Chronic pelvic pain can be a disabling, chronic, persistent pain, within the pelvis in women. Relatively common, chronic pelvic pain is associated with comorbidities such as irritable bowel syndrome, major depressive disorder, or pelvic inflammatory syndrome. One in seven women in the United States is affected. The prevalence is similar to migraine headaches, asthma, and chronic back pain. Chronic pelvic pain is considered a form of chronic regional pain syndrome. The diagnosis of chronic pelvic pain is made after three to six months of pelvic pain and is often based on history or physical; there are numerous associated symptoms or precipitating factors that help establish the diagnosis. While imaging and laboratory findings are often inconclusive in making the diagnosis of chronic pelvic pain, often, they are useful in the diagnosis of a comorbid condition responsible for the development of chronic pelvic pain. An estimated fifty percent of cases remain undiagnosed.
Chronic pelvic pain is a form of centralized pain, where the body develops a low threshold for pain, often a result of chronic pain. For example, if a woman developed endometriosis, the acute pain associated with this condition could become centralized during a three to six months duration, as the pain becomes chronic. In centralized pain, the previous mild to moderate pain is experienced as severe pain (hyperalgesia), or tactile sensations can be interpreted as painful (allodynia). Furthermore, chronic pelvic pain has a strong association with previous physical or emotional trauma. Thus the etiology of chronic pelvic pain may also be related to a functional somatic pain syndrome. Treatment of chronic pelvic pain is often complicated, with limited evidence-based treatment options. Treatment is usually focused on the suspected etiology of the chronic pelvic pain, such as treating a comorbid mood disorder, neuropathy, or uterine dysfunction. Chronic pelvic pain is seen in an estimated four to sixteen percent of women. Given its prevalence, there must be a high suspicion in patients experiencing chronic pelvic pain. Management of chronic pelvic pain requires a team approach; a collaboration between multiple specialties is needed to provide adequate pain relief. Some patients with chronic pelvic pain may benefit from cognitive behavioral therapy and hormone replacement. In contrast, others may require more invasive treatment interventions such as spinal cord stimulation or total hysterectomy.
Chronic pelvic pain is associated with dysfunctions such as irritable bowel syndrome, interstitial cystitis, as well as other nonspecific chronic fatigue syndromes. Chronic pelvic pain is also associated with mental health disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder. The relationship between chronic pelvic pain and comorbid conditions is often the primary focus of its diagnosis and management. In over half of cases of chronic pelvic pain, there is comorbid endometriosis, pelvic adhesions, irritable bowel, or interstitial cystitis. Furthermore, multiple comorbidities can be present simultaneously alongside chronic pelvic pain. Chronic pelvic pain is a form of reflex dystrophy, where there is both a neurological component to symptoms, as well as a psychological.] The pathophysiology of chronic pelvic pain is likely that of centralized pain. Patients with chronic pelvic pain develop hyperesthesia and allodynia as a result of pelvic floor dysfunction. Many comorbidities can lead to chronic pain; chronic cystitis, endometriosis, adhesions, or musculoskeletal injury are but a few associated with chronic pelvic pain.  Many women have pain symptoms for over two years before seeking medical care. The persistent nature of the pain is what puts the patient at risk for centralization and the development of chronic pelvic pain. As chronic pain develops, the central nervous system undergoes a systemic change and becomes persistently in a state of high activity. When this occurs, the central nervous system responds to various stimuli as if they were painful. Chronic pelvic pain's etiology is likely secondary to comorbidities that caused chronic pain. There is a synergistic effect of pain that can develop. As one organ system becomes dysfunctional, as in the case of interstitial cystitis, another organ can also develop pathology, such as in irritable bowel syndrome. As comorbidities develop, the chronic nature of symptoms leads to centralized pain, only enhancing the pain more. Collectively, persistent and increased sensitivity to pain becomes chronic pelvic pain.
Pain can either be widespread as in chronic pain syndrome or more focal, as seen in chronic pelvic pain. Location often aids in diagnosis and management. Patients with widespread symptoms of pain, including pelvic pain, pain of multiple limbs, axial skeleton, and pain above the diaphragm, have much more significant psychological comorbidities (generalized anxiety disorder, major depressive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder) compared to focal symptoms. Emotional state and stress levels influence visceral pain, such as chronic pelvic pain. Patients with widespread symptoms require a longer duration of treatments compared to patients with more focal pelvic pain. There is a sizeable psychiatric component the chronic pelvic pain. It is theorized chronic pelvic pain has both environmental and genetic elements. Women with chronic pelvic pain have a higher incidence of depression, anxiety, and sleep disorders. However, repetitive trauma, such as childhood sexual abuse, could explain both the somatic symptoms of chronic pelvic pain, as well as the associated posttraumatic stress. Anatomical changes from various pathology may also be the primary source in the development of chronic pelvic pain. Leiomyomas, nerve root entrapment, sacral cysts, and cauda equina syndrome have all been associated with chronic pelvic pain. Patients with pelvic inflammatory disease are more likely to develop chronic pelvic pain. Furthermore, the risk of developing chronic pelvic pain is increased if the patient is also a smoker, is in poor mental health, and had two or more episodes of pelvic inflammatory disease. In many cases of chronic pelvic pain, comorbid irritable bowel syndrome was neither previously diagnosed or treated before the diagnosis. Endometriosis is comorbidity associated with both chronic pelvic pain and irritable bowel syndrome.
