|Delayed Hypersensitivity Reactions|
Credits: 1.00 Post-Assessment Questions: 6
Release Date: 5 Oct 2020
Expiration Date: 30 Dec 2021
Last Reviewed: 30 Dec 2020
Estimated Time To Finish: 60 Minutes
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Coombs and Gel classified type IV hypersensitivity reaction (HR) as a delayed hypersensitivity reaction (DHR), which takes more than 12 hours to develop. Typically the maximal reaction time occurs between 48 to 72 hours. Antibodies do not mediate DHR; it is mediated by T cells that cause an inflammatory reaction to either exogenous or autoantigens. This HR to exogenous antigens involves T cells and also antigen-presenting cells (APC) such as macrophages and dendritic cells, all produce cytokines that stimulate a local inflammatory response in a sensitized individual. The DHR to autoantigens can be seen in type 1 diabetes mellitus, which is an autoimmune disease that results from autoimmune cell-mediated destruction of insulin-secreting pancreatic beta cells. DHR cannot be transferred from an animal to another by means of antibodies or serum. However, it can be transferred by T cells, particularly CD4 Th1 cells, but it is progressively lost in individuals with HIV/AIDS. Antigen-presenting cells (APC) such as Langerhans cells engulf process and present antigens to antigen-specific T cells that become sensitized. Cytokines produced by keratinocytes, APC, and T cells recruit antigen-nonspecific T cells and macrophages to participate in a local inflammatory reaction. The activity describes the interprofessional evaluation and management of patients with delayed hypersensitivity reactions.
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Authors: Angel Justiz Vaillant, Hassam Zulfiqar
Editors: Kamleshun Ramphul
Editors-In-Chief: Joshua TuckPrashanth AnandMatthew Varacallo
Chief Medical Reviewer: Matthew Varacallo
Nurse Planner/Reviewer/Editor: Lisa Haddad
Nurse Planner/Reviewer/Editor: Bernadette Makar
Nurse Planner/Reviewer/Editor: Dorothy Caputo
Pharmacy Planner/Reviewer/Editor: Mark Pellegrini
Physician Planner/Reviewer/Editor: Scott Dulebohn
The Campbell University Jerry M. Wallace School of Osteopathic Medicine (CUSOM) is accredited by the American Osteopathic Association to provide osteopathic continuing medical education for physicians. CUSOM designates this enduring material for a maximum of 1.00 AOA Category 1 B Credits and will report CME credits commensurate with the extent of the physician's participation in the activity.
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