Albumin is the most abundant protein in blood and accounts for about 50% of all plasma proteins. It is synthesized by the liver and secreted immediately without storing. The physiological regulators of albumin are the colloid osmotic pressure and the nutritional status. The metabolism of albumin depends on the synthesis, distribution over interstitium and intravascular compartment, and excretion. Normal blood plasma concentration is between 3.5 to 5 g/dL, and 60% of the total albumin is in the interstitial space. Mean half-life is about 28 to 36 days .
Main medical uses are pharmacological therapy, serum marker to monitor diseases, biomaterials, and vaccines.
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a significant cause of mortality in cirrhotic patients. Administration of albumin 1.5 g/kg within 6 hours and 1 g/kg on day 3 along with antibiotics have a better effect in preventing renal impairment and reducing mortality from 29% to 10% in cirrhotic patients with SBP compared to those receiving antibiotics only. Another clinical trial confirmed the benefit of this therapy with laboratory, cardiac and Doppler parameters. Improvement in portal vein flow volume (p = 0.01) and reduction of inflammatory marker TNFa in ascites (p = 0.04) were reported.
The regular price of intravenous albumin solution is around $0.5 to $6 per milliliter. Compared to saline solutions $0.01 to $0.1 per milliliter, albumin solutions are 60-times more expensive. Price takes place when saline solutions and albumin infusions have the same efficacy in the treatment of a disease.
Albumin has 2 important physiologic functions:
The principal mechanism of action of albumin infusion is to increase the colloid osmotic pressure. It drives the interstitial fluid into the intravascular compartment and increases the effective volume of the circulatory system.
The only mode of administration of albumin is by intravenous (IV) infusion. There are 2 formulations available that differ on the albumin concentration; albumin 5% and 25%. In general terms, albumin 25% is used when sodium or fluid are restricted or in cases of oncotic deficiencies. Albumin 5% is more used in situations of volume loss as dehydration. However, concentration, the rate of infusion and dosage depend on the clinical situation as stated above.
Since albumin solution is a human-derived blood product, adverse effects are rare. In less than 0.1%, anaphylactoid reactions, flushing, urticaria, fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, tachycardia, and hypotension can occur. These reactions normally disappear when the infusion rate is slowed or stopped. Edema and fluid overload are common adverse effects, which depend on the volume, speed of the infusion and the clinical scenario. In very rare cases, anaphylactic shock may occur. (Pharmaceutical prescribing information).
Hypersensitivity to any component in albumin preparations or excipients.
Contraindications include clinical situations that present with volume overload, for example, severe anemia, congestive heart failure, or renal insufficiency, are at high risk of hemodynamic instability when treated with albumin solutions.
Do not dilute any albumin solution with sterile water because may cause hemolysis and acute kidney injury (AKI) in the recipient. (Pregnancy Category C).
It is recommended to assess fluid overload, hemodilution, and electrolyte disturbances. This could be prevented by monitoring: blood pressure, heart rate, central venous pressure, pulmonary artery occlusion pressure, electrolytes, hemoglobin and hematocrit. (Pharmaceutical prescribing information)
Albumin solution is a derived product from a large pool of human plasma. It goes through a sterilization process, pasteurization, and heating, but it is not completely sterile. However, the risk of infectious disease transmission, virus, or prions, is remote. It contains no preservative. Once opened it has to be used immediately and the unused portion discarded. (Pharmaceutical prescribing information).