Thirty-five percent of patients with chronic pelvic pain have comorbid irritable bowel syndrome. An estimated sixty-one percent of women with bladder pain syndrome have comorbid chronic pelvic pain, while almost fifty percent of women with endometriosis suffer from chronic pelvic pain.  The prevalence of chronic pelvic pain is approximately between four to sixteen percent of women. Only a third of women suffering from chronic pelvic pain seek medical care.  Gynecological comorbidities are seen in an estimated twenty percent of patients with chronic pain. While urological and gastrointestinal comorbidities are more prevalent, endometriosis is by far the most common comorbidity associated with patients seeking medical care with chronic pelvic pain.  Of the patients with chronic pelvic pain who undergo elective surgery, twenty to eighty percent of patients are diagnosed with endometriosis.
In comparison, seventy percent of patients with a previous diagnosis of endometriosis are diagnosed with chronic pelvic pain. Ninety-nine percent of all cases of chronic pelvic pain are in females. Patients with a past medical history significant for pelvic trauma or surgery are at a much higher risk of developing chronic pelvic pain compared to the general population. Twenty-eight percent of women develop persistent pelvic pain following an elective cesarean delivery, three months postoperatively, while twenty percent of women continue to have persistent pain six months postoperatively. Almost half of women with chronic pelvic pain report a previous history of sexual or physical abuse.
Furthermore, of patients with both a prior history of abuse and chronic pelvic pain, one-third of these patients also had comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder. Up to thirty percent of women with a previous history of the pelvic inflammatory disease develop chronic pelvic pain. Of patients who undergo elective hysterectomy due to chronic pelvic pain secondary to adenomyosis, twenty-five percent of these patients continue to experience postoperative pain.
Pathophysiology depends on the cause of pain. For example, in endometriosis, the pain is cyclical due to recurrent bleeding in the endometriotic implants and pelvic congestion syndrome; the pain is due to engorged and dilated pelvic veins causing the decreased venous washout.
When obtaining a history from a patient with suspected chronic pelvic, there is often comorbid chronic pain — furthermore, possible signs and symptoms of allodynia or hyperalgesia, suggestive of central sensitization. The etiology of chronic pelvic pain can usually be determined by a full past medical and surgical history, as well as the patient's gynecological and labor history.
Chronic pelvic pain in women is often defined as persistent, noncyclic pain, but can also be cyclical. The patient's pain is located within the pelvis and has lasted greater than six months duration. The pain must also be unrelated to pregnancy. The consistency can be constant or episodic. Some definitions do not consider cyclical pain to be apart of chronic pelvic pain, given this could be defined as dysmenorrhea.
The patient's history should include questions about precipitating and alleviating factors, including the association between menses and pain, urination, sexual activity, and bowel movements, and response to prior treatments. Pain may identify other areas where the patient experiences pain or may reveal a dermatomal distribution, suggesting a non-visceral source. Furthermore, the evaluation of mental health disorders should be complete, as well. Associated symptoms for patients with chronic pelvic pain include but are not limited to, gastrointestinal, urinary, sexual, and psychological, and menstrual symptoms. Also, impaired quality of life should be assessed. Patients with chronic pelvic pain can often experience motor or autonomic dysfunction. On history, cramping pain, hot, burning, or electrical type pain should be differentiated from sharp or dull pain. Pain fluctuation with menstrual cycle compared to the constant pain. Pain with urination or defecation, postcoital bleeding, postmenopausal bleeding, the postmenopausal onset of pain, history of prior abdominal surgery or previous abdominal infection, or unexplained weight loss should also be summarized as part of the history.
Red flag findings that may indicate systemic disease include postcoital bleeding, postmenopausal bleeding or onset of pain, unexplained weight loss, pelvic mass, and hematuria. Physical examination, including a gynecological speculum and bimanual examination and full abdominal exam, should be completed. The external genitalia should be examined — examination of the pelvic floor musculature for tenderness or hypertonicity. On physical exam, evaluation for an adnexal mass, enlarged or tender uterus, lack of uterine mobility on bimanual exam should be completed. Pain upon palpation of the lumbar spine, sacroiliac joint, and the pelvis should be noted. The Carnett test should also be done to determine if there is abdominal wall pain for patients experiencing pelvic pain.
For the Carnett test, the patient is asked to raise both of their legs off the exam table while in a supine position. The provider places their finger on the patient's painful abdominal to determine whether the patient's pain increases with the legs are flexed, and the abdominal muscles have contracted. In myofascial pain, the patient is likely to experience more considerable pain with leg flexion, while visceral pain improves with leg flexion. Women with chronic pelvic pain have also been having to up to five times more asymmetry of their iliac crest height and symphyseal levels.
