes. Therapeutic uses include chronic migraine, ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brow Ptosis Brow ptosis is a common presenting complaint in aging patients; it can affect patients' quality of life because of its cosmetic impact as well as visu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cauliflower Ear Cauliflower ear, also known as wrestler's ear or perichondrial hematoma, is a deformity caused by blunt trauma to the auricle. It occurs as blood accu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cavernous Sinus Syndromes Cavernous sinus syndrome (CSS) is any disease process that affects the cavernous sinus. It presents as proptosis, chemosis, ophthalmoplegia, Horner sy ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis Cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) is a rare, life-threatening disorder that can complicate facial infection, sinusitis, orbital cellulitis, pharyngitis ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Plexus Block Superficial cervical plexus block is an easy block that can be performed either using a landmark-based technique or using the ultrasound-based techniq ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Subluxation Subluxation is an essential entity of traumatic subaxial cervical spinal injuries. There is a varying degree of slippage of the body of one vertebra r ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cleft Lip Cleft lip deformity is one of the most common congenital deformities, and management requires an interprofessional approach to address the physical cl ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Complex Ear Lacerations Facial lacerations are a common patient presentation, and the ear presents a unique challenge due to its structure. The ear is particularly susceptibl ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Compressive Optic Neuropathy Compressive optic neuropathy can be caused by intrinsic or extrinsic compression anywhere along the optic nerve. In addition to damage by compression, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Unilateral Lower Lip Palsy Congenital unilateral lower lip palsy is a congenital anomaly that is caused by agenesis or hypoplasia of depressor anguli oris muscle. Unilateral dep ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Craniofacial Distraction Osteogenesis Craniofacial distraction osteogenesis is a technique to elongate the bones of the mandible, midface, and cranial vault. It is successful in treating a ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Craniotomy A craniotomy is a surgical procedure in which a part of the skull is temporarily removed to expose the brain and perform an intracranial procedure. Th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cribiform Plate Fractures A fracture of the cribriform plate is a potentially serious injury that can be easily overlooked. When present, it is indicative of severe head or fac ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Crouzon Syndrome Crouzon syndrome is a genetically inherited syndrome characterized by craniosynostosis (premature fusion of coronal sutures) resulting in the skull an ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cystic Hygroma Cystic hygromas are the most common subtype of lymphangiomas, presenting at birth and in early infancy. Enlargement of cystic hygromas is common, and ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dacryocystorhinostomy Nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO) often results in intractable, bothersome epiphora. In longstanding NLDO, mucus can accumulate, resulting in a muc ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Deep Plane Facelift A deep plane facelift aims to restore a more youthful and rested appearance to the aging face. This activity reviews the evaluation and management of ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Degloving Injuries Internal degloving injuries are usually associated with high energy trauma and can be devastating. This injury occurs when a tangential shearing occur ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Direct Brow Lift With aging, the periorbital soft tissues migrate inferiorly, which may create both functional and cosmetic concerns for the patient. Many techniques, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dysthyroid Optic Neuropathy Dysthyroid optic neuropathy (DON) is a sight-threatening complication of thyroid eye disease (TED), characterized by thyroid-related impairment of vis ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Eagle Syndrome Eagle syndrome, also known as stylohyoid syndrome, styloid syndrome, or styloid–carotid artery syndrome, is a rare condition caused by an elongated or ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ectropion Lower Eyelid Reconstruction Ectropion is an eversion or outward turning of the eyelid margin leading to loss of the natural apposition of the eyelid to the globe. Ectropion may b ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Endoscopic Brow Lift An endoscopic brow lift aims to restore a more youthful and rested appearance. This activity reviews the evaluation and management of patients underg ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidermal Inclusion Cyst Epidermal inclusion cysts are the most common cutaneous cysts and can occur anywhere on the body. These cysts typically present as fluctuant nodules u ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidermal Nevus Syndromes Epidermal nevus syndrome is an umbrella term used to describe epidermal nevi in association with syndromic features. The first well-described syndrome ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Erythromelalgia Erythromelalgia is a rarely occurring disease entity characterized by a triad of erythema, warmth, and recurrent burning pain, most notably affecting ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esthesioneuroblastoma Esthesioneuroblastoma, or olfactory neuroblastoma, is a rare malignant neoplasm of the sinonasal tract originating from the olfactory neuroepithelium ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