Healthcare workers, including nurses, who work in the emergency department or the ICU need to know about the indications and contraindications for albumin. While the colloid is safe, in the rare patient it may induce an anaphylactoid reaction. Thus, it is important to know how to manage this adverse reaction. After massive use, albumin infusions can cause fluid overload and electrolyte disturbances.
|||Doweiko JP,Nompleggi DJ, Role of albumin in human physiology and pathophysiology. JPEN. Journal of parenteral and enteral nutrition. 1991 Mar-Apr [PubMed PMID: 2051560]|
|||Rothschild MA,Oratz M,Schreiber SS, Serum albumin. Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.). 1988 Mar-Apr [PubMed PMID: 3281888]|
|||Fanali G,di Masi A,Trezza V,Marino M,Fasano M,Ascenzi P, Human serum albumin: from bench to bedside. Molecular aspects of medicine. 2012 Jun [PubMed PMID: 22230555]|
|||Colloids versus crystalloids for fluid resuscitation in critically ill people., Lewis SR,Pritchard MW,Evans DJ,Butler AR,Alderson P,Smith AF,Roberts I,, The Cochrane database of systematic reviews, 2018 Aug 3 [PubMed PMID: 30073665]|
|||Annane D,Siami S,Jaber S,Martin C,Elatrous S,Declère AD,Preiser JC,Outin H,Troché G,Charpentier C,Trouillet JL,Kimmoun A,Forceville X,Darmon M,Lesur O,Reignier J,Abroug F,Berger P,Clec'h C,Cousson J,Thibault L,Chevret S, Effects of fluid resuscitation with colloids vs crystalloids on mortality in critically ill patients presenting with hypovolemic shock: the CRISTAL randomized trial. JAMA. 2013 Nov 6 [PubMed PMID: 24108515]|
|||Runyon BA, Management of adult patients with ascites due to cirrhosis: an update. Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.). 2009 Jun [PubMed PMID: 19475696]|
|||Bernardi M,Caraceni P,Navickis RJ,Wilkes MM, Albumin infusion in patients undergoing large-volume paracentesis: a meta-analysis of randomized trials. Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.). 2012 Apr [PubMed PMID: 22095893]|
|||Ginès P,Titó L,Arroyo V,Planas R,Panés J,Viver J,Torres M,Humbert P,Rimola A,Llach J, Randomized comparative study of therapeutic paracentesis with and without intravenous albumin in cirrhosis. Gastroenterology. 1988 Jun [PubMed PMID: 3360270]|
|||Peltekian KM,Wong F,Liu PP,Logan AG,Sherman M,Blendis LM, Cardiovascular, renal, and neurohumoral responses to single large-volume paracentesis in patients with cirrhosis and diuretic-resistant ascites. The American journal of gastroenterology. 1997 Mar [PubMed PMID: 9068457]|
|||Moore KP,Wong F,Gines P,Bernardi M,Ochs A,Salerno F,Angeli P,Porayko M,Moreau R,Garcia-Tsao G,Jimenez W,Planas R,Arroyo V, The management of ascites in cirrhosis: report on the consensus conference of the International Ascites Club. Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.). 2003 Jul [PubMed PMID: 12830009]|
|||Wilkes MM,Navickis RJ, Patient survival after human albumin administration. A meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. Annals of internal medicine. 2001 Aug 7 [PubMed PMID: 11487482]|
|||Dubois MJ,Orellana-Jimenez C,Melot C,De Backer D,Berre J,Leeman M,Brimioulle S,Appoloni O,Creteur J,Vincent JL, Albumin administration improves organ function in critically ill hypoalbuminemic patients: A prospective, randomized, controlled, pilot study. Critical care medicine. 2006 Oct [PubMed PMID: 16915107]|
|||Rubin H,Carlson S,DeMeo M,Ganger D,Craig RM, Randomized, double-blind study of intravenous human albumin in hypoalbuminemic patients receiving total parenteral nutrition. Critical care medicine. 1997 Feb [PubMed PMID: 9034259]|
|||Prevention and treatment of moderate and severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: a guideline. Fertility and sterility. 2016 Dec [PubMed PMID: 27678032]|
|||Shmorgun D,Claman P, The diagnosis and management of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology Canada : JOGC = Journal d'obstetrique et gynecologie du Canada : JOGC. 2011 Nov [PubMed PMID: 22082791]|