Diagnosis is based on findings from the history and physical examination. If the findings on history and physical are suggestive of a specific diagnosis that is causing chronic pelvic pain, the diagnosis should be confirmed.
A cotton swab can be applied to the abdominal to help determine if there is a cutaneous source of pain. Completing the cotton tip applicator test helps determine if there is cutaneous allodynia. This test is 100% specific for patients with chronic pelvic pain.
The effects on quality of life and function should also be part of the assessment and can be completed by filling out a standardized questionnaire.
The first step in the evaluation of a patient with suspected chronic pelvic pain is to determine if they have any alarm symptoms, concern for acute abdomen, or potential malignancy. If there are no alarm symptoms and no accurate diagnosis, then labs and imaging are warranted. The initial workup would include a CBC, ESR, UA, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and pelvic ultrasound. If a specific etiology is suggested after the initial workup, it should be evaluated and treated. Pelvic ultrasonography is indicated to rule out anatomic abnormalities. Ordering transvaginal ultrasonography is an essential part of the initial workup for suspected chronic pelvic pain. It can help identify cysts, masses, and adenomyosis. Furthermore, ultrasound detects hydrosalpinx, an indicator of pelvic inflammatory disease; comorbidity is often seen in chronic pelvic pain. Separately, a pelvic ultrasound is useful to identify masses less than four centimeters that may be missed on the physical exam. An MRI may be needed following an ultrasound if abnormalities are seen.
Separately, if the patient is experiencing severe, uncontrolled pain, or there is a concern for acute abdomen, the patient should be referred for laparoscopic surgery or sent to the emergency department. If laparoscopic surgery is inconclusive, the patient's chronic pelvic pain is likely secondary to chronic regional pain syndrome.
A complete blood count with differential, urine pregnancy test erythrocyte sedimentation rate, urinalysis, chlamydia, and gonorrhea are often ordered to rule out pregnancy, chronic inflammation or infection as the source of the chronic pelvic pain
Diagnostic nerve blocks can be useful to determine if the patient with chronic pelvic pain complains of symptoms of neuropathic pain. If a sacral nerve root is numbed from a nerve block, and the patient's pain is eliminated, this helps confirm the diagnosis of chronic pelvic pain secondary to peripheral nerve dysfunction.
Pain mapping can also be done during laparoscopic surgery, and the patient is under local sedation. The patient's tissue is probed with surgical tools. The patient is asked about the severity of their pain. It can be a helpful test to focus treatment on the specific area of pain.
The evidence-based literature for the treatment of chronic pelvic pain is limited. For nonspecific chronic pelvic pain, the focus of treatment is often directed at symptomatic pain relief.  The approach to treating chronic pelvic illnesses should both be focused on the underlying pathology, as well as the psychological aspect of pain, including treatment of a comorbid mood disorder. For cases of chronic pelvic pain where the origin of the pain is known, the focus of treatment is to treat the underlying disease process. However, if the source of the pain is unknown, it is recommended for the patient to undergo further evaluation to find the underlying disease process.
The first step in the treatment of a patient with chronic pelvic pain with an unknown source of their pain is over the counter analgesic (acetaminophen, NSAIDs). These pain relievers are typically well-tolerated. If there is adequate pain relief, no further pain management is needed at this time. If there is inadequate pain relief and a cyclical component to the patient's pelvic pain, hormonal replacement therapy is recommended (either oral contraceptive pills, depot medroxyprogesterone, or an intrauterine device). If hormonal treatment is ineffective, or the patient's pain was not cyclical, or their pelvic pain is suspected to be neuropathic, it is essential to evaluate the patient for an underlying mood disorder. If a mood disorder is presumed, antidepressant therapy (SSRI) is recommended. If a patient with suspected chronic pelvic pain secondary to neuropathic pain does not have an underlying mood disorder, various treatment options exist. Depending on the patient's preference and their various comorbidities, the patient may benefit from tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), pregabalin, gabapentin, or SNRIs such as venlafaxine, or duloxetine. If pain is uncontrolled with these various treatment options, it is recommended to refer to a Pain Medicine specialist, and possibly start a trial of opioid analgesics. For cases of suspected chronic pelvic pain secondary to suspected neuropathy gabapentin used as a single agent or in combination with amitriptyline, has been shown to be more effective than amitriptyline used alone.
