The most common type of fracture in the pediatric population is elbow fractures. Most commonly, individuals fall on their outstretched hand. Prompt assessment and management of elbow fractures are critical, as these fractures carry the risk of neurovascular compromise. The following are the types of elbow fractures in pediatrics:
This type of fracture involves the distal humerus just above the elbow. It is the most common type of elbow fracture and accounts for approximately 60% of all elbow fractures. It is considered an injury of the immature skeleton and occurs in young children between 5 to 10 years of age. Based on the mechanism of injury and the displacement of the distal fragment, professionals classify these as either extension or flexion type fractures.
In an extension type of fracture, which happens more than 95% cases, the elbow displaces posteriorly. The typical mechanism is falling on an outstretched hand with the elbow in full extension. An example is falling from monkey bars. Beware that a nondisplaced fracture may be subtle and may only be recognized by one of the following:
Radiographically, these fractures are classified into three types:
In a flexion type fracture that happens in less than 5% of cases, the elbow is displaced anteriorly. The typical mechanism is when a direct anterior force is applied against a flexed elbow, which causes anterior displacement of the distal fragment. With the displacement of the fragment, the periosteum tears posteriorly. Since the mechanism is a direct force, flexion type fractures are often open.
One of the most serious complications is neurovascular injury following the fracture, as the brachial artery and median nerve are located close to the site of fracture and can be easily compromised.
Supracondylar fractures can be classified depending on the degree of displacement:
Lateral Condyle Fractures
These types of fracture are the second most common type of elbow fracture in children and account for 15% to 20% of all elbow fractures. This fracture involves the lateral condyle of the distal humerus, which is the outer bony prominence of the elbow. The peak age for the occurrence of lateral condyle fractures is four to ten years old. Most commonly, these are Salter-Harris type IV ( a fracture that transects the metaphysis, physis, and epiphysis) involving the lateral condyle.
Two types of classifications are used to describe lateral condyle fractures:
Medial Epicondyle Fractures
These fractures are the third most common type of elbow fracture in children. It is an extra-articular fracture. It involves fracture of the medial epicondyle apophysis, which is located on the posteromedial aspect of the elbow. It commonly occurs in early adolescence, between the ages of nine to 14 years of age. It is more common in boys and occurs during athletic activities such as football, baseball, or gymnastics. The common mechanisms of injury are a posterior elbow dislocation and repeated valgus stress. An example is throwing a baseball repeatedly. One term for this is “little league elbow.”
Common presentation is medial elbow pain, tenderness over the medial epicondyle, and valgus instability.
Radial Head and Neck Fractures
These fractures comprise about 1% to 5% of all pediatric elbow fractures. Most commonly these are Salter-Harris type II fractures that transect the physis and extend into the metaphysis for a short distance. This usually occurs between the ages of nine to ten years.
Olecranon fractures are uncommon in children. These are mostly associated with radial head and neck fractures.
The common mechanism is falling on an outstretched hand, but these can also occur due to a direct blow to the elbow. Elbow injuries most commonly occur in playgrounds, especially while playing on monkey bars.
Supracondylar fracture is the most common fracture in children under seven years, and these constitute approximately 15% of all pediatric fractures. The peak incidence occurs at around 6 years of age, with a male predominance.
Children commonly present to the emergency room with sharp, intense pain in the elbow and forearm and an inability to extend the arm.
On physical exam, there is obvious deformity of the elbow, swelling around the elbow, and tenderness. Numbness in the forearm or hand is present if there is nerve injury. Pulses should be checked thoroughly to confirm vascular integrity.
Imaging studies include an x-ray with an anteroposterior and lateral view. An x-ray is the best modality to see the type of fracture and whether bones are displaced or not.
Management of all elbow fractures is the same, with few differences.
Nondisplaced fractures: Nondisplaced supracondylar fractures do not require operative management. Initial management includes immobilization using a long arm posterior splint while keeping the elbow at 90 degrees of flexion and the forearm in a neutral position.
Initially, it is treated with a splint, which is replaced by a cast as swelling subsides. Follow-up x-ray is necessary after one week to make sure the bone is in place, and the fracture is healing. The cast is usually removed after 3 to 4 weeks.
Displaced Fracture: Displaced fractures require surgical management. The presence of more than 20 degrees of angulation requires orthopedic consultation and reduction under sedation and analgesia.
The following techniques are used:
Closed reduction and percutaneous pinning: Displaced bone fragments are repositioned via closed reduction and held by two metal pins placed laterally. Alternatively, three metal pins are utilized if two metal pins are insufficient and there is a severely displaced fracture with free a floating distal segment. It is then covered with a splint or cast to provide stability. Pins are temporary, and both pins and cast are removed after healing has begun in the following few weeks.
Open reduction and internal fixation should be performed in the following circumstances:
Lateral Condyle Fracture
Similar to supracondylar fracture but requires casting for a longer duration (up to six weeks) and close monitoring as there is a tendency for displacement.
Medial Epicondyle Fracture
Treatment of a medial epicondyle fracture is similar to that for supracondylar fracture describe above, with only slightly different technique. Instead of pins, small screws are inserted into the bone to secure the fragments. Therefore, recovery is shorter and requires a splint or cast for a shorter duration (about 1 to 2 weeks).
Radial Head and Neck Fracture
Treatment technique depends on the degree of displacement:
Percutaneous pinning is called for if closed reduction is not successful. A K-wire is inserted to maintain the reduction.
Neuropraxia: This occurs because of nerve injury. It resolves in three to four months. Nerve injury occurs in 11% of supracondylar fractures. Most commonly injured is the interosseous nerve, followed by the radial, median, and ulnar nerves.