|||Venetis CA,Kolibianakis EM,Toulis KA,Goulis DG,Papadimas I,Tarlatzis BC, Intravenous albumin administration for the prevention of severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Fertility and sterility. 2011 Jan [PubMed PMID: 20579987]|
|||Martin GS,Moss M,Wheeler AP,Mealer M,Morris JA,Bernard GR, A randomized, controlled trial of furosemide with or without albumin in hypoproteinemic patients with acute lung injury. Critical care medicine. 2005 Aug [PubMed PMID: 16096441]|
|||Tullis JL, Albumin. 2. Guidelines for clinical use. JAMA. 1977 Jan 31 [PubMed PMID: 576269]|
|||Dharmaraj R,Hari P,Bagga A, Randomized cross-over trial comparing albumin and frusemide infusions in nephrotic syndrome. Pediatric nephrology (Berlin, Germany). 2009 Apr [PubMed PMID: 19142668]|
|||Fliser D,Zurbrüggen I,Mutschler E,Bischoff I,Nussberger J,Franek E,Ritz E, Coadministration of albumin and furosemide in patients with the nephrotic syndrome. Kidney international. 1999 Feb [PubMed PMID: 9987087]|
|||Vermeulen LC Jr,Ratko TA,Erstad BL,Brecher ME,Matuszewski KA, A paradigm for consensus. The University Hospital Consortium guidelines for the use of albumin, nonprotein colloid, and crystalloid solutions. Archives of internal medicine. 1995 Feb 27 [PubMed PMID: 7848020]|
|||Shahian M,Moslehi MA, Effect of albumin administration prior to exchange transfusion in term neonates with hyperbilirubinemia--a randomized controlled trial. Indian pediatrics. 2010 Mar [PubMed PMID: 19578230]|
|||Wong YK,Shuttleworth GR,Wood BS, Effect of albumin administration on phototherapy for neonatal jaundice. Archives of disease in childhood. 1972 Apr [PubMed PMID: 5023472]|
|||Eljaiek R,Heylbroeck C,Dubois MJ, Albumin administration for fluid resuscitation in burn patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Burns : journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries. 2017 Feb [PubMed PMID: 27613476]|
|||Fortin PM,Bassett K,Musini VM, Human albumin for intradialytic hypotension in haemodialysis patients. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2010 Nov 10 [PubMed PMID: 21069691]|
|||Knoll GA,Grabowski JA,Dervin GF,O'Rourke K, A randomized, controlled trial of albumin versus saline for the treatment of intradialytic hypotension. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN. 2004 Feb [PubMed PMID: 14747397]|
|||Wilkes MM,Navickis RJ,Sibbald WJ, Albumin versus hydroxyethyl starch in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery: a meta-analysis of postoperative bleeding. The Annals of thoracic surgery. 2001 Aug [PubMed PMID: 11515893]|
|||Russell JA,Navickis RJ,Wilkes MM, Albumin versus crystalloid for pump priming in cardiac surgery: meta-analysis of controlled trials. Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia. 2004 Aug [PubMed PMID: 15365922]|
|||Sort P,Navasa M,Arroyo V,Aldeguer X,Planas R,Ruiz-del-Arbol L,Castells L,Vargas V,Soriano G,Guevara M,Ginès P,Rodés J, Effect of intravenous albumin on renal impairment and mortality in patients with cirrhosis and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. The New England journal of medicine. 1999 Aug 5 [PubMed PMID: 10432325]|
|||Abd Elaal MM,Zaghloul SG,Bakr HG,Ashour MA,Abdel-Aziz-El-Hady H,Khalifa NA,Amr GE, Evaluation of different therapeutic approaches for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Arab journal of gastroenterology : the official publication of the Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology. 2012 Jun [PubMed PMID: 22980594]|
|||Pierce LR,Gaines A,Varricchio F,Epstein J, Hemolysis and renal failure associated with use of sterile water for injection to dilute 25% human albumin solution. American journal of health-system pharmacy : AJHP : official journal of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. 1998 May 15 [PubMed PMID: 9606459]|