Adjunct, non-pharmacological treatment should also be offered. Pelvic floor physical therapy may be beneficial in chronic pelvic pain. Its effectiveness aids in the diagnosis of a musculoskeletal origin of chronic pelvic pain. Cognitive-behavioral therapy also plays an integral part in treatment. It has been shown to decrease pain, stress, and improve function. Mindfulness can be taught as a component of both physical therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy. In severe cases, peripheral nerve blocks and neuromodulation of sacral nerves may also be necessary. For chronic pelvic pain secondary to the uterine origin, a hysterectomy can be considered, but it is often the last option. Oral contraceptive pills are unlikely to be beneficial in patients without cyclical pelvic pain. Cyclobenzaprine is an effective pain reliever in patients with chronic pelvic pain, as well as has been shown to improve sleep. If there is suspected sacral nerve injury, a local corticosteroid injection can be both diagnostic to determine peripheral nerve involvement in chronic pelvic pain, and therapeutic, providing pain relief. Some providers attempt to try pharmacological therapy alongside various interventional procedures.
If a local steroid injection is successful, either radiofrequency ablation, peripheral nerve blocks, or neuromodulation with spinal cord stimulator may be a viable treatment option. Botulinum toxin injections for patients with chronic pelvic pain have been shown to decrease pain with sexual activity, decrease pelvic pressure, as well as persistent, non-cyclical pelvic pain. Cutaneous treatment option such as trigger point injections with a local anesthetic such as lidocaine is another consideration for short term pain relief. Interestingly, patient pain relief lasts longer than the duration of the injection's effectiveness. These injections are often done to relieve hypertonicity and pain secondary to the pelvic floor or abdominal wall muscles. If trigger points are beneficial, they are not only therapeutic but potentially diagnostic for myofascial pain syndrome. Myofascial pain has been associated with centralized pain. Alongside cognitive behavioral therapy, patient education regarding their chronic pelvic pain, including the psychological aspect of their pain, is beneficial.
There are multiple etiologies of chronic pelvic pain that part of the differential diagnosis. As the patient’s pain becomes chronic, it centralizes, leading to chronic pelvic pain. A list of the various possible etiologies for chronic pelvic pain are listed below:
The five most common etiologies of chronic pelvic pain include irritable bowel syndrome, musculoskeletal pelvic floor pain, painful bladder syndrome, peripheral neuropathy, and chronic uterine pain disorders.
Following any gynecological surgical procedure related to chronic pelvic pain, there is a forty-six percent improvement of the patients' pain, and a thirty-one percent improvement of symptoms of comorbid depression. Prognosis is often poor in patients with chronic pelvic pain, similar to other chronic pain syndromes. Treating the underlying origin of the patient's pain leads to the best improvements in quality of life, as well as treating comorbid mood disorders.
Physical therapy can be a useful treatment modality in chronic pelvic pain — specifically, pelvic floor therapy. After completing therapy, patients with chronic pelvic pain used 22% less pharmacological pain relievers compared to patients who did not participate in treatment.  Furthermore, patients have been shown to have decreased pain as well as decreased urinary frequency and urgency in patients with chronic pelvic pain secondary to painful bladder syndrome.
Hysterectomy led to fifty percent pain relief, in forty percent of patients with chronic pelvic pain, secondary to a gynecological origin. Yet, in up to forty percent of patients, chronic pelvic pain will continue, and five percent of patients will complain of worsening pain following surgery.
The prognosis of patients with chronic pelvic pain was better in patients with fewer comorbidities.
It is unclear when the optimal time for patients with chronic pelvic pain to opt for surgery.
Also, complicating matters is the lack of long term research studies in the treatment of chronic pelvic pain.
Pain mapping is useful to reduce pain in about fifty percent of patients.
It is essential when discussing chronic pelvic pain to be mindful of the history of trauma. Many women with a history of chronic pelvic pain have a history of abuse and suffer from comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder.
Patients with gynecological etiologies of their chronic pelvic pain, who elect to undergo an elective hysterectomy may continue to experience pelvic pain postoperatively.
Tolerance to opioid analgesics can develop over time requiring increased dosages for adequate pain relief of their chronic pelvic pain.
Insomnia is prevalent in patients with centralized pain disorders and should be treated appropriately.
Specifically, in chronic pelvic pain, laparoscopic surgery is inconclusive in forty percent of cases in helping identify a source of the patient's pain. Infection and bleeding are but a few complications associated with laparoscopic surgery and or hysterectomy.
Managing chronic pelvic requires an interprofessional team of healthcare professionals that includes a physical therapist, psychologist, pharmacist, and several physicians in different specialties. Without proper management, the morbidity and mortality from chronic pelvic pain are high. There should be a high clinical suspicion for chronic pelvic pain in patients with a history of chronic pain or various chronic diseases.