Vascular injury: Brachial artery injury should always be suspected, particularly if the radial pulse is absent. However, the vascular injury may occur even if the hand is pink and well perfused. This may be due to partial transection of a vessel.
Compartment syndrome: this may occur after a supracondylar fracture. Evaluate for the early or impending signs by determining if a radial pulse is absent. This injury results from prolonged ischemia of the forearm. It should be suspected if the following are present:
Malunion: Fracture malunion can lead to cubitus valgus or cubitus varus deformity (common in supracondylar fracture). A common complication is a loss of the carrying angle, which results in a cubitus varus, or “Gunstock,” deformity.
Nonunion: Lateral condylar fractures are more prone to nonunion. These, therefore, require revision surgery.
|Trends in Management of Radial Head and Olecranon Fractures., Motisi M,Kurowicki J,Berglund DD,Triplet JJ,Disla S,Niedzielak T,Levy JC,, The open orthopaedics journal, 2017 [PubMed PMID: 28567151]|
|Comparison of treatments in patients with distal humerus intercondylar fracture: a systematic review and meta-analysis., Chen H,Li D,Zhang J,Xiong X,, Annals of medicine, 2017 Jun 14 [PubMed PMID: 28537435]|
|Early range of motion exercise in pediatric patients with olecranon fractures treated with tension band suture with double loops and double knots., Kim TH,Lee DH,Han KJ,Choi WS,Cho JH,, Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery, 2017 Jul [PubMed PMID: 28506490]|
|Radial nerve injury following elbow external fixator: report of three cases and literature review., Trigo L,Sarasquete J,Noguera L,Proubasta I,Lamas C,, Archives of orthopaedic and trauma surgery, 2017 Jul [PubMed PMID: 28484849]|
|Incarcerated Medial Epicondyle Fractures With Elbow Dislocation: Risk Factors Associated With Morbidity., Vuillermin C,Donohue KS,Miller P,Bauer AS,Kramer DE,Yen YM,, Journal of pediatric orthopedics, 2017 Apr 24 [PubMed PMID: 28441281]|
|Intra-articular Entrapment of Medial Epicondyle Fracture Fragment in Elbow Joint Dislocation Causing Ulnar Neuropraxia: A Case Report., Syed J,Zamri AR,Jamaluddin S,Ruben JK,Gopindran M,, Malaysian orthopaedic journal, 2017 Mar [PubMed PMID: 28435584]|
|Humeral Supracondylar Fractures in Children: A Novel Technique of Lateral External Fixation and Kirschner Wiring., Kow RY,Zamri AR,Ruben JK,Jamaluddin S,Mohd-Nazir MT,, Malaysian orthopaedic journal, 2016 Jul [PubMed PMID: 28435560]|
|Paediatric lateral humeral condylar fracture outcomes at twelve years follow-up as compared with age and sex matched paired controls., Sinikumpu JJ,Pokka T,Victorzon S,Lindholm EL,Serlo W,, International orthopaedics, 2017 Jul [PubMed PMID: 28391440]|
|Brachial Artery Transection After a Closed Traumatic Isolated Medial Epicondyle Fracture in a Pediatric Patient: A Case Report., Schwartz BS,Paryavi E,Eglseder WA,Pensy RA,Abzug JM,, Hand (New York, N.Y.), 2017 Apr 1 [PubMed PMID: 28381125]|
|MRI Correlation of Radial Head Fractures and Forearm Injuries., Awan H,Goitz R,, Hand (New York, N.Y.), 2017 Mar [PubMed PMID: 28344525]|
|Point-of-Care Ultrasound: Sonographic Posterior Fat Pad Sign: A Case Report and Brief Literature Review., Okumura Y,Maldonado N,Lennon K,McCarty B,Underwood P,Nelson M,, The Journal of emergency medicine, 2017 Mar 20 [PubMed PMID: 28336237]|
|[Fractures of the olecranon]., Gierer P,Wichelhaus A,Rotter R,, Operative Orthopadie und Traumatologie, 2017 Apr [PubMed PMID: 28303286]|
|Postoperative brachial artery entrapment associated with pediatric supracondylar fracture of the humerus: a case report., Latz D,Grassmann J,Schiffner E,Gehrmann S,Duran M,Windolf J,Jungbluth P,, Journal of medical case reports, 2017 Mar 14 [PubMed PMID: 28288688]|
|Radiographic Evaluation of Common Pediatric Elbow Injuries., DeFroda SF,Hansen H,Gil JA,Hawari AH,Cruz AI Jr,, Orthopedic reviews, 2017 Feb 20 [PubMed PMID: 28286625]|
|Radiological and Functional Outcome of Medial Epicondyle Fracture Treated Surgically in Children and Adolescents: A Retrospective Study., Panthi S,Khatri K,Kharel K,Vaishya R,Agarwal AK,Vijay V,, Cureus, 2017 Jan 4 [PubMed PMID: 28168131]|
|An Uncommon Combination of Fractures around the Elbow: Capitellum Fracture Associated with Radial Head Fracture., Walid O,Meriem B,Zeineb A,Nader N,Mohamed BA,, Journal of orthopaedic case reports, 2016 Sep-Oct [PubMed PMID: 28164067]|
|[Radiographic and clinical assessment of supracondylar humeral fractures resulted from sports in children]., Liu ZJ,Pan SN,Zhang LJ,, Zhonghua yi xue za zhi, 2017 Jan 17 [PubMed PMID: 28162172]|