External Ear Aural Atresia Aural atresia is the absence of a patent ear canal that may be acquired or congenital. To preserve hearing and allow normal speech and language develo ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Extranodal NK-Cell Lymphoma Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, is a rare subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Patients commonly present with a nasal mass, nasal obstruction, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Eyelid Laceration Eyelid lacerations are managed differently depending on the depth, width, and location of the injury. Surgical management will be broken down into the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Facial Burns Burn injuries are a significant health issue and are a leading cause of accidental death or injury in the U.S. Burns to the face can affect many speci ... Read the Article 1.75 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Facial Chin Augmentation The chin represents an often underappreciated aesthetic component of the face; however, the chin remains an essential facial subunit that plays a sign ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Facial Nerve Intratemporal Trauma Temporal bone fractures are uncommon but involve many important structures resulting in various diagnostic and therapeutic issues. A large amount of f ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Facial Nerve Palsy Facial nerve palsies are a common and essential presentation specifically to ear, nose, and throat (ENT) surgeons but also in general medical practice ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Facial Nerve Repair Facial paralysis is a condition that has a detrimental effect on the quality of life of individuals. The social and psychological implications of faci ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Facial Nerve Trauma Facial nerve palsy is a common presentation to family doctors, the emergency department, and otolaryngologists. Trauma accounts for 10% to 23% of all ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Facial Reconstruction For Mohs Defect Repairs Facial reconstruction encompasses an array of techniques used to correct both cosmetic and functional deficits of the face, a large proportion of whic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Filler Rhinoplasty The nonsurgical rhinoplasty technique using injectable filler material serves to mainly correct the shape and overall appearance of the nose. This ac ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Forehead Flaps Forehead flaps are 2-stage tissue flaps in which a forehead-based pedicle flap is used to repair more distal nasal defects. This type of flap is gener ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Frey Syndrome Frey syndrome usually occurs with auriculotemporal nerve injury secondary to surgical intervention or trauma in the parotid region. Prevention of this ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Frontal Sinus Fractures Fractures of the frontal sinus are most commonly seen in the emergency department after motor vehicle accidents (MVA's), falls, assaults, falling obje ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Full Thickness Skin Grafts Skin grafts consist of fully detached pieces of skin taken from one anatomic site and placed in a wound elsewhere. Full-thickness skin grafts include ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fungal Sinusitis There are several types of fungal sinusitis. The classification depends on the degree of invasion of the sinuses. The overarching categories are non-i ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glossectomy Glossectomy is a term used to describe a variety of procedures resulting in the surgical extirpation of part, or all, of the tongue. Glossectomy is mo ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glossopharyngeal Neuralgia Glossopharyngeal neuralgia is a rare painful condition characterized by brief paroxysmal painful attacks in the glossopharyngeal nerve distribution. P ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gorlin Syndrome Gorlin syndrome, also called Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS), or nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, is an autosomal dominan ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gram Positive Bacteria Gram-positive organisms have highly variable growth and resistance patterns. The SCOPE project (Surveillance and Control of Pathogens of Epidemiologic ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hair Transplantation Hair transplantation aims to restore a more youthful appearance for those distressed by hair loss, particularly androgenetic alopecia. This activity ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Soft Tissue Radionecrosis Soft tissue radionecrosis refers to the delayed effects of radiation therapy which result in tissue breakdown from the impaired blood supply radiation ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Treatment Of Delayed Radiation Injury There will be 1.2 million cases of invasive cancer diagnosed in the United States this year. Half of those patients will receive radiation therapy as ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Zygomycotic Infections Invasive zygomycosis, or mucormycosis, are a group of infections caused by fungi in the order Mucorales. The most common species that cause infection ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperkeratosis Hyperkeratosis refers to the increased thickness of the stratum corneum, the outer layer of the skin. It is most frequently due to chronic physical or ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypertelorism Orbital hypertelorism is defined as an increased distance between the orbits, with true lateral displacement of the orbits. Hypertelorism is associate ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypertrophic Scarring Hypertrophic scarring represents an undesirable variant in the wound healing process. In hypertrophic scars, excess connective tissue is deposited in ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Impaired Wound Healing Wounds of all shapes and sizes have plagued patients and created a significant burden on their caretakers. It has long been noticed that some patient ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block The inferior alveolar nerve block involves the insertion of a needle near the mandibular foramen area intending to deposit a certain amount of local a ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Infraorbital Nerve Block Nerve blocks are useful for providing anesthesia to a specific area of the body. Regional nerve blocks offer many advantages over local tissue infiltr ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Interpolated