The management of chronic pelvic pain can be a life long condition requiring continuous treatment. Only by working as an interprofessional team can the morbidity of chronic pelvic pain be reduced. Multiple diagnostic and therapeutic treatment modalities are helpful in the management of chronic pelvic pain. [Level 5]
|||Zondervan KT,Yudkin PL,Vessey MP,Dawes MG,Barlow DH,Kennedy SH, Prevalence and incidence of chronic pelvic pain in primary care: evidence from a national general practice database. British journal of obstetrics and gynaecology. 1999 Nov; [PubMed PMID: 10549959]|
|||Grace VM,Zondervan KT, Chronic pelvic pain in New Zealand: prevalence, pain severity, diagnoses and use of the health services. Australian and New Zealand journal of public health. 2004 Aug; [PubMed PMID: 15704703]|
|||Mathias SD,Kuppermann M,Liberman RF,Lipschutz RC,Steege JF, Chronic pelvic pain: prevalence, health-related quality of life, and economic correlates. Obstetrics and gynecology. 1996 Mar; [PubMed PMID: 8598948]|
|||Williams RE,Hartmann KE,Sandler RS,Miller WC,Steege JF, Prevalence and characteristics of irritable bowel syndrome among women with chronic pelvic pain. Obstetrics and gynecology. 2004 Sep; [PubMed PMID: 15339753]|
|||Haggerty CL,Peipert JF,Weitzen S,Hendrix SL,Holley RL,Nelson DB,Randall H,Soper DE,Wiesenfeld HC,Ness RB, Predictors of chronic pelvic pain in an urban population of women with symptoms and signs of pelvic inflammatory disease. Sexually transmitted diseases. 2005 May; [PubMed PMID: 15849530]|
|||Tirlapur SA,Kuhrt K,Chaliha C,Ball E,Meads C,Khan KS, The 'evil twin syndrome' in chronic pelvic pain: a systematic review of prevalence studies of bladder pain syndrome and endometriosis. International journal of surgery (London, England). 2013; [PubMed PMID: 23419614]|
|||Engeler DS,Baranowski AP,Dinis-Oliveira P,Elneil S,Hughes J,Messelink EJ,van Ophoven A,Williams AC, The 2013 EAU guidelines on chronic pelvic pain: is management of chronic pelvic pain a habit, a philosophy, or a science? 10 years of development. European urology. 2013 Sep; [PubMed PMID: 23684447]|
|||Potts JM,Payne CK, Urologic chronic pelvic pain. Pain. 2012 Apr; [PubMed PMID: 22153018]|
|||Lamvu G,Williams R,Zolnoun D,Wechter ME,Shortliffe A,Fulton G,Steege JF, Long-term outcomes after surgical and nonsurgical management of chronic pelvic pain: one year after evaluation in a pelvic pain specialty clinic. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology. 2006 Aug; [PubMed PMID: 16729951]|
|||Zondervan KT,Yudkin PL,Vessey MP,Dawes MG,Barlow DH,Kennedy SH, Patterns of diagnosis and referral in women consulting for chronic pelvic pain in UK primary care. British journal of obstetrics and gynaecology. 1999 Nov; [PubMed PMID: 10549960]|
|||Fall M,Baranowski AP,Elneil S,Engeler D,Hughes J,Messelink EJ,Oberpenning F,de C Williams AC, EAU guidelines on chronic pelvic pain. European urology. 2010 Jan; [PubMed PMID: 19733958]|
|||Hellman KM,Patanwala IY,Pozolo KE,Tu FF, Multimodal nociceptive mechanisms underlying chronic pelvic pain. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology. 2015 Dec; [PubMed PMID: 26299416]|
|||Giamberardino MA,Costantini R,Affaitati G,Fabrizio A,Lapenna D,Tafuri E,Mezzetti A, Viscero-visceral hyperalgesia: characterization in different clinical models. Pain. 2010 Nov; [PubMed PMID: 20638177]|
|||Phillips ML,Gregory LJ,Cullen S,Coen S,Ng V,Andrew C,Giampietro V,Bullmore E,Zelaya F,Amaro E,Thompson DG,Hobson AR,Williams SC,Brammer M,Aziz Q, The effect of negative emotional context on neural and behavioural responses to oesophageal stimulation. Brain : a journal of neurology. 2003 Mar; [PubMed PMID: 12566287]|
|||Nickel JC,Tripp DA, Clinical and psychological parameters associated with pain pattern phenotypes in women with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome. The Journal of urology. 2015 Jan; [PubMed PMID: 25092637]|
|||Griffith JW,Stephens-Shields AJ,Hou X,Naliboff BD,Pontari M,Edwards TC,Williams DA,Clemens JQ,Afari N,Tu F,Lloyd RB,Patrick DL,Mullins C,Kusek JW,Sutcliffe S,Hong BA,Lai HH,Krieger JN,Bradley CS,Kim J,Landis JR, Pain and Urinary Symptoms Should Not be Combined into a Single Score: Psychometric Findings from the MAPP Research Network. The Journal of urology. 2016 Apr; [PubMed PMID: 26585679]|
