Infective endocarditis is a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality in children and adolescents despite new advantages in management and prophylaxis. Infective endocarditis can include acute and subacute bacterial endocarditis, as well as nonbacterial endocarditis caused by viruses, fungi, and other microbiologic agents. Since the infecting organism has changed over time, diagnosis sometimes can be difficult during early stages of the disease and is often delayed until a serious infection is already in place.
The leading cause of endocarditis in pediatric population remains Staphylococcus aureus, followed by Viridans-type streptococci (alpha-hemolytic streptococci). Other organisms are involved but less frequently. Usually, staphylococcal endocarditis is more common in patient with an unremarkable history of heart disease. A recent dental procedure should prompt suspicions of viridans group streptococcal infection. Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Serratia marcescens are seen commonly in intravenous drug users. Fungal organisms can be an issue during open heart surgery. In the presence of an indwelling central venous catheter, a coagulase-negative staphylococcus is frequently found as the causative agent.
It is common to find infective endocarditis as a complication of congenital heart disease or rheumatic heart disease. However, is important to mention that infective endocarditis can present in children without any abnormal valves or cardiac malformations.
In developed countries, congenital heart disease is the most important predisposing factor. In approximately 30% of patients with infective endocarditis, a predisposing factor is acknowledged and identified.
If a history of dental procedure is recognized, the time range from the procedure may range from 1 to 6 months prior to the onset of symptoms. The existence of endocarditis after routine heart surgery is low; however, in the setting of prosthetic material use, this can be a predisposing factor.
An early manifestation of the disease is mild. Prolonged duration of fever that persists for several months without other manifestations may be the only symptom. On the other hand, the onset can be acute and severe with high, intermittent fever. Associated symptoms are often nonspecific and include fatigue, myalgia, arthralgia, headache, chills, nausea, and vomiting.
The presence of a new heart murmur or sounds of changing heart murmur is associated with heart failure. Splenomegaly and petechial are frequently seen. Neurologic manifestations of meningismus, increased intracranial pressure, altered sensorium, focal neurologic signs, embolic strokes, cerebral abscesses, mycotic aneurysm, and hemorrhage are associated with the staphylococcal disease. Besides neurologic manifestation, staphylococcal disease can present complications like myocardial abscesses and may injure the cardiac conducting system producing heart block, or an abscess may rupture into the pericardium and cause purulent pericarditis.
The classic skin manifestation of Osler nodes, Janeway lesions, and splinter hemorrhages usually develop late in the course of the disease. The appearance of this lesions signifies the vasculitis caused by circulating antigen-antibody complexes.
Recognition of infective endocarditis is based on a high suspicion of infection in a child with an underlying risk factor.
Blood specimens should be attained as early as possible, even if the child has mild illness with no significant physical findings. Three to 5 separate blood cultures should be collected after cautious preparation of the phlebotomy site. Contamination represents an issue when results come back positive for skin bacteria. Since bacteremia remains constant, the timing for collection is irrelevant. In approximately 90% of cases of endocarditis, the causative agent is identified from the first 2 blood cultures.
Is well known that antimicrobial pretreatment can reduce the yield of blood culture to 50% to 60%. Hence, the microbiology laboratory needs to be informed that the patient recently used an antimicrobial pretreatment, so other methods can be used to identify the etiologic cause.
When a patient has a contributing factor, the index of suspicion should be high. Echocardiography can be use to increase the probability of diagnosing endocarditis. Echocardiography can be useful in predicting embolic complications if lesions are found to be greater than 1 cm or fungal lesions are noted. Important to mention, the absence of vegetation des does not exclude endocarditis.
The Duke criteria aid in the diagnosis of endocarditis. The major criteria consist of positive blood cultures and evidence of endocarditis on echocardiography. The minor criteria include predisposition factors, fever, embolic-vascular signs, complex immune phenomena (glomerulonephritis, arthritis, rheumatoid factor, Osler nodes, Roth spots), single positive blood culture or serologic confirmation of infection, and echocardiographic signs not meeting the major criteria. Diagnosis of infective endocarditis is defined as 2 major criteria, 1 major and 3 minor, or 5 minor criteria.
When a definitive diagnosis is made, antibiotic therapy should begin as early as possible. The choice of antibiotics, a method of administration, and length of treatment should be synchronized with pediatric infectious disease and pediatric cardiology.
For empirical therapy, is recommended to start with vancomycin and gentamycin which will cover the most common causes including Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus, and Vviridans streptococci. Is required a total of 4 to 6 weeks of treatment to cover the period of vegetation formation, which is usually several weeks. Antibiotic therapy can be adjusted depending on the clinical status of the patient and laboratory findings regarding antibiogram.
If associated complications like heart failure are present, appropriate therapy including diuretics and reducing agents can aid in the treatment. Surgical intervention for infective endocarditis is recommended in cases of the severe aortic valve, mitral valve or prosthetic valve involvement with intractable heart failure.
Fungal endocarditis is challenging to manage. Is usually seen in severely immunosuppressed patients who have had cardiac surgery. For these cases, the recommendation is amphotericin B and 5-fluorocytosine. In some cases, surgery may be attempted to remove the vegetation.
Infective endocarditis remains high. Morbidity occurs in more than half of children with a diagnosis of infective endocarditis. Most common complications are heart failure secondary to vegetation in the aortic or mitral valve, myocardial abscesses, toxic myocarditis, and life-threatening arrhythmias. Serious complications are systemic emboli, especially affecting the central nervous system. Other complications include a mycotic aneurysm, acquired ventricular septal defect, and heart block.
There has been a significant reduction in the incidence of infective endocarditis in patients with a history of procedure, thanks to the recommendation of prophylactic treatment. However, not all procedures need prophylaxis.
In 2007, the AHA modified their infective endocarditis prophylaxis guidelines, and the indications for prophylaxis were reduced for dental procedures, genitourinary, and gastrointestinal tract procedures.
Indications for prophylaxis based on 2007 AHA:
Cardiac Heart Disease (CHD) with:
The particular individual condition of these recommendations makes reasonable direct consultation with pediatric cardiology to determine the ongoing need for prophylaxis.
|Trends, microbiology, and outcomes of infective endocarditis in children during 2000-2010 in the United States., Gupta S,Sakhuja A,McGrath E,Asmar B,, Congenital heart disease, 2017 Mar [PubMed PMID: 27885814]|
|Incidence of infective endocarditis and its thromboembolic complications in a pediatric population over 30years., Thom K,Hanslik A,Russell JL,Williams S,Sivaprakasam P,Allen U,Male C,Brandão LR,, International journal of cardiology, 2018 Feb 1 [PubMed PMID: 29126655]|
|Impact of AHA's 2007 guideline change on incidence of infective endocarditis in infants and children., Sakai Bizmark R,Chang RR,Tsugawa Y,Zangwill KM,Kawachi I,, American heart journal, 2017 Jul [PubMed PMID: 28625367]|