Flaps An interpolated flap is a 2-stage tissue flap in which the base of the flap is not directly adjacent to the recipient defect, and the flap bridges ove ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intracranial Hypertension Intracranial hypertension is a spectrum of neurological disorders where cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure within the skull is elevated. Normal CSF pr ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Laryngotracheal Stenosis Laryngotracheal stenosis (LTS) is a narrowing of the upper airway between the larynx and the trachea with potentially devastating consequences, includ ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Laser Complications Lasers represent a relatively new group of devices used within the field of cutaneous surgery. The field of laser surgery continues to advance with th ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lateral Orbital Canthotomy Orbital compartment syndrome (OCS) is caused due to rapidly increasing intra-orbital pressure and can lead to permanent blindness. OCS is a sight-thre ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Latissimus Dorsi Myocutaneous Flap The latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap or myofascial flap is a useful technique with many head, neck, and torso reconstruction applications. When ther ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Le Fort Fractures Le Fort injuries are complex fractures of the midface, named after Rene Le Fort who studied cadaver skulls that were subjected to blunt force trauma. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Le Fort Osteotomy The LeFort I osteotomy is utilized extensively within the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery when repositioning of the maxilla is required for co ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Leukemia Cutis Leukemia cutis is skin involvement in patients with peripheral leukemia; it is relatively rare and typically signifies an advanced disease stage. This ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lip Implants A lip implant aims to restore a more youthful and aesthetically pleasing look to the perioral region. This activity reviews the evaluation and manage ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lisch Nodules Lisch nodules, traditionally described as iris hamartomas is one of the pathognomic markers of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and are rarely seen in i ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Local Anesthetic Toxicity Local anesthetics are commonly used in most medical and dental practice. While adverse effects are rare, the rising prevalence of local anesthetics in ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lower Eyelid Blepharoplasty Blepharoplasty is a surgical technique for correcting defects, deformities, and disfigurations of the eyelids; and for aesthetically modifying the eye ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lower Eyelid Reconstruction Proper function of the eyelids is necessary to maintain healthy globes. Patients with cancer or with traumatic injuries to the eyelids need special at ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lower Lid Transconjunctival Blepharoplasty A transconjunctival lower lid blepharoplasty aims to restore a more youthful and rested appearance to the periorbita. This activity reviews the evalu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lupus Miliaris Disseminatus Faciei Lupus miliaris disseminatus faciei (LMDF) is an idiopathic granulomatous disease affecting facial skin primarily. It shares overlapping features with ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors Salivary gland tumors are a rare group of complex, heterogenous histologies that are located in the parotid gland, submandibular gland, sublingual gla ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mandible Body Fracture The fracture of the body of mandible accounts for almost 11% to 36% among all the mandibular fractures. This activity describes the evaluation and man ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mandible Dislocation This activity reviews the evaluation and management of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dislocation and the role of the healthcare team in the evaluation ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mandible Fracture Mandible is one of the most commonly fractured facial bone and is frequently seen in the emergency department. This activity reviews the anatomy of th ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mandible Osteoradionecrosis Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the mandible is a severe iatrogenic disease of devitalized bone caused by radiation therapy of oral and oropharyngeal canc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mandible Reconstruction Surgical reconstruction of a damaged or resected mandible is performed to restore functional mastication, the oral phase of swallowing, dental occlusi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Maxillary Fracture Maxillary fractures are common in patients sustaining facial trauma and may be caused by road traffic accidents, sports, or assault. Maxillary fractur ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Maxillary Sinus Fracture Maxillary sinus fractures (MSFs) are most commonly caused by blunt force trauma to the face. Depending on the magnitude and location of the direct inj ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Medical Ethics Familiarity with ethical principles on a basic level is necessary to safely practice medicine. However, most clinicians are unable to elucidate specif ... Read the Article 2 24 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Melanoma Of The Head And Neck Melanoma is a malignant tumor produced from malignant transformation of melanocytes. This can be sporadic or arise from a preexisting premalignant les ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mental Nerve Block The mental nerve supplies sensation to the lower teeth, the skin over the chin and lower lip, and the buccal mucosa. Mental nerve blocks allow for exc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Migraine Surgical Interventions Migraines are a common primary neurologic headache that predominantly occurs in the working-age adult. Migraine attacks are frequently triggered by br ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mohs Micrographic Surgery Mohs micrographic surgery is a tissue-sparing, precise method of skin cancer removal named in honor of the surgeon who developed the technique, Freder ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