|||Fenton BW,Grey SF,Tossone K,McCarroll M,Von Gruenigen VE, Classifying Patients with Chronic Pelvic Pain into Levels of Biopsychosocial Dysfunction Using Latent Class Modeling of Patient Reported Outcome Measures. Pain research and treatment. 2015; [PubMed PMID: 26355825]|
|||Walker E,Katon W,Harrop-Griffiths J,Holm L,Russo J,Hickok LR, Relationship of chronic pelvic pain to psychiatric diagnoses and childhood sexual abuse. The American journal of psychiatry. 1988 Jan; [PubMed PMID: 3337296]|
|||Nolan TE,Metheny WP,Smith RP, Unrecognized association of sleep disorders and depression with chronic pelvic pain. Southern medical journal. 1992 Dec; [PubMed PMID: 1470959]|
|||Lorençatto C,Petta CA,Navarro MJ,Bahamondes L,Matos A, Depression in women with endometriosis with and without chronic pelvic pain. Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica. 2006; [PubMed PMID: 16521687]|
|||Nickel JC,Tripp DA,Pontari M,Moldwin R,Mayer R,Carr LK,Doggweiler R,Yang CC,Mishra N,Nordling J, Childhood sexual trauma in women with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome: a case control study. Canadian Urological Association journal = Journal de l'Association des urologues du Canada. 2011 Dec; [PubMed PMID: 22154637]|
|||Lippman SA,Warner M,Samuels S,Olive D,Vercellini P,Eskenazi B, Uterine fibroids and gynecologic pain symptoms in a population-based study. Fertility and sterility. 2003 Dec; [PubMed PMID: 14667888]|
|||Possover M,Schneider T,Henle KP, Laparoscopic therapy for endometriosis and vascular entrapment of sacral plexus. Fertility and sterility. 2011 Feb; [PubMed PMID: 20869701]|
|||Williams RE,Hartmann KE,Sandler RS,Miller WC,Savitz LA,Steege JF, Recognition and treatment of irritable bowel syndrome among women with chronic pelvic pain. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology. 2005 Mar; [PubMed PMID: 15746669]|
|||Seaman HE,Ballard KD,Wright JT,de Vries CS, Endometriosis and its coexistence with irritable bowel syndrome and pelvic inflammatory disease: findings from a national case-control study--Part 2. BJOG : an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology. 2008 Oct; [PubMed PMID: 18715239]|
|||Choung RS,Herrick LM,Locke GR 3rd,Zinsmeister AR,Talley NJ, Irritable bowel syndrome and chronic pelvic pain: a population-based study. Journal of clinical gastroenterology. 2010 Nov-Dec; [PubMed PMID: 20375730]|
|||Zondervan KT,Yudkin PL,Vessey MP,Jenkinson CP,Dawes MG,Barlow DH,Kennedy SH, Chronic pelvic pain in the community--symptoms, investigations, and diagnoses. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology. 2001 May; [PubMed PMID: 11349181]|
|||Laufer MR,Goitein L,Bush M,Cramer DW,Emans SJ, Prevalence of endometriosis in adolescent girls with chronic pelvic pain not responding to conventional therapy. Journal of pediatric and adolescent gynecology. 1997 Nov; [PubMed PMID: 9391902]|
|||Mowers EL,Lim CS,Skinner B,Mahnert N,Kamdar N,Morgan DM,As-Sanie S, Prevalence of Endometriosis During Abdominal or Laparoscopic Hysterectomy for Chronic Pelvic Pain. Obstetrics and gynecology. 2016 Jun; [PubMed PMID: 27159755]|
|||Richez B,Ouchchane L,Guttmann A,Mirault F,Bonnin M,Noudem Y,Cognet V,Dalmas AF,Brisebrat L,Andant N,Soule-Sonneville S,Dubray C,Dualé C,Schoeffler P, The Role of Psychological Factors in Persistent Pain After Cesarean Delivery. The journal of pain : official journal of the American Pain Society. 2015 Nov; [PubMed PMID: 26299436]|
|||Rapkin AJ,Kames LD,Darke LL,Stampler FM,Naliboff BD, History of physical and sexual abuse in women with chronic pelvic pain. Obstetrics and gynecology. 1990 Jul; [PubMed PMID: 2359571]|
|||Meltzer-Brody S,Leserman J,Zolnoun D,Steege J,Green E,Teich A, Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in women with chronic pelvic pain. Obstetrics and gynecology. 2007 Apr; [PubMed PMID: 17400852]|
|||Ness RB,Soper DE,Holley RL,Peipert J,Randall H,Sweet RL,Sondheimer SJ,Hendrix SL,Amortegui A,Trucco G,Songer T,Lave JR,Hillier SL,Bass DC,Kelsey SF, Effectiveness of inpatient and outpatient treatment strategies for women with pelvic inflammatory disease: results from the Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Evaluation and Clinical Health (PEACH) Randomized Trial. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology. 2002 May; [PubMed PMID: 12015517]|
|||Stovall TG,Ling FW,Crawford DA, Hysterectomy for chronic pelvic pain of presumed uterine etiology. Obstetrics and gynecology. 1990 Apr; [PubMed PMID: 2248635]|
|||Speer LM,Mushkbar S,Erbele T, Chronic Pelvic Pain in Women. American family physician. 2016 Mar 1; [PubMed PMID: 26926975]|
