|Delayed Hypersensitivity Reactions|
Credits: 1.00 Post-Assessment Questions: 6
Release Date: 5 Oct 2020
Expiration Date: 30 Dec 2021
Last Reviewed: 30 Dec 2020
Estimated Time To Finish: 60 Minutes
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Coombs and Gel classified type IV hypersensitivity reaction (HR) as a delayed hypersensitivity reaction (DHR), which takes more than 12 hours to develop. Typically the maximal reaction time occurs between 48 to 72 hours. Antibodies do not mediate DHR; it is mediated by T cells that cause an inflammatory reaction to either exogenous or autoantigens. This HR to exogenous antigens involves T cells and also antigen-presenting cells (APC) such as macrophages and dendritic cells, all produce cytokines that stimulate a local inflammatory response in a sensitized individual. The DHR to autoantigens can be seen in type 1 diabetes mellitus, which is an autoimmune disease that results from autoimmune cell-mediated destruction of insulin-secreting pancreatic beta cells. DHR cannot be transferred from an animal to another by means of antibodies or serum. However, it can be transferred by T cells, particularly CD4 Th1 cells, but it is progressively lost in individuals with HIV/AIDS. Antigen-presenting cells (APC) such as Langerhans cells engulf process and present antigens to antigen-specific T cells that become sensitized. Cytokines produced by keratinocytes, APC, and T cells recruit antigen-nonspecific T cells and macrophages to participate in a local inflammatory reaction. The activity describes the interprofessional evaluation and management of patients with delayed hypersensitivity reactions.
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Authors: Angel Justiz Vaillant, Hassam Zulfiqar
Editors: Kamleshun Ramphul
Editors-In-Chief: Gregory PlaugherMark Pellegrini
Chief Medical Reviewer: Matthew Varacallo
Nurse Planner/Reviewer/Editor: Lisa Haddad
Nurse Planner/Reviewer/Editor: Bernadette Makar
Nurse Planner/Reviewer/Editor: Dorothy Caputo
Pharmacy Planner/Reviewer/Editor: Mark Pellegrini
Physician Planner/Reviewer/Editor: Scott Dulebohn
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