M-plasty An M-plasty is an excisional technique used to remove standing cutaneous deformities, also known as dog ears, from the end of a linear repair. Dog ear ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mucocele And Ranula Mucoceles and ranulas result when there is a disruption of the flow of secretions of the salivary glands mostly due to trauma and present as asymptoma ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nasal Fracture Fractures of the naso-orbital-ethmoid (NOE) complex resulting from high impact trauma to the face can have significant ramifications due to the NOE co ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nasal Fracture Reduction Nasal bony fractures are the most common type of facial bone fractures, representing 40 to 50 percent of cases. Nasal fractures are commonly associate ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nasal Septal Fracture Nasal bone and septal fractures are the most commonly fractured bone in the facial skeleton. These injuries can affect not only the cosmetic appearanc ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nasal Septal Hematoma The nose is the most commonly injured facial structure. Most nasal injuries do not require immediate intervention, but trauma is resulting in septal h ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nasogastric Tube Nasogastric tubes are part of the standard of care in treating intestinal obstruction and can also be used to provide nutritional support. They are mo ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma Nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a rare highly vascular tumor within the posterior nasal cavity found almost exclusively in adolescent boys. This activi ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nasopharyngeal Cancer The nasopharynx is a small, tubular structure above the soft palate that connects the nose to the oropharynx. Cancers that arise from this area are us ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), previously known as lymphoepithelioma, is a malignancy arising from the epithelium of the nasopharynx. Endemic to Chin ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC, Lymphoepithelioma) Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), previously known as lymphoepithelioma, is a malignancy arising from the epithelium of the nasopharynx. Endemic to Chin ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nasotracheal Intubation Nasotracheal intubation (NTI) involves passing an endotracheal tube through the naris into the nasopharynx and the trachea; most commonly after induct ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neck Rejuvenation Neck rejuvenation can address loose skin over the neck, platysmal bands, and effacement of the cervicomental angle. This activity reviews the evaluati ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Necrotizing Fasciitis Necrotizing fasciitis is a subset of aggressive skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) that cause necrosis of the muscle fascia and subcutaneous tiss ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Oculocardiac Reflex The oculocardiac reflex (OCR), also known as the Aschner reflex or trigeminovagal reflex (TVR), was first described in 1908 as a reduction in heart ra ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Open Rhinoplasty The open rhinoplasty technique is used to correct both the cosmetic and functional deficits of the nose. Rhinoplasty remains among the most challengi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Oral Cutaneous Fistula Oral cutaneous fistulas (OCF) are an infrequent condition in which there is a pathologic communication between the oral cavity and the skin. Chronic d ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Orbital Floor Fracture Fractures of the orbital floor and the medial orbital wall (blowout fractures) are common midface injuries. Orbital fractures have a distinct trauma m ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ossicular-Chain Dislocation Ossicular chain dislocation occurs following trauma. It usually results in conductive hearing loss, which persists for more than 6 months. Management ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Osteocutaneous Radial Forearm Flap The osteocutaneous radial forearm flap is a variant of the fasciocutaneous radial forearm free flap wherein partial thickness of the radius is harvest ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Paramedian Forehead Flaps Often referred to as a workhorse in facial reconstruction, the paramedian forehead flap is the most common interpolated flap harvested from the face. ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pediatric Facial Fractures Trauma is a significant cause of morbidity and death in children. Trauma to the head is the most common anatomic site, and while facial fractures are ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Perilymphatic Fistula Labyrinthine fistula is an abnormal communication between the inner ear and the surrounding structures. It can be caused by mechanical insults or cong ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Peripheral Neurolytic Blocks Peripheral nerve neuralgia or peripheral neuropathic pain may result from damage of a nerve due to various etiologies including medical conditions suc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pfeiffer Syndrome Pfeiffer syndrome is an inherited craniofacial disorder that is associated with primary craniosynostosis, midface hypoplasia, broad thumbs and great t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pierre Robin Syndrome Pierre Robin sequence is a constellation of micrognathia, glossoptosis, and upper airway obstruction. It is a clinical diagnosis that can range in sev ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Platysmaplasty Facelift This activity reviews various types of platysmaplasty used in the rejuvenation of the aging face and neck and reviews the role of the interprofessiona ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pott Puffy Tumor Pott puffy tumor is a subperiosteal abscess due to associated frontal skull osteomyelitis. This usually occurs as a rare complication of frontal sinus ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radiation Therapy In The Treatment Of Keloids Keloids are benign raised scars that are formed after cutaneous insult. Normally, cutaneous injury results in wound closure and a flat scar. Some in ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Retrognathia Retrognathia is a term used to describe a mandible that is posterior to and behind where it should be when viewed from a lateral vantage point. Retrog ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rhombic Flaps Rhombic flaps are highly versatile flaps based on their unique mechanical characteristics with a wide range of potential applications. This activity r ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rhytidectomy Rhytidectomy is performed to rejuvenate the face, mitigating the effects of aging. An overview of its history, and some of the surgical approaches and ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rotation Flaps A flap is used when simpler closure techniques, such as secondary intention, primary closure, or skin grafts, will produce a result that is functional ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Scalp Reconstruction Scalp reconstruction procedures are done for medical or cosmetic reasons. Scalp reconstruction techniques share similarities to plastic surgery techni ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Skin Antiseptics Antiseptics are chemical agents applied to the skin to reduce the microbial count and reduce the risk of surgical site infections (SSIs). SSIs are def ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Skin Cancer Types Vascular tumors include tufted angiomas, pyogenic granulomas, hemangiomas, and hemangiopericytomas. Vascular malformations include venous, lymphatic, ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Skin Grafting Skin grafting is a closure technique used in dermatology most commonly to close wounds created by the removal of skin cancer. Although currently less ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sphenopalatine Ganglion Block The sphenopalatine ganglion is an extracranial parasympathetic ganglion found within the pterygopalatine fossa of the skull. Since it was first descri ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Split-Thickness Skin Grafts Split-thickness skin grafts are versatile adjuncts to wound closure in burns, trauma, reconstruction, and other large wounds. This activity outlines a ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Squamous Cell Skin Cancer Squamous cell carcinoma, the second most common form of skin cancer, is caused by the cumulative exposure of skin to UV light. This condition has prec ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Suction Drains Surgical drains are catheters placed near the surgical wound to remove blood, pus, or other fluid, and prevent it from accumulating in the body. They ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Supertrochlear Nerve Block The supratrochlear nerve block is a special procedure, which can be utilized to relieve pain in the mid-forehead region. It can provide anesthesia for ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Supraorbital Nerve Block The supraorbital nerve block is a procedure performed to provide immediate localized anesthesia for a multitude of injuries such as complex laceration ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
T-Cell Lymphoma T-cell lymphomas are the uncommon and rare subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphomas. This disease group has a poor prognosis compared to their B-cell counterp ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Temporal Fracture The temporal bone is the thickest bone in the body, requiring significant force to fracture. Such high-velocity head injuries carry the risk of signif ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Temporomandibular Joint Syndrome Temporomandibular joint syndrome is also known as temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is a common type of musculoskeletal disorder in the orofacial regio ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Temporoparietal Fascia Flaps This activity reviews the temporoparietal fascia flap and highlights the background, indications, and technique of this surgical approach. This techni ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tongue Laceration The tongue is a muscular organ that plays a central role in a person’s ability to communicate and to experience food via taste, chewing and swallowing ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Topical, Local, and Regional Anesthesia and Anesthetics Nerve impulse transmission occurs when voltage-gated sodium channels on the neuronal membrane open, allowing a massive influx of sodium. This causes m ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Transposition Flaps Transposition flaps recruit noncontiguous donor tissue that is incised and lifted over intact skin and placed into a surgical wound. This allows the u ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Transsphenoidal Hypophysectomy This activity describes transsphenoidal hypophysectomy, a surgical procedure for resection of tumors of the pituitary gland, along with the relevant a ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Trigeminal Neuropathy Trigeminal neuralgia (TN), also known as tic douloureux, is the most common neuropathic pain involving the craniofacial region. It is characterized by ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Velocardiofacial Syndrome Velocardiofacial syndrome, also known as Di George syndrome or chromosome 22q11.2 syndrome, is the most common microdeletion syndrome in humans. Thoug ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Velopharyngeal Insufficiency Velopharyngeal dysfunction (VPD) is a disorder of the velopharyngeal (VP) sphincter or valve, which functions to separate the nasal and oral cavities ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vidian Neurectomy This activity describes vidian neurectomy, a surgical procedure aimed to treat refractory vasomotor rhinitis, along with the relevant anatomy, the ind ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Zygomatic Arch Fracture The zygoma is the second most common fracture of the face, just behind nasal fractures, which can cause significant cosmetic and functional deformity. ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO

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