|||Howard FM, Chronic pelvic pain. Obstetrics and gynecology. 2003 Mar; [PubMed PMID: 12636968]|
|||Giamberardino MA,Affaitati G,Fabrizio A,Costantini R, Myofascial pain syndromes and their evaluation. Best practice [PubMed PMID: 22094195]|
|||Tu FF,Holt J,Gonzales J,Fitzgerald CM, Physical therapy evaluation of patients with chronic pelvic pain: a controlled study. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology. 2008 Mar; [PubMed PMID: 18313447]|
|||Nasr-Esfahani M,Jarrell J, Cotton-tipped applicator test: validity and reliability in chronic pelvic pain. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology. 2013 Jan; [PubMed PMID: 23159690]|
|||Burckhardt CS,Anderson KL, The Quality of Life Scale (QOLS): reliability, validity, and utilization. Health and quality of life outcomes. 2003 Oct 23; [PubMed PMID: 14613562]|
|||Holland TK,Cutner A,Saridogan E,Mavrelos D,Pateman K,Jurkovic D, Ultrasound mapping of pelvic endometriosis: does the location and number of lesions affect the diagnostic accuracy? A multicentre diagnostic accuracy study. BMC women's health. 2013 Oct 29; [PubMed PMID: 24165087]|
|||Meredith SM,Sanchez-Ramos L,Kaunitz AM, Diagnostic accuracy of transvaginal sonography for the diagnosis of adenomyosis: systematic review and metaanalysis. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology. 2009 Jul; [PubMed PMID: 19398089]|
|||Cody RF Jr,Ascher SM, Diagnostic value of radiological tests in chronic pelvic pain. Bailliere's best practice [PubMed PMID: 10962636]|
|||Jacobson TZ,Duffy JM,Barlow D,Koninckx PR,Garry R, Laparoscopic surgery for pelvic pain associated with endometriosis. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2009 Oct 7; [PubMed PMID: 19821276]|
|||Cottrell AM,Schneider MP,Goonewardene S,Yuan Y,Baranowski AP,Engeler DS,Borovicka J,Dinis-Oliveira P,Elneil S,Hughes J,Messelink BJ,de C Williams AC, Benefits and Harms of Electrical Neuromodulation for Chronic Pelvic Pain: A Systematic Review. European urology focus. 2019 Oct 19; [PubMed PMID: 31636030]|
|||Randy Jinkins J, The anatomic and physiologic basis of local, referred and radiating lumbosacral pain syndromes related to disease of the spine. Journal of neuroradiology = Journal de neuroradiologie. 2004 Jun; [PubMed PMID: 15356442]|
|||Swanton A,Iyer L,Reginald PW, Diagnosis, treatment and follow up of women undergoing conscious pain mapping for chronic pelvic pain: a prospective cohort study. BJOG : an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology. 2006 Jul; [PubMed PMID: 16827762]|
|||Cheong YC,Smotra G,Williams AC, Non-surgical interventions for the management of chronic pelvic pain. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2014 Mar 5; [PubMed PMID: 24595586]|
|||Sator-Katzenschlager SM,Scharbert G,Kress HG,Frickey N,Ellend A,Gleiss A,Kozek-Langenecker SA, Chronic pelvic pain treated with gabapentin and amitriptyline: a randomized controlled pilot study. Wiener klinische Wochenschrift. 2005 Nov; [PubMed PMID: 16416358]|
|||Allen C,Hopewell S,Prentice A,Gregory D, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for pain in women with endometriosis. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2009 Apr 15; [PubMed PMID: 19370608]|
|||Lewis SC,Bhattacharya S,Wu O,Vincent K,Jack SA,Critchley HO,Porter MA,Cranley D,Wilson JA,Horne AW, Gabapentin for the Management of Chronic Pelvic Pain in Women (GaPP1): A Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial. PloS one. 2016; [PubMed PMID: 27070434]|
|||Haugstad GK,Kirste U,Leganger S,Haakonsen E,Haugstad TS, Somatocognitive therapy in the management of chronic gynaecological pain. A review of the historical background and results of a current approach. Scandinavian journal of pain. 2018 Jul 1; [PubMed PMID: 29913743]|
|||Haugstad GK,Haugstad TS,Kirste UM,Leganger S,Wojniusz S,Klemmetsen I,Malt UF, Continuing improvement of chronic pelvic pain in women after short-term Mensendieck somatocognitive therapy: results of a 1-year follow-up study. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology. 2008 Dec; [PubMed PMID: 18845283]|
|||Louw A,Zimney K,O'Hotto C,Hilton S, The clinical application of teaching people about pain. Physiotherapy theory and practice. 2016 Jul; [PubMed PMID: 27351903]|
|||Harada T,Momoeda M,Taketani Y,Hoshiai H,Terakawa N, Low-dose oral contraceptive pill for dysmenorrhea associated with endometriosis: a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial. Fertility and sterility. 2008 Nov; [PubMed PMID: 18164001]|
|||Tofferi JK,Jackson JL,O'Malley PG, Treatment of fibromyalgia with cyclobenzaprine: A meta-analysis. Arthritis and rheumatism. 2004 Feb 15; [PubMed PMID: 14872449]|
|||Moldofsky H,Harris HW,Archambault WT,Kwong T,Lederman S, Effects of bedtime very low dose cyclobenzaprine on symptoms and sleep physiology in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study. The Journal of rheumatology. 2011 Dec; [PubMed PMID: 21885490]|
|||Fritz J,Chhabra A,Wang KC,Carrino JA, Magnetic resonance neurography-guided nerve blocks for the diagnosis and treatment of chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Neuroimaging clinics of North America. 2014 Feb; [PubMed PMID: 24210321]|
|||Martellucci J,Naldini G,Carriero A, Sacral nerve modulation in the treatment of chronic pelvic pain. International journal of colorectal disease. 2012 Jul; [PubMed PMID: 22203519]|
|||Abbott JA,Jarvis SK,Lyons SD,Thomson A,Vancaille TG, Botulinum toxin type A for chronic pain and pelvic floor spasm in women: a randomized controlled trial. Obstetrics and gynecology. 2006 Oct; [PubMed PMID: 17012454]|
|||Montenegro ML,Braz CA,Rosa-e-Silva JC,Candido-dos-Reis FJ,Nogueira AA,Poli-Neto OB, Anaesthetic injection versus ischemic compression for the pain relief of abdominal wall trigger points in women with chronic pelvic pain. BMC anesthesiology. 2015 Dec 1; [PubMed PMID: 26628263]|
|||Kim DS,Jeong TY,Kim YK,Chang WH,Yoon JG,Lee SC, Usefulness of a myofascial trigger point injection for groin pain in patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: a pilot study. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation. 2013 May; [PubMed PMID: 23262156]|
|||Peters AA,van Dorst E,Jellis B,van Zuuren E,Hermans J,Trimbos JB, A randomized clinical trial to compare two different approaches in women with chronic pelvic pain. Obstetrics and gynecology. 1991 May; [PubMed PMID: 1826544]|
|||Allegrante JP, The role of adjunctive therapy in the management of chronic nonmalignant pain. The American journal of medicine. 1996 Jul 31; [PubMed PMID: 8764758]|
|||Anderson RU,Harvey RH,Wise D,Nevin Smith J,Nathanson BH,Sawyer T, Chronic pelvic pain syndrome: reduction of medication use after pelvic floor physical therapy with an internal myofascial trigger point wand. Applied psychophysiology and biofeedback. 2015 Mar; [PubMed PMID: 25708131]|
|||FitzGerald MP,Payne CK,Lukacz ES,Yang CC,Peters KM,Chai TC,Nickel JC,Hanno PM,Kreder KJ,Burks DA,Mayer R,Kotarinos R,Fortman C,Allen TM,Fraser L,Mason-Cover M,Furey C,Odabachian L,Sanfield A,Chu J,Huestis K,Tata GE,Dugan N,Sheth H,Bewyer K,Anaeme A,Newton K,Featherstone W,Halle-Podell R,Cen L,Landis JR,Propert KJ,Foster HE Jr,Kusek JW,Nyberg LM, Randomized multicenter clinical trial of myofascial physical therapy in women with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome and pelvic floor tenderness. The Journal of urology. 2012 Jun; [PubMed PMID: 22503015]|
|||Hartmann KE,Ma C,Lamvu GM,Langenberg PW,Steege JF,Kjerulff KH, Quality of life and sexual function after hysterectomy in women with preoperative pain and depression. Obstetrics and gynecology. 2004 Oct; [PubMed PMID: 15458889]|
|||Lamvu G, Role of hysterectomy in the treatment of chronic pelvic pain. Obstetrics and gynecology. 2011 May; [PubMed PMID: 21508759]|
|||Martinez A,Howard FM, The efficacy of laparoscopic surgical treatment of ovarian remnant and ovarian retention syndromes. Journal of minimally invasive gynecology. 2015 Feb; [PubMed PMID: 25460318]|
|||Shakiba K,Bena JF,McGill KM,Minger J,Falcone T, Surgical treatment of endometriosis: a 7-year follow-up on the requirement for further surgery. Obstetrics and gynecology. 2008 Jun; [PubMed PMID: 18515510]|
|||Molegraaf MJ,Torensma B,Lange CP,Lange JF,Jeekel J,Swank DJ, Twelve-year outcomes of laparoscopic adhesiolysis in patients with chronic abdominal pain: A randomized clinical trial. Surgery. 2017 Feb; [PubMed PMID: 27866713]|
|||Cosar E,Çakır Güngör A,Gencer M,Uysal A,Hacivelioğlu SO,Özkan A,Şen HM, Sleep disturbance among women with chronic pelvic pain. International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. 2014 Sep; [PubMed PMID: 24913201]|
|||Kang SB,Chung HH,Lee HP,Lee JY,Chang YS, Impact of diagnostic laparoscopy on the management of chronic pelvic pain. Surgical endoscopy. 2007 Jun; [PubMed PMID: 17103271]|